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Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, e0157503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 11, no 6, e0157503
Keyword [en]
negative effects, negative effects questionnaire, exploratory factor analysis
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-132301DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157503ISI: 000378212800031OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-132301DiVA: diva2:951080
Note

The authors of the current study would like to thank Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life, and Welfare (FORTE 2013-1107) for their generous grant that allowed the development and testing of the instrument for measuring adverse and unwanted events of psychological treatments. The funder had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Available from: 2016-08-05 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2016-08-08Bibliographically approved

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Rozental, AlexanderCarlbring, Per
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ReferencesLink to record
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