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  • 1. Abbasi, Alireza
    et al.
    Damian Risberg, Emiliana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Mink, Janos
    Persson, Ingmar
    Sandström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Sidorov, Yurii V.
    Skripkin, Mikhail Yu.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Ullström, Ann-Sofi
    Crystallographic and Vibrational Spectroscopic Studies of Octakis(dimethyl sulfoxide)lanthanoid(III) Iodides2007In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 46, no 19, p. 7731-7741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The octakis(DMSO) (DMSO = dimethylsulfoxide) neodymium(III), samarium(III), gadolinium(III), dysprosium(III), erbium(III), and lutetium(III) iodides crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n (No. 14) with Z = 4, while the octakis(DMSO) iodides of the larger lanthanum(III), cerium(III), and praseodymium(III) ions crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pbca (No. 61), Z = 8. In all [Ln(OS(Me2)8]I3 compounds the lanthanoid(III) ions coordinate eight DMSO oxygen atoms in a distorted square antiprism. Up to three of the DMSO ligands were found to be disordered and were described by two alternative configurations related by a twist around the metal−oxygen (Ln−O) bond. To resolve the atomic positions and achieve reliable Ln−O bond distances, complete semirigid DMSO molecules with restrained geometry and partial occupancy were refined for the alternative sites. This disorder model was also applied on previously collected data for the monoclinic octakis(DMSO)yttrium(III) iodide. At ambient temperature, the eight Ln−O bond distances are distributed over a range of about 0.1 Å. The average value increases from Ln−O 2.30, 2.34, 2.34, 2.36, 2.38, 2.40 to 2.43 Å (Ln = Lu, Er, Y, Dy, Gd, Sm, and Nd) for the monoclinic [Ln(OSMe2)8]I3 structures, and from 2.44, 2.47 to 2.49 Å (Ln = Pr, Ce, and La) for the orthorhombic structures, respectively. The average of the La−O and Nd−O bond distances remained unchanged at 100 K, 2.49 and 2.43 Å, respectively. Despite longer bond distances and larger Ln−O−S angles, the cell volumes are smaller for the orthorhombic structures (Ln = Pr, Ce, and La) than for the monoclinic structure with Ln = Nd, showing a more efficient packing arrangement. Raman and IR absorption spectra for the [Ln(OS(CH3)2)8]I3 (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Lu, and Y) compounds, also deuterated for La and Y, have been recorded and analyzed by means of normal coordinate methods. The force constants for the Ln−O and S−O stretching modes in the complexes increase with decreasing Ln−O bond distance and show increasing polarization of the bonds for the smaller and heavier lanthanoid(III) ions.

  • 2.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lanthanide Metal-Organic Frameworks and Hierarchical Porous Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the synthesis, properties, and applications of two important classes of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs); lanthanide MOFs and hierarchical porous zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs). The materials have been characterized using a wide range of techniques including diffraction, imaging, various spectroscopic techniques, gas sorption, dynamical light scattering (DLS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    In Chapter 1, the unique features of MOFs and ZIFs as well as their potential applications are summarized. In Chapter 2, different characterization techniques are presented.

    Chapter 3 describes a family of new isoreticular lanthanide MOFs synthesized using tri-topic linkers of different sizes, H3L1-H3L4, denoted SUMOF-7I-IV (Ln) (SU; Stockholm University, Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd, Paper I). The SUMOF-7I-III (Ln) contain permanent pores and exhibit exceptionally high thermal and chemical stability. The luminescence properties of SUMOF-7IIs are reported (Paper II). The influences of Ln ions and the tri-topic linkers as well as solvent molecules on the luminescence properties are investigated. Furthermore, the potential of SUMOF-7II (La) for selective sensing of Fe (III) ions and the amino acid tryptophan is demonstrated (Paper III). 

    Chapter 4 presents a simple, fast and scalable approach for the synthesis of hierarchical porous zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 using triethylamine (TEA)-assisted approach (Paper IV). Organic dye molecules and proteins are encapsulated directly into the ZIFs using the one-pot method. The photophysical properties of the dyes are improved through the encapsulation into ZIF-8 nanoparticles (Paper IV). The porosity and surface area of the ZIF materials can be tuned using the different amounts of dye or TEA. To further simplify the synthesis of hierarchical porous ZIF-8, a template-free approach is presented using sodium hydroxide, which at low concentrations induces the formation of zinc hydroxide nitrate nanosheets that serve as in situ sacrificial templates (Chapter 5, Paper V). A 2D leaf-like ZIF (ZIF-L) is also obtained using the method. The hierarchical porous ZIF-8 and ZIF-L show good performance for CO2 sorption.

  • 3.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Huang, Zhehao
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    El-Zhory, Ahmed M.
    Haoquan, Zheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    A Fast and Scalable Approach for Synthesis of Hierarchical Porous Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks and One-Pot Encapsulation of Target Molecules2017In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 56, no 15, p. 9139-9146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A trimethylamine (TEA)-assisted synthesis approach that combines the preparation of hierarchical porous zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 nanoparticles and one-pot encapsulation of target molecules is presented. Two dye molecules, rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB), and one protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) were tested as the target molecules. The addition of TEA into the solution of zinc nitrate promoted the formation of ZnO nanocrystals, which rapidly transformed to ZIF-8 nanoparticles after the addition of the linker 2-methylimidazole (Hmim). Hierarchical porous dye@ZIF-8 nanoparticles with high crystallinity, large BET surface areas (1300–2500 m2/g), and large pore volumes (0.5–1.0 cm3/g) could be synthesized. The synthesis procedure was fast (down to 2 min) and scalable. The Hmim/Zn ratio could be greatly reduced (down to 2:1) compared to previously reported ones. The surface areas, and the mesopore size, structure, and density could be modified by changing the TEA or dye concentrations, or by postsynthetic treatment using reflux in methanol. This synthesis and one-pot encapsulation approach is simple and can be readily scaled up. The photophysical properties such as lifetime and photostability of the dyes could be tuned via encapsulation. The lifetimes of the encapsulated dyes were increased by 3–27-fold for RhB@ZIF-8 and by 20-fold for MB@ZIF-8, compared to those of the corresponding free dyes. The synthesis approach is general, which was successfully applied for encapsulation of protein BSA. It could also be extended for the synthesis of hierarchical porous cobalt-based ZIF (dye@ZIF-67).

  • 4.
    Abdelhamid, Hani
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Template-Free Synthesis of Hierarchical Porous Zeolitic Imidazole Frameworks Nanoparticles and their CO2 SorptionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    Stockholm University.
    Phase Stability and Preparations of Oxide-Apatite Composites1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the preparation of bioactive composites containing hydroxyapatite, Ca5(PO4)3(OH), and an oxide it has been a problem to prevent the hydroxyapatite from decomposing in the sintering process. This is because H2O is evolved when hydroxyapatite is heated, implying that the occupied OH- positions in hydroxyapatite structure are partly replaced by vacancies and O2- ions. The thermal stability of hydroxyapatite was found to depend on the fraction of vacancies and O2- ions present. The decomposition of the hydroxyapatite is initiated when a critical fraction of the OH- ions has been lost, and it is not specifically related to the temperature applied or atmosphere used. The decomposition temperature of hydroxyapatite and fluoride-containing apatite, Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xFx, in the presence of alumina has been studied and found to increase with increasing x value in Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xFx. By combining this observation with thermogravimetric studies of hydroxyapatite and Ca5(PO4)3OH1-xFxsamples, it was concluded that the decomposition of hydroxyapatite in the presence of alumina can be described by the following reactions:

    Ca5(PO4)3(OH) --> Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xOx/2 + x/2 H20

    2 Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xOx/2+ Al2O3 --> 3 Ca3(PO4)2 + CaAl2O4 + (1-x) H2O

    With the use of a closed system for sintering the aluminañapatite composites, the loss of water can be reduced. The equilibrium in the first reaction will then be shifted to the left, and the second reaction will not occur. This implies that a higher sintering temperature can be used to densify an aluminañhydroxyapatite composite. Accordingly, composites of alumina and zirconia, respectively, with hydroxyapatite could be hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) in a closed system at 1200oC and at a pressure of 160 MPa without any detectable decomposition of the hydroxyapatite. Another way to avoid excess formation of vacancies is to replace some of the OH-ions with F-. This implies that the equilibrium in the first reaction given above is shifted to the left, thus improving the thermal stability of the apatite.

