Determination of semi-volatile and particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Stockholm air with emphasis on the highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers
Number of Authors: 5
2016 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 140, 370-380 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been determined in the gaseous phase and in various particulate matter (PM) size fractions at different locations in and outside of Stockholm, Sweden, representative of street level, urban and rural background. The focus has been on the seldom determined but highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers (DBPs) dibenzo[a,I]pyrene, dibenzo [a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. PAHs with 3 rings were found to be mainly associated with the vapor phase (>90%) whereas PAHs with 5-6 rings were mostly associated with particulate matter (>92%) and the 4-ringed PAHs partitioned between the two phases. PAH abundance was determined to be in the order street level > urban background > rural background with the PM10 street level 2010 mean of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) reaching 0.24 ng/m(3), well below the EU annual limit value of 1 ng/m(3). In addition, higher PAH concentrations were found in the sub-micron particle fraction (PM1) as compared to the super -micron fraction (PM1-10) with the abundance in PM1 varying between 57 and 86% of the total PAHs. The B[a]P equivalent concentrations derived for DB[a,l]P and total DBPs exceeded 1-2 and 2-4 times, respectively, that of B[a]P at the four sampling sites; therefore underestimation of the cancer risk posed by PAHs in air could be made if the DBPs were not considered in risk assessment using the toxic equivalency approach, whilst the high correlation (p < 0.001) found in the relative concentrations supports the use of B[a]P as a marker substance for assessment of the carcinogenic risk associated to PAHs. However, the big difference in concentration ratios of B[a]P and the DBPs between the present study and some literature data calls for further research to evaluate the temporal and spatial invariance of the B[a]P/DBP ratios.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 140, 370-380 p.
Ambient air, Particulate matter, PAH, Benzo[a]pyrene, Benzo[a]pyrene equivalence, Dibenzo[a, l]pyrene, Toxicity
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-133369DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.007ISI: 000380083200033OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-133369DiVA: diva2:968081