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Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 mu m
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
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Number of Authors: 39
2015 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 453, no 3, 3300-3328 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera 3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and NIR data provide complementary information. The combined data set covers the wavelength range 0.2-2 mu m. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to E(B - V) = 1.4 mag. We study the wavelength-dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterized by the total-to-selective extinction R-V. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with E(B - V) greater than or similar to 1 mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find R-V = 1.4 +/- 0.1 and R-V = 2.8 +/- 0.1. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted R-V by similar to 50 per cent allowing us to also measure R-V of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the Universe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 453, no 3, 3300-3328 p.
Keyword [en]
circumstellar matter, supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: SNe 2012cg, supernovae: individual: 2012cu, dust, extinction
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-123790DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1505ISI: 000363649000085OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-123790DiVA: diva2:944924
Available from: 2016-06-30 Created: 2015-12-07 Last updated: 2017-09-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sources of Dust Extinction in Type Ia Supernovae: Measurements and constraints from X-rays to the Infrared
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources of Dust Extinction in Type Ia Supernovae: Measurements and constraints from X-rays to the Infrared
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as distance indicators is essential for studying the expansion history of the Universe and for exploring the nature of dark energy. However, a lack of understanding of the progenitor systems and the empirically derived colour-brightness corrections represent severe limitations for SNe Ia as cosmological probes. In this thesis, we study how dust along the line of sight towards SNe Ia affects the observed light over a wide range of wavelengths; from X-rays to infrared.

Unless properly corrected for, the existence of intergalactic dust will introduce a redshift dependent magnitude offset to standard candle sources and bias the cosmological parameter estimates as derived from observations of SNe Ia. We model the optical extinction and X-ray scattering properties of intergalactic dust grains to constrain the intergalactic opacity using a combined analysis of observed quasar colours and measurements of the soft X-ray background. We place upper limits on the extinction AB(z = 1) < 0.10 - 0.25 mag, and the dust density parameter Ωdust < 105 − 10(ρgrain/3 g cm3), for models with RV < 12 − ∞, respectively.

Dust in the host galaxies, and dust that may reside in the circumstellar (CS) environment, have important implications for the observed colours of SNe Ia. Using the Hubble Space Telescope and several ground based telescopes, we measure the extinction law, from UV to NIR, for a sample of six nearby SNe Ia. The SNe span a range of E(B − V ) ≈ 0.1 − 1.4 mag and RV  ≈ 1.5 − 2.7, showing a diversity of dust extinction parameters. We present mid- and far-infrared (IR) observations for a number of SNe Ia, obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescope, addressing CS dust as an explanation for “peculiar” extinction towards some SNe Ia. No excess IR emission is detected, limiting CS dust masses, Mdust < 105 solar masses. In particular, the timely appearance of SN 2014J in M82 - the closest SN Ia in several decades - allows for detailed studies, across an unprecedented wavelength range, of its lightcurve and spectral evolution along with the host galaxy and CS environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2015. 78 p.
Keyword
supernovae, interstellar dust, circumstellar dust, cosmology
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-111157 (URN)978-91-7649-071-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-02-05, FB52, Albanova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript. Paper 6: Manuscript.

Available from: 2015-01-14 Created: 2014-12-23 Last updated: 2017-09-08Bibliographically approved
2. The Circumstellar Environment of Type Ia Supernovae
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Circumstellar Environment of Type Ia Supernovae
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have proven to be extremely useful for measuring cosmological distances and were used for the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Although thousands of SNe Ia have been observed to date, many questions surrounding the physics of the explosions and the nature of their progenitor systems remain unanswered. An notable property of many SNe Ia is the relation between extinction due to dust and their colour. For example SN 2014J, the nearest SN Ia in recent years, has an extinction relation which would be very unusual to observe in the Milky Way. One possible explanation to the peculiar extinction could be the presence of circumstellar (CS) dust surrounding the explosions. Incidentally, some proposed progenitor models of SNe Ia suggest that the explosions are surrounded by shells of matter, which could account for the unusual extinction.

CS gas would be ionised, if it is exposed to the intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation of a SN Ia. The research presented in this thesis focuses on the search for CS gas by observing the effects of photoionisation on absorption lines commonly detected in optical spectra. Simple models suggest that the frequently studied sodium doublet (Na I D) should significantly decrease or even disappear if the gas is in the CS environment. Conversely, the absence of variations implies that the absorbing gas clouds must be far from the explosion, in the interstellar medium (ISM). To date, few SNe Ia have been shown to have variable absorption lines, to which we have added another case with SN 2013gh. Yet, we have also shown that most observations searching for variable absorption lines have been taken at too late phases, when most CS gas will have already been ionised. Setting out to obtain the earliest possible coverage of a SN Ia with high-resolution spectra, we have been able to set strong limits on the presence of CS gas surrounding SN 2017cbv.

Along with evidence from other observational methods, these results have shown that there is little matter in the CS environments of SNe Ia, suggesting that the peculiar extinction likely results from the dust properties of their host galaxy ISM. Although the progenitor question cannot be resolved by these observations, nondetections of CS gas point to models which do not deposit large amounts of matter in their surroundings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2017. 54 p.
Keyword
Type Ia supernovae, extinction, supernova cosmology
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-147221 (URN)978-91-7649-996-2 (ISBN)978-91-7649-997-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-11-03, sal FA32, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Submitted.

Available from: 2017-10-11 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2017-10-04Bibliographically approved

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Amanullah, RahmanJohansson, JoelGoobar, ArielFerretti, RaphaelPapadogiannakis, SeméliPetrushevska, TanjaHangard, LauraLundqvist, PeterSandberg, AndreasTaddia, FrancescoÖstlin, GöranAsadi, Saghar
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