    The main result of this thesis work is a more detailed understanding of the reaction between the oxide and hydroxyapatite, which has made it possible to prepare densified oxide-hydroxyapatite composites without decomposition of the hydroxyapatite phase.

  • 6.
    Ahlén, Niklas
    Stockholm University.
    Carbothermal synthesis of transition metal carbide and carbonitride whiskers via a Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth mechanism1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A route for the synthesis of TiC, TiCyN1-y, TaxTi1-xC and TaxTi1-xCyN1-y whiskers via a carbothermal Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth mechanism, yielding 70-90 vol.% whiskers, has been established. The whiskers were uniform in diameter (0.3-0.6mm), and had a length of about 10-30mm. The starting materials consisted of TiO2 and/or Ta2O5, C, a catalyst metal (Ni or Fe) and NaCl. Carbon was added to reduce the oxides, and NaCl to provide chlorine in the formation of TiClx(g) and TaOxCly(g) species. The overall chemical reaction is a straightforward carbothermal reduction process. The optimum synthesis temperature was found to be 1250°C for TiCyN1-y, TaxTi1-xC and TaxTi1-xCyN1-y whisker, and 1400°C for TiC. The growth direction of the whiskers was found to be <100> for TaC and TaxTi1-xC and either <100> or <111> for TiC. Nitridation of TiC whiskers yielded TiCyN1-y whiskers with morphology and chemical composition different from those obtained by the carbothermal VLS growth mechanism. From oxidation studies it was found that TiC had the lowest oxidation resistance (onset temperature Ton=390°C) and that TaC had the highest (Ton=550°C). The oxidation onset temperature was found to increase with increasing x-value for both TaxTi1-xC and TaxTi1-xCyN1-y whiskers. Microscopy studies (SEM and TEM) showed that whiskers with a native diameter exceeding 0.3 mm split into two halves along their length when oxidised. It was found that the TiO2 particle size of oxidised TaxTi1-xC whiskers are markedly smaller than that obtained from oxidation of TiC whiskers, whereas the Ta2O5 particle size was the same as that observed for oxidised TaC whiskers.

  • 7.
    Akhtar, Farid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergström, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Colloidal Processing and Thermal Treatment of Binderless Hierarchically Porous Zeolite 13X Monoliths for CO2 Capture2011In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 199-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorbents with high surface area are potential candidates forefficient postcombustion CO2 capture. Binderless zeolite 13Xmonoliths with a hierarchical porosity and high CO2 uptakehave been produced by slip casting followed by pressurelessthermal treatment. The zeolite powder displayed an isoelectricpoint at pH 4.7 and electrostatically stabilized suspensions couldbe prepared at alkaline pH. The volume fraction-dependentsteady shear viscosity could be fitted to a modified Krieger–Dougherty model with a maximum volume fraction of 0.66. Thenarrow temperature range where monoliths could be producedwithout significant loss of the microporous surface area wasidentified and related to the phase behavior of the 13X material.Slip casting of concentrated suspensions followed by thermaltreatment of the powder bodies at a temperature of 8001Cwithout holding time resulted into strong hierarchically porouszeolite 13X monolith that displayed a CO2 uptake larger than29 wt%.

  • 8.
    Akhtar, Farid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry.
    Rehman, Yaser
    Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry.
    A study of the sintering of diatomaceous earth to produce porous ceramic monolithswith bimodal porosity and high strength2010In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 201, p. 253-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diatomite powder, a naturally occurring porous raw material, was used to fabricate ceramic materials withbimodal porosity and high strength. The effect of the sintering temperature on the density and porosity ofdry pressed diatomite green bodies was evaluated using mercury porosimetry and water immersionmeasurements. It was found that the intrinsic porosity of the diatomite particles with a pore size around0.2 μm was lost at sintering temperatures above 1200 °C. Maintaining the sintering temperature at around1000 °C resulted in highly porous materials that also displayed a high compressive strength. Microstructuralstudies by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis suggested that the porecollapse was facilitated by the presence of low melting impurities like Na2O and K2O.

  • 9.
    Alberius-Henning, Peter
    Stockholm University.
    Modulating the anion ordering in apatites1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxyapatite constitutes the main inorganic part of the skeleton, and since the beginning of the seventies, synthetic apatite has been used in implants. The physical properties of this crystalline material are directly dependent on its atomic arrangement. If a better understanding of apatite chemistry is sought, important for e.g. the development of new implant materials, it is absolutely crucial to know the detailed structural chemistry of the apatites. It is in this context that this thesis fits.

    X-ray and electron diffraction techniques in combination with high resolution transmission electron microscopy have been used for the characterisation of the new compounds and the combination of these techniques has been particularly useful.

    Common for the studies presented is that they focus on the anion ordering along the hexagonal axis within the apatite framework, this being responsible for the new structures discovered:

    1. The crystal structure of completely dehydrated hydroxyapatite, oxyapatite, has been elucidated from HREM images.
    2. Partially dehydrated hydroxyapatite is shown to be triclinic.
    3. The sulfo- and seleno analogues of oxyapatite have been prepared and their structures refined from X-ray diffraction data.
    4. A new commensurate modulation along c is found for iodo-oxyapatite.
    5. A new incommensurate modulation along c is found for cadmium-bromoapatite.

    As a consequence of the structural chemical investigations performed, the hypothesis arose that it might be possible to manipulate the hydroxide ion ordering in hydroxyapatite achieving a piezoelectric apatite. This hypothesis has recently been confirmed. This new apatite may find important applications in the development of new, biocompatible, implant materials.

  • 10.
    Ali, Sk Imran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Kremer, Reinhard K.
    Johnsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hydrothermal Synthesis and Magnetic Characterization of the Quaternary Oxide CoMo2Sb2O102016In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 55, no 21, p. 11490-11496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new quaternary layered oxide CoMo2Sb2O10 was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis techniques, and its structure was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. CoMo2Sb2O10 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with one Sb3+, Mo6+, and Co2+ atom site per unit cell, respectively. The crystal structure contains building units consisting of [Co2O8](n), [Mo2O8](n), and [SbO2](n) chains. These are connected through corner sharing to form charge neutral [CoMo2Sb2O10](n) layers. Thermal decomposition of CoMo2Sb2O10 starts at 550 degrees C. The magnetic susceptibility follows a Curie Weiss law above 50 K with a Curie constant of C = 3.46 emu K mol(-1) corresponding to an effective moment of mu(eff) = 5.26 mu(B) per cobalt atom and a Curie-Weiss temperature theta = -13.2 K. Short-range anti-ferromagnetic ordering dominates below 5 K. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data can be successfully modeled by the predictions from an Ising linear chain with an intrachain spin exchange of ca. -7.8 K.

