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  • 1.
    Adler, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Studier av geomorfologi på Mani, Peloponnesos, Grekland2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Mani peninsula in the south of Peloponnesos, Greece, is situated only 50 km from the subduction zone of the Hellenic arc. The active, tectonic processes taking place influence the geomorphology of the area. Through the use of remote sensing, analysis of a Digital Terrain Model and a five-day fieldwork study, certain areas of the southern peninsula’s geomorphology were examined for this project including recent processes that create landforms to date. Among those, chemical weathering and tectonics dominate. Also relict landforms were studied to get a greater understanding of the area. Fieldwork resulted in the discovery of two fields of rocks in one of the capes, which most likely were created before the cape underwent uplift to its current level. Also, a conglomerate superimposition of limestone in one of the bays showed indication that great mass movements took place when the surface was lower than today. A pediment is located on the west side of the Sagia Mountain. The asymmetry is probably due to a combination of tectonics and sea level changes.

  • 2.
    Afrifa, Yamoah Kweku Kyei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Reconstruction of the Southeast Asian hydro-climate using biomarkers and their hydrogen isotopic composition2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Southeast Asia is characterized by a monsoonal climate, with distinct wet and dry seasons. This has great impact on societies, agriculture and infrastructures. Despite the critical importance to understand the mechanisms that influence the variability of the Asian Monsoon, there is scarcity of both historical and paleoclimate proxy data from Southeast Asia. For this reason, two lakes from Thailand, Lake Pa Kho (LPK) and Lake Nong Thale Pron (NTP), which are located in the northeastern and southern part of Thailand, respectively, were cored. The region also offers the opportunity to study the potential influence of climate on the Angkor civilization. Overall, this project seeks to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to Asian monsoon variability and how the variability influenced Angkor Civilization. Here I present results on a 2000-years sediment record from LPK. The most important part of the work presented here consists of compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios (δD), which are used to infer past changes in the hydrological cycle of Southeast Asia. This approach is based on the premise that δD of lipid biomarkers from plants, algae and microorganisms deposited in sediments reflects the δD of their source water, which in turn is influenced by local hydrology. A rapid increase in precipitation is inferred from ca. 700 to ca. 850 AD, after a long dry phase. The inferred shift to wet conditions likely contributed to the rise of the Angkor Civilization, by boosting agriculture. However, gradual drying occurred at around 900 AD until the 19th century. This long-term decline in precipitation, favoring ever more frequent occurrences of severe droughts, likely also contributed to the demise and fall of the Angkor, around 1400 AD. Comparison with other hydroclimate proxy records revealed that wet conditions in tropical SE Asia corresponded to a dry Western Pacific, wet conditions in the East Pacific, and vice versa - a pattern that can be explained by opposing centers of convection and subsidence. Moreover, our tropical record also appears to be anti-correlated with the subtropical East Asian Monsoon, possibly caused by rainout effects along moisture trajectories. These long-term rainfall shifts closely match patterns observed during periods of strong El Niño, and suggests a central role for Pacific Walker circulation as a driver of centennial-scale hydroclimatic change. Besides these results from LPK oriented towards reconstructing hydroclimate, I also present some initial results concerning the evolution of the plant community of LPK, based on compound specific 13C analysis, as well as first biomarker results from NTP.

  • 3.
    Ardung, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Closed To Open Sourve GIS: First Steps In Reverse Engineering ESRI's Layer Defintion File Format2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visualization of digital geographic data is often accomplished through custom symbology that is saved in a proprietary format called a layer file (.lyr). The sharing of free geographical information system (GIS) data can be limited as the symbology data is bound inthe .lyr file format. This makes it harder and more tedious to work with open software tools since it is not possible to convert or open the .lyr file in free and open GIS software and thus limits the distribution of free GIS data. The aim of this thesis is to increase the interoperability of .lyr data between proprietary and free and open GIS software. This was done by revers eengineering the .lyr file format to document the file structure and to distribute the knowledge and metadata gained from this project to the open source community. Reverse engineering the.lyr format provided a well needed metadata and documentation about the format which increases the interoperability and enable future work to continue to lessen the gap between open source and commercial software. This groundwork can therefore, enable a continued development of data interoperability between proprietary and free and open GIS software.

