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Dose-dependent autophagic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human HaCaT cells at non-cytotoxic levels
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
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Number of Authors: 6
2016 (English)In: Journal of Nanobiotechnology, ISSN 1477-3155, E-ISSN 1477-3155, Vol. 14, 22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Interactions between nanoparticles and cells are now the focus of a fast-growing area of research. Though many nanoparticles interact with cells without any acute toxic responses, metal oxide nanoparticles including those composed of titanium dioxide (TiO2-NPs) may disrupt the intracellular process of macroautophagy. Autophagy plays a key role in human health and disease, particularly in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. We herein investigated the in vitro biological effects of TiO2-NPs (18 nm) on autophagy in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells at non-cytotoxic levels. Results: TiO2-NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering techniques. Cellular uptake, as evaluated by TEM and NanoSIMS revealed that NPs internalization led to the formation of autophagosomes. TiO2-NPs treatment did not reduce cell viability of HaCaT cells nor increased oxidative stress. Cellular autophagy was additionally evaluated by confocal microscopy using eGFP-LC3 keratinocytes, western blotting of autophagy marker LC3I/II, immunodetection of p62 and NBR1 proteins, and gene expression of LC3II, p62, NBR1, beclin1 and ATG5 by RT-qPCR. We also confirmed the formation and accumulation of autophagosomes in NPs treated cells with LC3-II upregulation. Based on the lack of degradation of p62 and NBR1 proteins, autophagosomes accumulation at a high dose (25.0 mu g/ml) is due to blockage while a low dose (0.16 mu g/ml) promoted autophagy. Cellular viability was not affected in either case. Conclusions: The uptake of TiO2-NPs led to a dose-dependent increase in autophagic effect under non-cytotoxic conditions. Our results suggest dose-dependent autophagic effect over time as a cellular response to TiO2-NPs. Most importantly, these findings suggest that simple toxicity data are not enough to understand the full impact of TiO2-NPs and their effects on cellular pathways or function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 14, 22
Keyword [en]
Autophagy, Cell-nanoparticle interactions, Dose, Keratinocytes, Titanium dioxide nanoparticles
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology Nano Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-129670DOI: 10.1186/s12951-016-0174-0ISI: 000372577700001PubMedID: 27001369OAI: diva2:930345
Available from: 2016-05-23 Created: 2016-04-27 Last updated: 2016-05-23Bibliographically approved

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Bayat, Narges
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