  • 11.
    Anderlund, Magnus F.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zheng, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ghiladi, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kritikos, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Rivière, Erik
    Sun, Licheng
    Girerd, Jean-Jaques
    Åkermark, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    A New, Dinuclear High Spin Manganese(III) Complex with Bridging Phenoxy and Methoxy Groups. Structure and Magnetic Properties2006In: Inorganic Chemistry Communications, ISSN 1387-7003, E-ISSN 1879-0259, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 1195-1198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new μ-phenoxy-μ-metoxy di-manganese(III) complex with the trisphenolic ligand, 2,6-bis[((2-hydroxybenzyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amino)methyl]-4-methylphenol, was isolated as a perchlorate salt. The X-ray structure shows that the two manganese(III) ions are in a distorted octrahedral enviroment with approximately perpendicular Jahn–Teller axes. Investigation of the molar magnetic susceptibility reveals a ferromagnetic coupling between the two high-spin manganese(III) ions. Fitting of the data led to g = 2 and J = 12.5 cm−1

  • 12.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry.
    Jones, Anthony C.
    Knackstedt, Mark A.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry.
    Permeability, pore connectivity and critical pore throat control of expandable polymeric sphere templated macroporous alumina2011In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 1239-1248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have regulated the permeability in macroporous alumina materials by manipulating the connectivity of the pore phase and the sizes of the smallest constrictions between connected pores. Templating with particle-coated expandable polymeric spheres (EPS) significantly increased the fraction of isolated pore clusters, and reduced both the sizes and the number of connections with neighboring pores, as determined by three-dimensional evaluation with X-ray micro-computed tomography. The stable particle coating, applied onto the EPS surfaces using polyelectrolyte multilayers, reduced the volume expansion and the coalescence of the EPS at elevated temperatures, which reduced the simulated permeability by as much as two orders of magnitude compared to templating with uncoated EPS in materials of similar porosities. We show that the Katz-Thompson model accurately predicts the permeability for the macroporous alumina materials with porosities of 46-76%. This suggests that the permeability to fluid flow in these materials is governed by the smallest constrictions between connected pores: the critical pore throat diameter.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry.
    Jones, Anthony C.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
    Knackstedt, Mark A.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry.
    Three-dimensional structure analysis by X-ray micro-computed tomography of macroporous alumina templated with expandable microspheres2010In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 2547-2554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three-dimensional (3D) structures of macroporous alumina, produced by a novel method that combines gel casting with expandable polymericmicrospheres as a sacrificial templating material, have been characterised by X-ray micro-computed tomography (µ-CT). The grey-scale intensitytomogram data produced by the X-ray µ-CT was segmented into porous and solid phases and the individual pores were identified. We comparedtwo-dimensional slices of the analysed data with the corresponding scanning electron microscopy images and showed that the structural featuresof the pores were well reproduced in the X-ray µ-CT images. 3D visualisations of the pore structure and the pore network were also shown. Theopen porosity obtained from X-ray µ-CT corresponded well with the porosity derived from mercury porosimetry for pores larger than the voxeldimension (3 µm). The quantitative analysis also yielded information on the spatial variations in porosity and the number of connected neighboursof pores. The 3D data was used to relate the calculated permeability to the open porosity.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Martin
    Stockholm University.
    Structural, thermal and thermodynamic properties of some Ln-Pd oxides and their behaviour as catalyst precursors1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural, thermal and thermodynamic properties of some Ln-Pd oxides of the Ln4Pd07 type are presented. The main results are; (i) Reduction of Ln4Pd07, either ex-situ by CO or in-situ by a synthetic car exhaust gas, results in a materialwith catalytic activity for car exhaust gas clean-up reactions. The obtained material consists of Pd nanoparticles situated on the surface of micron-sized grains of Ln2O3 Upon heat treatment of the reduced material in air, Lu4Pd07 i srapidly re-formed. This property May be utilised for reactivation/conditioning of aged Ln4Pd07-based catalysts; (ii) The Ln4Pd07 compounds with Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd dare isostructural and have a structure which is a triclinic distortion of the monoclinic La4Pd07 type; (iii) ΔH°, and ΔS ° f values for La4Pd07 and Nd4Pd07 have been calculated by a combination of data obtained from dissolution calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis studies; ( iv ) Carbon nanotubes, having the so-called fishbone structure, can be prepared by heat treatment o f La4Pd07 in a 20% CO/He gas mixture for an extended period of time. Nanotubes have been extracted from the obtained La203/Pd/nanotube mixture, using a wet-chemical method.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Nina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Corkery, Robert
    Alberius, Peter
    One-Pot Synthesis of Well-Ordered Mesoporous Magnetic Carriers2007In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 17, p. 2700-2705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The facile preparation of a mesoporous magnetic carrier technology is demonstrated. The micron-sized spherical mesostructured particles are prepared using a newly-developed, one-step, combined emulsion and solvent evaporation (ESE) method. The surfactant-templated silica matrix display a well-ordered internal pore architecture. Very limited pore blocking, and only to a limited degree disordered- or worm-like structures are observed, induced by the iron oxide nanoparticles added to provide the superparamagnetic properties.The iron oxide content was precisely controlled, and the magnetic properties were well preserved during the process. Finally we demonstrate the applicability of the magnetically separable mesoporous material as an adsorbent for specific dissolved materials from dilute aqueous solutions.

  • 16. Aramburo, Luis R.
    et al.
    Karwacki, Lukasz
    Cubillas, Pablo
    Asahina, Shunsuke
    de Winter, D. A. Matthijs
    Drury, Martyn R.
    Buurmans, Inge L. C.
    Stavitski, Eli
    Mores, Davide
    Daturi, Marco
    Bazin, Philippe
    Dumas, Paul
    Thibault-Starzyk, Frederic
    Post, Jan A.
    Anderson, Michael W.
    Terasaki, Osamu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Weckhuysen, Bert M.
    The Porosity, Acidity, and Reactivity of Dealuminated Zeolite ZSM-5 at the Single Particle Level: The Influence of the Zeolite Architecture2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 49, p. 13773-13781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), and UV/Vis and synchrotron-based IR microspectroscopy was used to investigate the dealumination processes of zeolite ZSM-5 at the individual crystal level. It was shown that steaming has a significant impact on the porosity, acidity, and reactivity of the zeolite materials. The catalytic performance, tested by the styrene oligomerization and methanol-to-olefin reactions, led to the conclusion that mild steaming conditions resulted in greatly enhanced acidity and reactivity of dealuminated zeolite ZSM-5. Interestingly, only residual surface mesoporosity was generated in the mildly steamed ZSM-5 zeolite, leading to rapid crystal coloration and coking upon catalytic testing and indicating an enhanced deactivation of the zeolites. In contrast, harsh steaming conditions generated 550 nm mesopores, extensively improving the accessibility of the zeolites. However, severe dealumination decreased the strength of the Bronsted acid sites, causing a depletion of the overall acidity, which resulted in a major drop in catalytic activity.

  • 17. Arcos, D.
    et al.
    Lopez-Noriega, A.
    Ruiz-Hernandez, E.
    Terasaki, Osamu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Vallet-Reg, M.
    Ordered Mesoporous Microspheres for Bone Grafting and Drug Delivery2009In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1000-1009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioactive microspheres with ordered mesoporous structure have been synthesized by means of the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method and following an aerosol-assisted route. The bioactive microspheres belong to the SiO2-CaO-P2O5 systems, and the mesoporous structure closely depends on the structure-directing agent as well as its interaction with the Ca2+ cations during the mesophase formation. Among the different tested surfactants, the triblock copolymer F127 leads to hexagonal ordered structures for low CaO contents, P123 leads to wormlike mesoporous structures for any CaO content, whereas the ionic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (C16TAB) does not produce accessible mesopores at the external surface, for any CaO content. All the mesoporous SiO2-CaO-P2O5 microspheres develop an apatite like layer when reacting with simulated body fluid. Preliminary tests indicate the capability to load and release triclosan with kinetic profiles that depend on the pore structure, thus showing interesting features to be used in periodontal regenerative surgery and infection profilaxis.

