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Particulate hydroxy-PAH emissions from a residential wood log stove using different fuels and burning conditions
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
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Number of Authors: 5
2016 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 140, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but have not been studied as extensively as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several studies have however shown that hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have toxic and carcinogenic properties. They have been detected in air samples in semi urban areas and combustion is assumed to be the primary source of those compounds. To better understand the formation and occurrence of particulate hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential wood log stove combustion, 9 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 hydroxy biphenyls were quantified in particles generated from four different types of wood logs (birch, spruce, pine, aspen) and two different combustion conditions (nominal and high burn rate). A previously developed method utilizing liquid chromatography photo ionization tandem mass spectrometry and pressurized liquid extraction was used. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed along with hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions varied significantly across different wood types and burning conditions; the highest emissions for nominal burn rate were from spruce and for high burn rate from pine burning. Emissions from nominal burn rate corresponded on average to 15% of the emissions from high burn rate, with average emissions of 218 mu g/MJ(fuel) and 32.5 mu g/MJ(fuel) for high burn rate and nominal burn rate, respectively. Emissions of the measured hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons corresponded on average to 28% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. This study shows that wood combustion is a large emission source of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and that not only combustion conditions, but also wood type influences the emissions of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. There are few studies that have determined hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from wood combustion, and it is therefore necessary to further investigate the formation, occurrence and distribution of these compounds as they are present in significant amounts in wood smoke particles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 140, 1-9 p.
Keyword [en]
OH-PAHs, Hydroxy-PAHs, PAHs, Wood combustion, Wood burning, Wood log stove
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-133368DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.041ISI: 000380083200001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-133368DiVA: diva2:968076
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. From source to the environment: Strategies for identification and determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex particulate matrices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From source to the environment: Strategies for identification and determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex particulate matrices
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Adverse health effects have been linked to exposure to particulate matter, and wood combustion is considered as an important source of harmful particulate matter in the urban air and environment. Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of compounds with toxic, endocrine disrupting and carcinogenic properties. Sources of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are different incomplete combustion processes, such as coal and wood combustion. They can also be formed by microbiological and/or photochemical degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment.

This thesis describes analytical strategies and methods that have been developed and used for screening, tentative identification and determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wood combustion and urban air particles. Conventional targeted analytical methods have been developed for compounds with available reference standards, while suspect and non-target screening strategies have been used for the identification of suspects and unknown compounds lacking reference standards. Each step of the developed analytical methods is described and discussed: the choice of the analytical strategy, sampling of the matrices, extraction, clean-up, instrumental analysis, data processing and validation of the methods.

The influence of wood type (birch, spruce, pine and aspen) and burning conditions (nominal and high burn rate) on the hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions has been examined, showing that emissions from nominal burn rate combustion correspond on average to 14 % of the emissions from high burn rate combustion. It has been shown that spruce and pine have the highest emissions for nominal burn rate and high burn rate combustion, respectively.

The composition of wood combustion particles has been examined and 32 suspect hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been tentatively identified together with 20 other oxygen-containing small molecular weight compounds. Furthermore, the presence of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particles from an urban background and a car tunnel has been investigated, and nine target and 11 suspect hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined and tentatively identified, respectively.

In summary, this thesis has shown that wood combustion is an important emission source of hydroxylated aromatic hydrocarbons and that the chemical composition of the emitted particles strongly depends on both burning conditions and wood type. Furthermore, the findings suggest that there might be other sources of these compounds in the urban environment than wood burning, such as the traffic. Thus, further investigations are required to fully understand the formation, sources and presence of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. The suitability of different analytical strategies and methods for identification and determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is also discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2017. 80 p.
Keyword
OH-PAHs, hydroxy-PAHs, particulate matter, PM, airborne particles, combustion particles, wood combustion, suspect screening, non-target screening, high resolution mass spectrometry, HRMS, atmospheric pressure photoionization, APPI
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-137214 (URN)978-91-7649-646-6 (ISBN)978-91-7649-647-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-02-24, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2016-12-30 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved

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Avagyan, RozannaWesterholm, Roger
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