Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study
Number of Authors: 11
2016 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 307, 336-343 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Small-arm shooting ranges often receive a significant input of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) from ammunition. The goal of the present study was to investigate the mobility, distribution and speciation of Pb and Sb pollution under field conditions in both untreated and sorbent-amended shooting range soil. Elevated Sb (19-349 mu g L-1) and Pb (7-1495 mu g Pb L-1) concentrations in the porewater of untreated soil over the four-year test period indicated a long-term Sb and Pb source to the adjacent environment in the absence of remedial measures. Mixing ferric oxyhydroxide powder (CFH-12) (2%) together with limestone (1%) into the soil resulted in an average decrease of Sb and Pb porewater concentrations of 66% and 97%, respectively. A similar reduction was achieved by adding 2% zerovalent iron (Fe) to the soil. The remediation effect was stable over the four-year experimental period indicating no remobilization. Water- and 1 M NH4NO3-extractable levels of Sb and Pb in field soil samples indicated significant immobilization by both treatments (89-90% for Sb and 89-99% for Pb). Results from sequential extraction analysis indicate fixation of Sb and Pb in less accessible fractions like amorphous iron oxides or even more crystalline and residual mineral phases, respectively. This work shows that amendment with Fe-based sorbents can be an effective method to reduce the mobility of metals both in cationic and anionic form in polluted shooting range soil.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 307, 336-343 p.
Shooting range soil, Antimony, Lead, Soil amendment, Field test, Porewater
Environmental Engineering Civil Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130644DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.01.005ISI: 000374803500037PubMedID: 26799225OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-130644DiVA: diva2:932718