     

  • 18. Ashour, Radwa M.
    et al.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Abdel-Magied, Ahmed F.
    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed A.
    Ali, M. M.
    Uheida, A.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Dutta, Joydeep
    Rare Earth Ions Adsorption onto Graphene Oxide Nanosheets2017In: Solvent extraction and ion exchange, ISSN 0736-6299, E-ISSN 1532-2262, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 91-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and used as a coagulant of rare earth elements (REEs) from aqueous solution. Stability and adsorption capacities were exhibited for target REEs such as La(III), Nd(III), Gd(III), and Y(III). The parameters influencing the adsorption capacity of the target species including contact time, pH, initial concentration, and temperature were optimized. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics were studied. The method showed quantitative recovery (99%) upon desorption using HNO3 acid (0.1 M) after a short contact time (15 min).

  • 19. Bae, Juna
    et al.
    Willhammar, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Cichocka, Magdalena O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zhang, Yi
    Bacsik, Zoltan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bals, Sara
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hong, Suk Bong
    A two-dimensional aluminosilicate PST-9 and its structure evolution to a 3D zeolite EU-12Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20. Banenzoue, Charles
    et al.
    Ponou, Simeon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Lambi, John Ngolui
    Non-isovalent substitution in a Zintl phase with the TiNiSi type structure, CaMg1-xAgxGe [x=0.13 (3)]2009In: Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online, ISSN 1600-5368, E-ISSN 1600-5368, Vol. 65, p. i90-U56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single crystals of the title Ag-substituted calcium magnesium germanide, CaMg1-xAgxGe [x = 0.13 (3)] were obtained from the reaction of the corresponding elements at high temperature. The compound crystallizes with the TiNiSi structure type (Pearson code oP12) and represents an Ag-substituted derivative of the Zintl phase CaMgGe in which a small fraction of the divalent Mg atoms have been replaced by monovalent Ag atoms. All three atoms in the asymmetric unit (Ca, Mg/Ag, Ge) occupy special positions with the same site symmetry (.m.). Although the end member CaAgGe has been reported in an isomorphic superstructure of the same TiNiSi type, higher Ag content in solid solutions could not be achieved due to competitive formation of other, perhaps more stable, phases.

  • 21.
    Becker, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Terminating species and Lewis acid-base preference in oxohalides – a new route to low-dimensional compounds2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based upon synthesis and structure determination of new transition metal oxo-halide compounds, which includes p-element cations that have a stereochemically active lone pair. A synthesis concept has been developed, which uses several different structural features to increase the possibility to yield a low-dimensional arrangement of transition metal cations. A total of 17 new compounds has been synthesised and their structures have been determined via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The halides and the stereochemically active lone-pairs will typically act as terminating species segregating into regions of non-bonding volumes, which may take the form of 2D layers, 1D channels or Euclidean spheres. The transition metals that have been used for this work are copper, cobalt and iron. The Hard-Soft-Acid-Base principle has been utilized to match strong Lewis acids to strong Lewis bases and weak acids to weak bases. All compounds show tendencies towards low-dimensionality; they all have sheets of transition metal cations arranged into layers, where the layers most often are connected via weak dispersion forces.

  • 22.
    Becker, Richard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Prester, Mladen
    Berger, Helmuth
    Johnsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Drobac, Djuro
    Zivkovic, Ivica
    Crystal structure and magnetic properties of the new cobalt tellurite halide Co5(TeO3)4X2 (X = Cl, Br)2007In: Solid State Sciences, ISSN 1293-2558, E-ISSN 1873-3085, Vol. 9, no 3-4, p. 223-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new cobalt tellurite halides Co5(TeO3)4Cl2 and Co5(TeO3)4Br2 have been synthesized and found to be iso-structural with Ni5(TeO3)4X2 (X = Cl, Br). Co5(TeO3)4X2 crystallizes in the monoclinic system space group C2/c, and the Br-phase has the lattice parameters a = 20.440(1) Å, b = 5.2760(2) Å, c = 16.4710(7) Å, β = 124.790(5)°, and Z = 4. The crystal structures were solved from single-crystal X-ray data, R1 = 1.90 and 1.77, respectively, for the Cl- and Br-phases. The crystal structure is layered with only weak van der Waals' interactions in between the layers. The layers are built by large [Co5O16X2] groups consisting of five edge- and face-sharing Co-octahedra. Each group is connected to adjacent groups via corner sharing through common oxygen atoms as well as through [TeO3E] groups. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on oriented single crystals reveal pronounced anisotropy in a broad temperature range and clear signs of antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures. Anisotropic susceptibility of an iso-structural Ni-based compound was also studied and compared with the corresponding results of Co5(TeO3)4X2. Magnetic anisotropy is discussed in framework of single-ion anisotropy effects.

  • 23. Benson, Daryn
    et al.
    Li, Yanling
    Luo, Wei
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Häussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lithium and Calcium Carbides with Polymeric Carbon Structures2013In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 52, no 11, p. 6402-6406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the binary carbide systems Li2C2 and CaC2 at high pressure using an evolutionary and ab initio random structure search methodology for crystal structure prediction. At ambient pressure Li2C2 and CaC2 represent salt-like acetylides consisting of C-2(2-) dumbbell anions. The systems develop into semimetals (P (3) over bar m1-Li2C2) and metals (Cmcm-Li2C2, Cmcm-CaC2, and Immm-CaC2) with polymeric anions (chains, layers, strands) at moderate pressures (below 20 GPa). Cmcm-CaC2 is energetically closely competing with the ground, state structure. Polyanionic forms of carbon 4 stabilized by electrostatic interactions with surrounding cations add a new feature to carbon chemistry. SemimetallicP (3) over bar m1-Li2C2 displays an electronic structure close to that of graphene. The pi* band, however, is hybridized with Li-sp states and changed into a bonding valence band. Metallic forms are predicted to be superconductors. Calculated critical temperatures may exceed 10 K for equilibrium volume structures.

  • 24. Bhatt, Aarti Sripathi
    et al.
    Bhat, Denthaje Krishna
    Santosh, Mysore Sridhar
    Tai, Cheuk-wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Chitosan/NiO nanocomposites: a potential new dielectric material2011In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 21, no 35, p. 13490-13497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of electrochemical behavior of organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials remains a major challenge for application in energy storage devices. Here, new composite materials of chitosan and NiO nanoparticles have been fabricated. The NiO nanoparticles are well characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The electrical properties of the films are studied by impedance spectroscopy at different temperatures; and thereby permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity data are obtained. By studying the variations in permittivity and electric modulus spectra with respect to applied frequency signal and temperature, the ionic conductivity of the material is investigated. The Correlated Barrier Hopping model is employed to understand the conduction mechanism. An admirable conductivity of 1.4 x 10(-2) S cm(-1) is obtained for a nanocomposite with 4 wt% NiO content. The activation energies of the composite films decrease with increase in NiO content, from 16.5 to 4.8 kJ mol(-1).

  • 25.
    Bielawski, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    High-Yielding One-Pot Synthesis of Diaryliodonium Triflates from Arenes and Iodine or Aryl Iodides2007In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, no 24, p. 2521-2523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsymmetric and symmetric diaryliodonium triflates are synthesized from both electron-deficient and electron-rich substrates in a fast, high yielding, and operationally simple protocol employing arenes and aryl iodides or iodine.