  • 4.
    Backman, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Moran, Kathryn
    University of Rhode Island.
    Expanding the Cenozoic paleoceanographic record in the central Arctic Ocean: IODP Expedition 302 synthesis2009In: Central European Journal of Geoscience, ISSN 1896-1517, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 157-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) proved to be one of the most transformational missions in almost 40 year of scientific ocean drilling. ACEX recovered the first Cenozoic sedimentary sequence from the Arctic Ocean and extended earlier piston core records from ≈1.5 Ma back to ≈56 Ma. The results have had a major impact in paleoceanography even though the recovered sediments represents only 29% of Cenozoic time. The missing time intervals were primarily the result of two unexpected hiatuses. This important Cenozoic paleoceanographic record was reconstructed from a total of 339 m sediments. The wide range of analyses conducted on the recovered material, along with studies that integrated regional tectonics and geophysical data, produced surprising results including high Arctic Ocean surface water temperatures and a hydrologically active climate during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the occurrence of a fresher water Arctic in the Eocene, ice-rafted debris as old as middle Eocene, a middle Eocene environment rife with organic carbon, and ventilation of the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic through the Fram Strait near the early-middle Miocene boundary. Taken together, these results have transformed our view of the Cenozoic Arctic Ocean and its role in the Earth climate system.

  • 5.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Arctic Ocean benthic foraminifera preservation and Mg/Ca ratios: Implications for bottom water palaeothermometry2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstructions of Arctic Ocean palaeotemperatures are needed to disentangle natural variability from anthropogenic changes and understand the role of ocean heat transport in forcing or providing feedbacks on Arctic climate change. Despite known complications with calcareous microfossil preservation in Arctic Ocean sediments, calcareous benthic foraminifera can be common in interglacial sequences. However, thus far they have been underutilized in palaeoceanographic studies. This thesis explores the application of the Mg/Ca palaeothermometry proxy for reconstructing bottom water temperatures (BWT) in the Arctic Ocean during the late Quaternary. This method, which is supported by previous empirical studies demonstrating a strong temperature control on trace Mg inclusion into foraminiferal shell calcite, has been applied in many ocean regions and time intervals. Until now its application in the Arctic Ocean has been sparingly explored.

    The results of this doctoral thesis are based on benthic foraminifera retrieved from marine sediment cores covering a wide geographical Arctic Ocean area including both the shallow and vast continental shelves and slopes to the intermediate-to-deep waters of the Lomonosov Ridge and Morris Jesup Rise. These provide the first benthic foraminifera Mg/Ca ratios from the central Arctic Ocean region. In the first study, mechanisms that could affect Mg incorporation in Arctic benthic foraminifera are investigated using oceanographic field data and six 'live' modern Arctic species (Elphidium clavatum, Nonionella labradorica, Cassidulina neoteretis, Oridorsalis tener, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and Quinqueloculina arctica). The result is new species-specific Mg/Ca–BWT field calibrations that provide important constraints at the cold end of the BWT spectrum (-2 to 1°C) (Paper I). Using the new Mg/Ca–BWT equation for E. clavatum, a palaeotemperature record was generated for the late Holocene (past ca. 4100 yr) from the western Chukchi Sea. The data showed BWT fluctuations from -2 to 1°C that are interpreted as showing pulses of warmer Pacific water inflow at 500–1000 yr periods, thus revealing multi-centennial variability in heat transport into the Arctic Ocean driven by low latitude forcings (Paper II). Complications with foraminiferal calcite preservation that limit Mg/Ca palaeothermometry in the Arctic were discovered and these are tackled in two additional papers. Anomalously high Mg content in benthic foraminifera from the central Arctic Ocean is linked to diagenetic contamination as a result of the unique oceanographic, sedimentary and geochemical environment (Paper III). Lastly, the dramatic post-recovery dissolution of foraminifera from a Chukchi Shelf sediment core during core storage is investigated and attributed to acidification driven by sulphide oxidation in this organic rich and calcite poor shelf setting (Paper IV).

    The findings of this thesis demonstrate that benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-palaeothermometry can be applied in the Arctic Ocean and capture small BWT change (on the order of -2 to 2°C) even at low temperatures. In practice, preservational complexities can be limiting and require special sample handling or analysis due to the high potential for diagenetic contamination in the central Arctic Ocean and rapid post coring calcite dissolution in the seasonally productive shelf seas. This Ph.D. project is a component of the multidisciplinary SWERUS-C3 (Swedish-Russian-US Arctic Ocean Climate-Cryosphere- Carbon Interactions) project that included an expedition with Swedish icebreaker Oden to the East Siberian Arctic Ocean.

