A large-scale field trial of thin-layer capping of PCDD/F-contaminated sediments: Sediment-to-water fluxes up to 5 years post-amendment
Number of Authors: 4
2016 (English)In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 12, no 2, 216-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The longer-term effect (3-5 y) of thin-layer capping on in situ sediment-to-surface water fluxes was monitored in a large-scale field experiment in the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) contaminated Grenlandfjords, Norway (4 trial plots of 10000 to 40000 m(2) at 30 to 100 m water depth). Active caps (designed thickness 2.5 cm) were established in 2 fjords, consisting of dredged clean clay amended with powdered activated carbon (PAC) from anthracite. These active caps were compared to 2 nonactive caps in one of the fjords (designed thickness 5 cm) consisting of either clay only (i.e., without PAC) or crushed limestone. Sediment-to-water PCDD/F fluxes were measured in situ using diffusion chambers. An earlier study showed that during the first 2 years after thin-layer capping, flux reductions relative to noncapped reference fields were more extensive at the fields capped with nonactive caps (70%-90%) than at the ones with PAC-containing caps (50%-60%). However, the present work shows that between 3 and 5 years after thin-layer capping, this trend was reversed and cap effectiveness in reducing fluxes was increasing to 80% to 90% for the PAC caps, whereas cap effectiveness of the nonactive caps decreased to 20% to 60%. The increasing effectiveness over time of PAC-containing active caps is explained by a combination of slow sediment-to-PAC mass transfer of PCDD/Fs and bioturbation by benthic organisms. The decreasing effectiveness of nonactive limestone and clay caps is explained by deposition of contaminated particles on top of the caps. The present field data indicate that the capping efficiency of thin active caps (i.e., enriched with PAC) can improve over time as a result of slow diffusive PCDD/F transfer from sediment to PAC particles and better mixing of the PAC by bioturbation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:216-221.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 12, no 2, 216-221 p.
Activated carbon, PCDD, Fs, Remediation, Sediment-to-water fluxes, Thin-layer capping
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130122DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1665ISI: 000373396900002PubMedID: 26012529OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-130122DiVA: diva2:929669