  • 26.
    Biendicho, Jordi Jacas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, England.
    Shafeie, Samrand
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Frenck, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Pierre & Marie Curie University, France.
    Gavrilova, Daria
    Böhme, Solveigh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
    Bettanini, A. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Universita Ca Foscari Venezia, Italy.
    Svedlindh, Peter
    Hull, Steve
    Zhe, Zhao
    Istomin, S. Y.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Synthesis and characterisation of perovskite SrxY1-xFeO3-d (=.63≤x<1) and Sr0.75Y0.25Fe1-yMyO3-d (M=Cr, Mn, Ni) (y= 0.2, 0.33, 0.5)2013In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, E-ISSN 1095-726X, Vol. 200, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygen-deficient ferrates with the cubic perovskite structure SrxY1-xFeO3-d were prepared in air (0.71 ≤ x ≤ 0.91) as well as in N2 (x=0.75 and 0.79) at 1573K. The oxygen content of the compounds prepared in air increases with increasing strontium content from 3-δ=2.79(2) for x=0.75 to 3-δ=2.83(2) for x=0.91. Refinement of the crystal structure of Sr0.75Y0.25FeO2.79 using TOF neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data shows high anisotropic atomic displacement parameter (ADP) for the oxygen atom resulting from a substantial cation and anion disorder. Electron diffraction (ED) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) studies of Sr0.75Y0.25FeO2.79 reveal a modulation along <100>p with G± ~0.4<100>p indicating a local ordering of oxygen vacancies. Magnetic susceptibility measurements at 5-390K show spin-glass behaviour with dominating antiferromagnetic coupling between the magnetic moments of Fe cations. Among the studied compositions, Sr0.75Y0.25FeO2.79 shows the lowest thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of 10.5 ppm K-1 in air at 298-673K. At 773-1173K TEC increases up to 17.2 ppm K-1 due to substantial reduction of oxygen content. The latter also results in a dramatic decrease of the electrical conductivity in air above 673K. Partial substitution of Fe by Cr, Mn and Ni according to the formula Sr0.75Y0.25Fe1-yMyO3-δ (y=0.2, 0.33, 0.5) leads to cubic perovskites for all substituents with y=0.2. Their TECs are higher in comparison with un-doped Sr0.75Y0.25FeO2.79. Only M=Ni has increased electrical conductivity compared to un-doped Sr0.75Y0.25FeO2.79.

  • 27.
    Bonneau, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Sanchez-Smith, Rebeca
    Guo, Bing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Zhang, Daliang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Inge, Andrew Kentaro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Open-Framework Germanate Built from the Hexagonal Packing of Rigid Cylinders2009In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 48, no 21, p. 9962-9964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel open-framework oxide material constructed from Ge10(O,OH)28 (Ge10) oxide clusters prepared via a nonsurfactant route. The material shows two distinct pore windows of 9.43 and 4.65 Å and a low framework density structure of 12.7 Ge atoms per 1000 Å3. The topological study leads to the recognition of a newly observed trinodal 6,7-heterocoordinated net related to the 7-coordinated swh net. The structure displays large rigid cylinders showing features indicating a growth mechanism by hard-sphere packing of the inorganic moiety similar to that observed in mesoporous materials.

  • 28. Borowski, Thomasz
    et al.
    Noack, Holger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Radon, Mariusz
    Zych, Konrad
    Siegbahn, Per E.M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Mechanism of Selective Halogenation by SyrB2: A Computational Study2010In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 132, no 37, p. 12887-12898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of the chlorination reaction of SyrB2, a representative α-ketoglutarate dependent halogenase, was studied with computational methods. First, a macromolecular model of the Michaelis com- plex was constructed using molecular docking proce- dures. Based on this structure a smaller model com- prising the first- and some of the second shell residues of iron, and a model substrate was constructed and used in DFT investigations on the reaction mecha- nism. Computed relative energies and Mo ̈ssbauer iso- mer shifts and quadrupole splittings indicate that the two oxoferryl species observed experimentally are two stereoisomers resulting from an exchange of the coordi- nation sites occupied by the oxo and chloro ligands. In principle both FeIV =O species are reactive and decay to FeIIICl(OH)/carbon radical intermediates via C-H bond cleavage. In the final rebound step, which is very fast and thus precluding equilibration between the two forms of the radical intermediate, the ligand (oxo or chloro) placed closest to the carbon radical (trans to His235) is transfered to the carbon. For the native substrate (L-Thr) the lowest barrier for C-H cleavage was found for an isomer of the oxoferryl species favor- ing chlorination in the rebound step. CASPT2 cal- culations for the spin state splittings in the oxoferryl species support the conclusion that once the FeIV =O intermediate is formed, the reaction proceeds on the quintet potential energy surface.

  • 29.
    Bryntse, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Studies of systems related to high-Tc superconductors by electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction1992Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New cuprate systems related to high temperature superconductors have been investigated and are reviewed. The synthesized samples have been studied mainly by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction, in order to determine composition and structure of the formed phases.

    The following compounds were studied: Bi14Cu10Nb16O7 and Bit 7Cuo.2Ti2.006.8, both of cubic pyrochlore-type structure; BiNbs.4015, a tetragonal tungsten bronze type compound; Bi2/3Cu3Ti4012, a perovskite-related phase; Ba4CuYW2012, with a perovskite based unit cell; LaSrCuGaOs and LaCaCuGaOs, both of brownmillerite type and some related phases obtained by aliovalent substitution; R2Hg04 (R = La, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), with a new type of structure; and HgBa^RCugOy (R = La, Nd, Eu, Eu+Ca, Gd, Dy and Y), new "Hg-1212" type phases with a structure related to that of the thallium superconductor TlBa2CaCu207.

    The structural features of these compounds of relevance to superconductivity are also discussed.

  • 30. Buscaglia, Maria Teresa
    et al.
    Buscaglia, Vincenzo
    Curecheriu, Lavinia
    Postolache, Petronel
    Mitoseriu, Liliana
    Ianculescu, Adelina C.
    Vasile, Bogdan S.
    Zhao, Zhe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nanni, Paolo
    Fe2O3@BaTiO3 core-shell particles as reactive precursors for the preparation of multifunctional composites containing different magnetic phases2010In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 22, no 16, p. 4740-4748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-designed reactive precursors and templates allow for careful control of solid-state reactions at the nanoscale level, thus enabling the fabrication of materials with specific microstructures and properties. In this study, Fe2O3@BaTiO3 core−shell particles have been used as precursors for the in situ fabrication of multifunctional composites containing a dielectric/ferroelectric phase and two magnetic phases with contrasting coercivities (Fe2O3/Fe3O4, BaFe12O19/Ba12Fe28Ti15O84). The formation of new magnetic phases occurs during sintering or post-annealing via reaction between BaTiO3 and Fe2O3. The starting powders have been prepared using a multistep process that combines colloidal chemistry methods and a solid-state reaction. The nature and the amount of the magnetic phases and, consequently, the final magnetic properties of the composite can be controlled by varying the relative amount of Fe2O3 (30 or 50 vol%), the densification method (conventional or spark plasma sintering), and the processing temperature. The composites show constricted magnetic hysteresis loops with a coercivity of 0.1−2.5 kOe and a saturation magnetization of 5−16 emu/g. Composites obtained from powders containing 30 vol% Fe2O3 show, at temperatures of 20−80 °C and frequencies between 10 kHz and 1 MHz, a relative dielectric constant of 50 and dielectric losses of <10%.

  • 31.
    Cai, Yanbing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Synthesis and Characterization of Nitrogen-rich Calcium α-Sialon Ceramics2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, a synthesis concept has been developed, which uses nitrogen-rich liquid phases for sintering of Ca-α-sialon ceramics. First, keeping the Si/Al ratios constant, the effects of N/O ratio on the properties and microstructure were investigated through a liquid phase sintering process. Second, nitrogen-rich Ca-α-sialon ceramics, with nominal compositions: CaxSi12-2xAl2xN16, x < 2.0, was synthesized and characterized. Third, mechanical and thermal properties of nitrogen-rich Ca-α-sialons were investigated in terms of high temperature deformation resistance,reaction mechanism, phase stability and oxidation resistance, and further correlated to their phase assemblage and microstructure observation.