  • 6.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Coxall, Helen
    Lear, Caroline
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mg/Ca ratios in late Quaternary benthic foraminifera from the central Arctic OceanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Miller, Clint
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Brüchert, Volker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Johansson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Coxall, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Post-recovery dissolution of calcareous microfossils in sediments from a highly productive Arctic marine environmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bergman, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Piazolo, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    The recognition of multiple magmatic events and pre-existing deformation zones in metamorphic rocks as illustrated by CL signatures and numerical modelling: examples from the Ballachulish contact aureole, Scotland2012In: International journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1437-3254, E-ISSN 1437-3262, Vol. 101, no 5, p. 1127-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis, temperature and temperature-time calculations, and microstructural numerical modelling offers the possibility to derive the time-resolved evolution of a metamorphic rock. This combination of techniques is applied to a natural laboratory, namely the Ballachulish contact aureole, Scotland. Analysis of the Appin Quartzite reveals that the aureole was produced by two distinct magmatic events and infiltrated by associated fluids. Developing microstructures allow us to divide the aureole into three distinct regions. Region A (0-400 m, 663A degrees C < T (max) < 714A degrees C) exhibits a three-stage grain boundary migration (GBM) evolution associated with heating, fluid I and fluid II. GBM in region B (400-700 m, 630A degrees C < T (max) < 663A degrees C) is associated with fluid II only. Region C (> 700 m of contact, T (max) < 630A degrees C) is characterised by healed intragranular cracks. The combination of CL signature analysis and numerical modelling enables us to recognise whether grain size increase occurred mainly by surface energy-driven grain growth (GG) or strain-induced grain boundary migration (SIGBM). GG and SIGBM result in either straight bands strongly associated with present-day boundaries or highly curved irregular bands that often fill entire grains, respectively. At a temperature of similar to 620A degrees C, evidence for GBM is observed in the initially dry, largely undeformed quartzite samples. At this temperature, evidence for GG is sparse, whereas at similar to 663A degrees C, CL signatures typical for GG are commonplace. The grain boundary network approached energy equilibrium in samples that were at least 5 ka above 620A degrees C.

  • 9.
    Berntsson, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Bilaga 18. Miljöförändringar kring Gamla Älvsborgs fästning baserade på diatoméstratigrafi, samt analyser av svavel och organiskt kol, i sediment avsatta i vallgraven2011In: Gamla Älvsborg i nytt ljus: Arkeologiska undersökningar 2004-2006 / [ed] Ulf Ragnesten, Mölnlycke: Elanders , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10. Björk, Alexandra
    et al.
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The Need for Awareness of Semantic Plasticity in International Harmonization of Geographical Information: Seen from a Nordic Forest Classification Perspective2015In: Land Use and Land Cover Semantics: Principles, Best Practices and Prospects / [ed] Ola Ahlqvist, Dalia Varanka, Steffen Fritz, Krzysztof Janowicz, Boka Raton: CRC Press, 2015, p. 41-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to address and clarify the important issues and challenges of semantic plasticity when it comes to forest classification and geographical information. Necessary improvements for international data harmonization and implementation are highlighted along with the need for increased awareness of the consequences for ecological modeling. We envisage a combination of thoroughly described metadata and controlled vocabularies as a means to ensure the future use of a wide range of regional and national classification systems in an ontological framework that enables crosswalks between classification systems and spatial comparisons between existing data sets. This would allow for a wide range of old, contemporary, and future data sets to be used together in landscape-related analyses.

  • 11.
    Björkvald, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry. Geokemi.
    Borg, Hans
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Influence of landscape type on trace metals in small boreal catchments2007In: Geochimica et cosmochimica acta 71 (15) A95 Suppl. S. Aug 2007, 2007, p. A95-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied temporal and spatial variations of trace metal (TM) concentrations (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ge, La, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sc, and Y) in stream water and their correlation with catchment properties (i.e. coverage of wetland and forest), but also with Fe and Mn. During 2004 and 2005 water samples were collected from 10 streams (0.13 km2 to 67 km2) in the Krycklan Catchment Study, a boreal stream network in northern Sweden. Since spring snowmelt is the most important hydrological event, the monthly sampling was intensified during spring flood (April-May) when samples were collected every second day. Total and dissolved (<0.4µm) concentrations of Fe and Mn were determined by ICP-OES. Dissolved concentrations of TM were determined by ICP-MS.

