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Physics of pure and non-pure positron emitters for PET: a review and a discussion
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Siemens Healthcare Molecular Imaging, USA; University of Tennessee, USA.
Number of Authors: 2
2016 (English)In: EJNMMI Physics, ISSN 2197-7364, Vol. 3, no 1, 8Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the increased interest in new PET tracers, gene-targeted therapy, immunoPET, and theranostics, other radioisotopes will be increasingly used in clinical PET scanners, in addition to F-18. Some of the most interesting radioisotopes with prospective use in the new fields are not pure short-range beta(+) emitters but can be associated with gamma emissions in coincidence with the annihilation radiation (prompt gamma), gamma-gamma cascades, intense Bremsstrahlung radiation, high-energy positrons that may escape out of the patient skin, and high-energy gamma rays that result in some e(+)/e(-) pair production. The high level of sophistication in data correction and excellent quantitative accuracy that has been reached for F-18 in recent years can be questioned by these effects. In this work, we review the physics and the scientific literature and evaluate the effect of these additional phenomena on the PET data for each of a series of radioisotopes: C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Br-76, Rb-82, Y-86, Zr-89, Y-90, and I-124. In particular, we discuss the present complications arising from the prompt gammas, and we review the scientific literature on prompt gamma correction. For some of the radioisotopes considered in this work, prompt gamma correction is definitely needed to assure acceptable image quality, and several approaches have been proposed in recent years. Bremsstrahlung photons and Lu-176 background were also evaluated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 3, no 1, 8
Keyword [en]
PET, Radioisotopes, Positron emitter, Prompt gamma, Non-conventional PET isotopes
National Category
Physical Sciences Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-132506DOI: 10.1186/s40658-016-0144-5ISI: 000379211600001PubMedID: 27271304OAI: diva2:952960
Available from: 2016-08-16 Created: 2016-08-15 Last updated: 2016-08-16Bibliographically approved

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