    It has been found that increasing the N/O and Ca/Al ratio simultaneously in the materials could result in development of a microstructure with well shaped, high-aspect-ratio Ca-α-sialon grains, and an improvement in both toughness and hardness.

    For the nitrogen-rich Ca-α-sialon, mono-phasic α-sialon ceramics were obtained for 0.51 ≤ x ≤ 1.32. The obtained Ca-α-sialon ceramics with elongated-grain microstructures show a combination of high hardness and high fracture toughness. Compared with the oxygen-rich Ca-α-sialons, the nitrogen-rich Ca-α-sialons exhibited approximately 150 oC higher deformation onset temperatures and decent properties even after the deformation.

    The α-sialon phase was first observed at 1400 oC, however the phase pure Ca-α-sialon ceramics couldn’t be obtained until 1800 oC. The nitrogen-rich Ca-α-sialons were thermal stable, no phase transformation observed in the temperatures range1400-1600 oC. In general, mixed α/β-sialon showed better oxidation resistance than pure α-sialon in the low temperature range (1250-1325 oC), while α-sialons with compositions located at α/β-sialon border-line showed significant weight gains over the entire temperature range (1250-1400 oC).

  • 32. Cao, Lingyun
    et al.
    Peng, Fei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Liang, Jie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Peking University, China.
    Lin, Wenbin
    Self-Supporting Metal–Organic Layers as Single-Site Solid Catalysts2016In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 55, no 16, p. 4962-4966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal–organic layers (MOLs) represent an emerging class of tunable and functionalizable two-dimensional materials. In this work, the scalable solvothermal synthesis of self-supporting MOLs composed of [Hf6O4(OH)4(HCO2)6] secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tribenzoate (BTB) bridging ligands is reported. The MOL structures were directly imaged by TEM and AFM, and doped with 4′-(4-benzoate)-(2,2′,2′′-terpyridine)-5,5′′-dicarboxylate (TPY) before being coordinated with iron centers to afford highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for the hydrosilylation of terminal olefins. MOL-based heterogeneous catalysts are free from the diffusional constraints placed on all known porous solid catalysts, including metal–organic frameworks. This work uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing single-site solid catalysts and opens the door to a new class of two-dimensional coordination materials with molecular functionalities.

  • 33.
    Carlsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Preparation and characterisation of refractory whiskers and selected alumina composites2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A whisker is a common name of single crystalline inorganic fibre of small dimensions, typically 0.5-1 μm in diameter and 20-50 μm in length. Whiskers are mainly used as reinforcement of ceramics. This work describes the synthesis and characterisation of new whisker types. Ti0.33Ta0.33Nb0.33CxN1-x, TiB2, B4C, and LaxCe1-xB6 have been prepared by carbothermal vapour–liquid–solid (CTR-VLS) growth mechanisms in the temperature range 900-1800°C, in argon or nitrogen. Generally, carbon and different suitable oxides were used as whisker precursors. The oxides reacted via a carbothermal reduction process. A halogenide salt was added to form gaseous metal halogenides or oxohalogenides and small amount of a transition metal was added to catalyse the whisker growth. In this mechanism, the whisker constituents are dissolved into the catalyst, in liquid phase, which becomes supersaturated. Then a whisker could nucleate and grow out under continuous feed of constituents.

    The syntheses of TiC, TiB2, and B4C were followed at ordinary synthesis conditions by means of mass spectrometry (MS), thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and quenching. The main reaction starting temperatures and reaction time for the different mixtures was revealed, and it was found that the temperature inside the crucible during the reactions was up to 100°C below the furnace set-point, due to endothermic nature of the reactions. Quench experiments showed that whiskers were formed already when reaching the temperature plateau, but the yield increased fast with the holding time and reached a maximum after about 20-30 minutes. Growth models for whisker formation have been proposed.

    Alumina based composites reinforced by (2-5 vol.%) TiCnano and TiNnano and 25 vol.% of carbide, and boride phases (whiskers and particulates of TiC, TiN, TaC, NbC, (Ti,Ta)C, (Ti,Ta,Nb)C, SiC, TiB2 and B4C) have been prepared by a developed aqueous colloidal processing route followed by hot pressing for 90 min at 1700°C, 28 MPa or SPS sintering for 5 minutes at 1200-1600°C and 75 MPa. Vickers indentation measurements showed that the lowest possible sintering temperature is to prefer from mechanical properties point of view. In the TiNnano composites the fracture mode was typically intergranular, while it was transgranular in the SiCnano composites. The whisker and particulate composites have been compared in terms of e.g. microstructure and mechanical properties. Generally, additions of whiskers yielded higher fracture toughness compared to particulates. Composites of commercially available SiC whiskers showed best mechanical properties with a low spread but all the other whisker phases, especially TiB2, exhibited a great potential as reinforcement materials.

  • 34.
    Carlsson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Johnsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Garcia, Javier G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Gulian, Armen
    Synthesis of LaxCe1-xB6 whiskers2004In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 40, no 11, p. 2991-2994Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Carson, Fabian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Development of Metal–Organic Frameworks for Catalysis: Designing Functional and Porous Crystals2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal–organic frameworks, or MOFs, have emerged as a new class of porous materials made by linking metal and organic units. The easy preparation, structural and functional tunability, ultrahigh porosity, and enormous surface areas of MOFs have led to them becoming one of the fastest growing fields in chemistry. MOFs have potential applications in numerous areas such as clean energy, adsorption and separation processes, biomedicine, and sensing. One of the most promising areas of research with MOFs is heterogeneous catalysis.

    This thesis describes the design and synthesis of new, carboxylate-based MOFs for use as catalysts. These materials have been characterized using diffraction, spectroscopy, adsorption, and imaging techniques. The thesis has focused on preparing highly-stable MOFs for catalysis, using post-synthetic methods to modify the properties of these crystals, and applying a combination of characterization techniques to probe these complex materials.

    In the first part of this thesis, several new vanadium MOFs have been presented. The synthesis of MIL-88B(V), MIL-101(V), and MIL-47 were studied using ex situ techniques to gain insight into the synthesis–structure relationships. The properties of these materials have also been studied.

    In the second part, the use of MOFs as supports for metallic nanoparticles has been investigated. These materials, Pd@MIL-101–NH2(Cr) and Pd@MIL-88B–NH2(Cr), were used as catalysts for Suzuki–Miyaura and oxidation reactions, respectively. The effect of the base on the catalytic activity, crystallinity, porosity, and palladium distribution of Pd@MIL-101–NH2(Cr) was studied.

    In the final part, the introduction of transition-metal complexes into MOFs through different synthesis routes has been described. A ruthenium complex was grafted onto an aluminium MOF, MOF-253, and an iridium metallolinker was introduced into a zirconium MOF, UiO-68–2CH3. These materials were used as catalysts for alcohol oxidation and allylic alcohol isomerization, respectively.

  • 36.
    Carson, Fabian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Martínez-Castro, Elisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Marcos, Rocío
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    González Miera, Greco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Jansson, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Martín-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Introduction of an N-heterocyclic Carbene Iridium Complex into a Zirconium Metal–Organic Framework for CatalysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37. Chaim, Rachman
    et al.
    Reshef, Ram
    Liu, Guanghua
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Low-temperature spark plasma sintering of NiO nanoparticles2011In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 528, no 6, p. 2936-2940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NiO nanoparticles of 20 nm in diameter were spark plasma sintered between 400 °C and 600 °C for 5 and 10 min durations. Application of 100 MPa pressure from room temperature resulted in densities between 75% and 92%. The final grain size was between 26 nm and 68 nm. Lower densities were recorded when 100 MPa was applied at the SPS temperature. Two shrinkage rate maxima of 3.4 × 10−3 s−1 and 2 × 10−3 s−1 were observed around 390 ± 10 °C and at the SPS temperature. The two shrinkage rate maxima were related to densification by particle sliding followed by diffusional grain boundary sliding during the heating. The strong effects of the surface and interfacial processes which are active during the SPS were highlighted.