    Preliminary results show a seasonal variation for all TM, in particular during spring flood. In forested catchments most TM concentrations increased at spring flood, but for Rb and Sc a decrease was observed. Conversely, in wetland influenced catchments the opposite seasonal variation was observed, i.e. concentrations of all TM decreased by a factor of 2 to 3. The seasonal variation of Fe shows a similar pattern to many TM, due to the association of TM to Fe oxyhydroxides. In particular, Fe correlates significantly with Cr and Pb in a forested headwater stream (r2=0.77 and r2=0.71, respectively, p<0.05). In the wetland headwater stream similar correlations between Fe and TM are found, but DOC also correlates significantly with As, Cd, Ni, and Pb (r2=0.92, p<0.05).

    A significant negative correlation (p<0.05) was observed between coverage of wetlands and average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ge, Ni, Sc and Y. The results indicate that wetlands act as sinks for these elements. Alternatively, there is a source limitation in wetlands and that increased concentrations during base flow are due to mineral groundwater influence. Positive correlation with wetland coverage was only observed for Pb (r2=0.79, p<0.05), indicating that wetlands acts as a source for this element. Sulfate concentrations correlated negatively (r2=0.97, p<0.05) with increasing coverage of wetlands, which highlights the importance of sulfate reduction within wetland areas.

    This study emphasizes the importance of considering stream water chemistry from a landscape perspective.

  • 12.
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Hylén, Astrid
    Rattray, Jayne E.
    Kononets, Mikhail Y.
    Ekeroth, Nils
    Roos, Per
    Thamdrup, Bo
    Brüchert, Volker
    Hall, Per O. J.
    The fate of fixed nitrogen in marine sediments with low organic loading: an in situ study2017In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 285-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, the impact of human activities on the global nitrogen (N) cycle has drastically increased. Consequently, benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while in oligotrophic systems its understanding is still scarce. Here we report on benthic solute fluxes and on rates of denitrification, anammox, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) studied by in situ incubations with benthic chamber landers during two cruises to the Gulf of Bothnia (GOB), a cold, oligotrophic basin located in the northern part of the Baltic Sea. Rates of N burial were also inferred to investigate the fate of fixed N in these sediments. Most of the total dissolved fixed nitrogen (TDN) diffusing to the water column was composed of organic N. Average rates of dinitrogen (N-2) production by denitrification and anammox (range: 53-360 mu mol Nm(-2) day(-1)) were comparable to those from Arctic and subarctic sediments worldwide (range: 34-344 mu mol Nm(-2) day(-1)). Anammox accounted for 18-26% of the total N2 production. Absence of free hydrogen sulfide and low concentrations of dissolved iron in sediment pore water suggested that denitrification and DNRA were driven by organic matter oxidation rather than chemolithotrophy. DNRA was as important as denitrification at a shallow, coastal station situated in the northern Bothnian Bay. At this pristine and fully oxygenated site, ammonium regeneration through DNRA contributed more than one-third to the TDN efflux and accounted, on average, for 45% of total nitrate reduction. At the offshore stations, the proportion of DNRA in relation to denitrification was lower (0-16% of total nitrate reduction). Median value and range of benthic DNRA rates from the GOB were comparable to those from the southern and central eutrophic Baltic Sea and other temperate estuaries and coasts in Europe. Therefore, our results contrast with the view that DNRA is negligible in cold and well-oxygenated sediments with low organic carbon loading. However, the mechanisms behind the variability in DNRA rates between our sites were not resolved. The GOB sediments were a major source (237 kt yr(-1), which corresponds to 184% of the external N load) of fixed N to the water column through recycling mechanisms. To our knowledge, our study is the first to document the simultaneous contribution of denitrification, DNRA, anammox, and TDN recycling combined with in situ measurements.

  • 13.
    Bonow, Johan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Lidmar-Bergström, Karna
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Japsen, Peter
    Chalmers, James A.
    Green, Paul F.
    Elevated erosion surfaces in central West Greenland and southern Norway: their significance in integrated studies of passive margin development2007In: Norwegian Journal of Geology, ISSN 0029-196X, Vol. 87, p. 197-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated erosion surfaces were used as an independant data set in an integrated study of the landscape development in central West Greenland. The study resulted in a time-constrained model describing multiple episodes of post-rift uplift, erosion and burial on a passive margin. The model is based on full integration of three data sets: analysis of large-scale landforms, apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) of samples from outcrops and deep boreholes, and the geological record. These data are equally important as they record specific an unique parts of the landscape history. The relative chronology obtained from the landform record is constrained by geology, which gives the maximum age of an erosin surface, and AFTA that records the cooling history of the subsurface rock. This combined approach validates the interpretation of erosion surface as having been goverened by different base levels in the past, and shows that erosion surfaces can be used to reconstruct tectonic events. Geomorphological key observations for the landscapes of southern Norway are presented and the similarities with landscapes in central West Greenland emphasised, especially the elevated plateaux and the Mesozoic etch surfaces. This similarity suggests that it may be possible to construct a time-constrained model for the landscape development of southern Norway based on our West Greenland approach.