  • 38.
    Chamoun, Mylad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Rechargeable Aqueous Batteries Based on Available Resources: Investigation and Development towards Efficient Battery Performance2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries employing water based electrolytes enable extremely low manufacturing costs and are inherently safer than Li-ion batteries. Batteries based on zinc, manganese dioxide, iron, and air have high energy relevancy, are not resource restricted, and can contribute to large scale energy storage solutions. Zinc has a rich history as electrode material for primary alkaline Zn–MnO2 batteries. Historically, its use in secondary batteries has been limited because of morphological uncertainties and passivation effects that may lead to cell failure. Manganese dioxide electrodes are ineffective as rechargeable electrodes because of failure mechanisms associated with phase transformations during cycling. The irreversibility of manganese dioxide is strongly correlated to the formation of the electrochemically inactive spinel, Mn3O4/ZnMn2O4. The development of the iron electrode for Fe–air batteries was initiated in late the 1960s and these batteries still suffer from charging inefficiency, due to the unwanted hydrogen evolution reaction. Meanwhile, the air electrode is limited in long-term operation because of the sluggish oxygen evolution and reduction kinetics. These limitations of the Fe–air battery yield poor overall efficiencies, which bring vast energy losses upon cycling.

    Herein, the limitations described above were countered for rechargeable Zn–MnO2 and Fe–air batteries by synthesizing electrode materials and modifying electrolyte compositions. The electrolyte mixture of 1 M KOH + 3 M LiOH for rechargeable alkaline Zn–MnO2 batteries limited the formation of the inactive spinels and improved their cycle life significantly. Further, the formation of the inactive spinels was overcome in mildly acidic electrolytes containing 2 M ZnSO4, enabling the cells to cycle reversibly at lower pH via a distinctive reaction mechanism. The iron electrodes were improved with the addition of stannate, which suppressed hydrogen evolution. Furthermore, optimal charge protocols of the iron electrodes were identified to minimize the hydrogen evolution rate. On the air electrode, the synthesized NiCo2O4 showed excellent bifunctional catalytic activity for oxygen evolution and reduction, and was incorporated to a flow assisted rechargeable Fe–air battery, in order to prove the practicability of this technology. Studies of the electrode materials on the micro, macro, nano, and atomic scales were carried out to increase the understanding of the nature of and interactions between of these materials. This included both in operando and ex situ characterization. X-ray and neutron radiation, and analytical- and electrochemical methods provided insight to improve the performance and cycle life of the batteries.

  • 39.
    Chamoun, Mylad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Paulraj, Alagar Raj
    Kiros, Yohannes
    Svengren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Noréus, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Göthelid, Mats
    Skårman, Björn
    Vidarsson, Hilmar
    Johansson, Malin
    Electrochemical Performance and in Operando Charge Efficiency Measurements of Cu/Sn-Doped Nano Iron ElectrodesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fe-air or Ni-Fe cells can offer low-cost and large-scale sustainable energy storage. At present, they are limited by low coulombic efficiency, low active material use, and poor rate capability. To overcome these challenges, two types of nanostructured doped iron materials were investigated: (1) copper and tin doped iron (CuSn); and (2) tin doped iron (Sn). Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was added to the electrode and LiOH to the electrolyte. In the 2 wt. % Cu + 2 wt. % Sn sample, the addition of SWCNT increased the discharge capacity from 430 to 475 mAh g−1, and charge efficiency increased from 83% to 93.5%. With the addition of both SWCNT and LiOH, the charge efficiency and discharge capacity improved to 91% and 603 mAh g−1, respectively. Meanwhile, the 4 wt. % Sn substituted sample performance is not on par with the 2 wt. % Cu + 2 wt. % Sn sample. The dopant elements (Cu and Sn) and additives (SWCNT and LiOH) have a major impact on the electrode performance. To understand the relation between hydrogen evolution and charge current density, we have used in operando charging measurements combined with mass spectrometry to quantify the evolved hydrogen. The electrodes that were subjected to prolonged overcharge upon hydrogen evolution failed rapidly. This insight could help in the development of better charging schemes for the iron electrodes.

  • 40.
    Chamoun, Mylad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Paulraj, Alagar Raj
    Skårman, Björn
    Vidarsson, Hilmar
    Kiros, Yohannes
    Noréus, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bifunctional Performance of Flow Assisted Rechargeable Iron-Air Alkaline BatteriesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Low cost rechargeable iron-air alkaline batteries have all essential attributes to adapt for large scale energy storage applications. To actualize this implementation needs to overcome the challenges including poor efficiency and short cycle lifetime. Herein, suitable synthesized catalysts for the air electrode were investigated prior to iron-air cell testing. NiCo2O4 as sole catalyst proved exceptional bifunctional OER/ORR activity and stability over 440 h operation in air. This catalyst fitted into an electrolyte and oxygen flow assisted rechargeable iron-air prototype and performed stable over 588 h and had an energy density of 377 Wh kg-1 Fe. Inadequate coulombic efficiencies of 75 – 85% and energy efficiencies around 50% hurt the performance of the cell though and needed further development. Nevertheless, the findings in this work reports the opportunities and obstacles of the rechargeable iron-air battery.

  • 41.
    Chen, Hong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Construction of 3D Porous Polyoxometalate Frameworks Through Covalently Bonded LinkagesManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Chen, Hong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Open-framework Structures Built by Inorganic Clusters: Synthesis and Characterization2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel open-framework germanates and vanadoborates, which are constructed from typical types of clusters, have been synthesized based on different strategies. The crystal structures are solved by using single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) technique or by combined techniques. Additionally, the structures of two open-framework materials, PKU-3 and PKU-16, are determined from nano-sized crystals by rotation electron diffraction (RED) combined with powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD).

    This thesis serves as an introduction to synthesis of open-framework germanates and vanadoborates based on different design strategies. Two germanates are obtained; SU-74 is achieved by employing a novel structure directing agent (SDA), SUT-8 is achieved by assembling the novel structure building units (SBUs) of Co@Ge14 with the introduction of cobalt ions in the synthesis. Four strategies are successfully used in construction of open-framework vanadoborates: using metal-oxo polyhedra as the linkages in SUT-6; applying the scale chemistry approach in SUT-7; employing metal-organic complexes as the linkages in SUT-12, SUT-13, SUT-14; and introducing covalent bond organic linkages into SUT-10 and SUT-11. Single crystal X-ray diffraction is used to conduct the structure determination in combination with other techniques.

    Furthermore, the structures of two open-framework materials, an aluminoborate PKU-3 and a germanosilicate PKU-16, are solved from nano-sized crystals using RED data. The structures are further confirmed by Rietveld refinement against PXRD data. The advantages of the RED techniques are demonstrated in two aspects. In PKU-3, the presence of seriously preferred orientation and light elements in the structure makes it difficult for structure determination by PXRD, but it is easier by RED. In PKU-16, the RED technique is used to determine its structure from the as-synthesized multi-phasic sample containing nano-sized crystals. After the structure of PKU-16 has been solved, the synthesis of this interesting phase can be optimized and pure PKU-16 can be obtained.

    Keywords: Open-framework, germanates, vanadoborates, aluminoborates, germanosilicates, crystal structure, hydrothermal synthesis, single crystal X-ray diffraction, rotation electron diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction

  • 43.
    Chen, Hong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    PKU-3: An Effective Heterogeneous Catalyst for Strecker ReactionManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Chen, Hong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Structure Determination for a Seriously Twinned  Open-framework Germanate Constructed from  Co@Ge14 clustersManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Chen, Hong
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). China University of Geosciences - Wuhan, People's Republic of China.
    Zhang, Yunfeng
    Yu, Zhengbao
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Peking University, People's Republic of China.
    Layered V-B-O Polyoxometalate Nets Linked by Diethylenetriamine Complexes with Dangling Amine Groups2014In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 43, no 41, p. 15283-15286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two layered V-B-O contained polyoxometalate (POM) net structures, denoted as SUT-12 and SUT-13, are reported here. SUT-12 was synthesized by the boric acid flux method, and it represents the first 2D structure constructed from the V6B20 vanadoborate cluster. SUT-13 was synthesized through the hydrothermal method and constructed from V12B6P12 vanadium borophosphate clusters. In both structures, the vanadoborate or vanadium borophosphate clusters were linked through in-situ formed Zn(DETA)2 or Cu(DETA)2 complexes. Surprisingly, for all DETA molecules in the two metal complexes, there is one dangling amine group when it coordinated to the metal. The phenomena of the dangling amine group feature is abnormal and the Cu(DETA)2 complexes in SUT-13 was taken as an example and studied by density function theory (DFT) calculation in order to understand this unusual feature.

  • 46.
    Cho, Kanghee
    et al.
    Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology (WCU).
    Na, Kyungsu
    Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology (WCU).
    Kim, Jaeheon
    Center for Functional Nanomaterials.
    Terasaki, Osamu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Ryoo, Ryong
    Graduate School of EEWS (WCU), KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.
    Zeolite Synthesis Using Hierarchical Structure-Directing Surfactants: Retaining Porous Structure of Initial Synthesis Gel and Precursors2012In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, ISSN 0897-4756, Vol. 24, no 14, p. 2733-2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zeolite beta with a mesopore-micropore hierarchy is hydrothermally synthesized here using various surfactants that can function as a hierarchical structure-directing agent at both the meso- and microstructural levels. Tetraethoxysilane and diatomaceous earth were tested as the silica sources. The pore size distribution of the zeolite was analyzed by N2 adsorption and electron microscopy. The result was related to the surfactant structure, silica source, and Na+ concentration. The zeolite showed quite uniform mesopores corresponding to the surfactant micelles, in addition to zeolitic micropores generated by the surfactant head groups. Furthermore, an additional level of large pores (≥20 nm) could be obtained as a result of the retaining of pores from the initial synthesis gel or the zeolite precursor. The large pores were fully retained when the silica source was transformed into a crystalline zeolite via pseudomorphic transformation without migration into the solution phase. The transformation could be controlled by the choice of the synthesis conditions and surfactants. The resultant zeolite with a macropore-mesopore-micropore hierarchy shows potential applicability where facile diffusion is required.

  • 47. Choi, Minkee
    et al.
    Na, Kyungsu
    Kim, Jeongnam
    Sakamoto, Yasuhiro
    Terasaki, Osamu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Ryoo, Ryong
    Stable single-unit-cell nanosheets of zeolite MFI as active and long-lived catalysts2009In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 461, no 7261, p. 246-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zeolites-microporous crystalline aluminosilicates-are widely used in petrochemistry and fine-chemical synthesis(1-3) because strong acid sites within their uniform micropores enable size- and shape-selective catalysis. But the very presence of the micropores, with aperture diameters below 1 nm, often goes hand-in-hand with diffusion limitations(3-5) that adversely affect catalytic activity. The problem can be overcome by reducing the thickness of the zeolite crystals, which reduces diffusion path lengths and thus improves molecular diffusion(4,5). This has been realized by synthesizing zeolite nanocrystals(6), by exfoliating layered zeolites(7-9), and by introducing mesopores in the microporous material through templating strategies(10-17) or demetallation processes(18-22). But except for the exfoliation, none of these strategies has produced 'ultrathin' zeolites with thicknesses below 5 nm. Here we show that appropriately designed bifunctional surfactants can direct the formation of zeolite structures on themesoporous and microporous length scales simultaneously and thus yield MFI (ZSM-5, one of the most important catalysts in the petrochemical industry) zeolite nanosheets that are only 2 nm thick, which corresponds to the b-axis dimension of a single MFI unit cell. The large number of acid sites on the external surface of these zeolites renders them highly active for the catalytic conversion of large organic molecules, and the reduced crystal thickness facilitates diffusion and thereby dramatically suppresses catalyst deactivation through coke deposition during methanol-to-gasoline conversion. We expect that our synthesis approach could be applied to other zeolites to improve their performance in a range of important catalytic applications.

     

  • 48.
    Cichocka, Magdalena O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Burton, Allen W.
    Afeworki, Mobae
    Mabon, Ross
    Schmitt, Kirk D.
    Strohmaier, Karl G.
    Vroman, Hilda B.
    Weston, Simon C.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Willhammar, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    An aluminosilicate zeolite EMM-28 containing extra-large cavitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Cichocka, Magdalena O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Ångström, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Wang, Bin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Smeets, Stef
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    High-throughput continuous rotation electron diffraction data acquisition via software automation2018In: Journal of applied crystallography, ISSN 0021-8898, E-ISSN 1600-5767, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 1652-1661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-crystal electron diffraction (SCED) is emerging as an effective technique to determine and refine the structures of unknown nano-sized crystals. In this work, the implementation of the continuous rotation electron diffraction (cRED) method for high-throughput data collection is described. This is achieved through dedicated software that controls the transmission electron microscope and the camera. Crystal tracking can be performed by defocusing every nth diffraction pattern while the crystal rotates, which addresses the problem of the crystal moving out of view of the selected area aperture during rotation. This has greatly increased the number of successful experiments with larger rotation ranges and turned cRED data collection into a high-throughput method. The experimental parameters are logged, and input files for data processing software are written automatically. This reduces the risk of human error, and makes data collection more reproducible and accessible for novice and irregular users. In addition, it is demonstrated how data from the recently developed serial electron diffraction technique can be used to supplement the cRED data collection by automatic screening for suitable crystals using a deep convolutional neural network that can identify promising crystals through the corresponding diffraction data. The screening routine and cRED data collection are demonstrated using a sample of the zeolite mordenite, and the quality of the cRED data is assessed on the basis of the refined crystal structure.

  • 50.
    Cichocka, Magdalena Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Unraveling the structures of complex nanocrystalline materials by combining TEM and XRPD – development and application2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) atomic structure of materials is essential to a fundamental understanding of their properties. The key to understanding the functionality of many materials, particularly those of commercial and industrial interest, is often hidden in the details at the nanoscale. For this reason, it is very important to choose the right strategy to analyze the structure of challenging materials with complex disordered framework structures, or of the layered materials that are the subject of this thesis. Structure analysis of beam-sensitive or uniquely disordered materials can be complicated. Although there are already existing methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), the data may exhibit reflection overlap or other problems that make structure determination difficult. To overcome these limitations for nanocrystalline materials, complementary characterization techniques can be used. Here, I will focus on 3D electron crystallography (continuous rotation electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy) methods that have grown during the past years as hybrid methods for structure determination. Based on the presented materials, I will also emphasize that any kind of challenges can be a driving force for method development.  Furthermore, some of the insights gained lead to better understanding of how to collect and process 3D electron diffraction data, which could be applied to make data collection of challenging samples easier and obtain higher quality structure refinements from the data. Finally, I will try to describe the general procedures for ab initio structure elucidation of disordered nanocrystals and layered materials.

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