  • 14. Booth, Adam D.
    et al.
    Mercer, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Clark, Roger
    Murray, Tavi
    Jansson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Axtell, Charlotte
    A comparison of seismic and radar methods to establish the thickness and density of glacier snow cover2013In: Annals of Glaciology, ISSN 0260-3055, E-ISSN 1727-5644, Vol. 54, no 64, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that geophysical methods offer an effective means of quantifying snow thickness and density. Opportunistic (efficient but non-optimized) seismic refraction and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were performed on Storglaciaren, Sweden, co-located with a snow pit that shows the snowpack to be 1.73 m thick, with density increasing from similar to 120 to similar to 500 kg m(-3) (with a +50 kg m(-3) anomaly between 0.73 and 0.83 m depth). Depths estimated for two detectable GPR reflectors, 0.76 +/- 0.02 and 1.71 +/- 0.03 m, correlate extremely well with ground-truth observations. Refraction seismic predicts an interface at 1.90 +/- 0.31 m depth, with a refraction velocity (3730 +/- 190 m s(-1)) indicative of underlying glacier ice. For density estimates, several standard velocity-density relationships are trialled. In the best case, GPR delivers an excellent density estimate for the upper snow layer (observed = 321 +/- 74 kg m(-3), estimated = 319 +/- 10 kg m(-3)) but overestimates the density of the lower layer by 20%. Refraction seismic delivers a bulk density of 404 +/- 22 kg m(-3) compared with a ground-truth average of 356 +/- 22 kg m(-3). We suggest that geophysical surveys are an effective complement to mass-balance measurements (particularly for controlling estimates of snow thickness between pits) but should always be validated against ground-truth observations.

  • 15.
    Bovin, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Utveckling av biotopdatabas och tillämpning av landskapsekologisk analys i Huddinge kommun2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to urbanisation and exploitation of green areas in cities during the last decades, the rate of habitat fragmentation has increased, resulting in a decline in the global biodiversity. In order to strengthen the possibilities of species migration, and to secure a high biodiversity, there is an increasing demand in the collection of data and in the exploration of methods to identify ecological core areas and to analyse habitat networks at a landscape level. Therefore, this study aims to 1) map and organise biotopes in a biotope database using interpretation of colour infrared aerial photos in digital stereophotogrammetry, 2) to explore different methods using laser and elevation data in order to improve the collection of ecologically important attributes, and 3) to apply landscape ecological analysis on the collected biotope data.

    The results validate interpretation of colour infrared aerial photos with digital stereophotogrammetry as a key source in mapping biotopes with an overall accuracy of 86 %. A method to estimate bush and crown cover has been explored based on previous studies using laser data. It has however not been validated in this study and should therefore be used as an indicator and as support for visual estimation of bush and crown coverage using CIR aerial photo interpretation. Furthermore, a topographic wetness index (TWI) was applied using elevation data in order to estimate moisture regimes in vegetated areas. It should also be used as an indicator due to lack of verification and limitations of arranging TWI values in relation to different moisture regimes. However, if these two methods are validated using field collected data for example, they hold significant potential in improving mapping accuracies and mapping rates of different biotopes.

    Collected biotope data are well suited in the application of landscape ecological analysis. Using MatrixGreen, it was possible to analyse potential habitat networks of two different species within the study area. Due to some problems in the least cost path modeling in MatrixGreen, the results should be carefully assessed, but could probably be used as a background material for future species inventories.

  • 16. Brandefelt, J.
    et al.
    Kjellstrom, E.
    Naslund, J. -O
    Strandberg, G.
    Voelker, A. H. L.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    A coupled climate model simulation of Marine Isotope Stage 3 stadial climate2011In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 649-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a coupled global climate model (CGCM) simulation, integrated for 1500 yr to quasi-equilibrium, of a stadial (cold period) within Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3). The simulated Greenland stadial 12 (GS12; similar to 44 ka BP) annual global mean surface temperature (T(s)) is 5.5 degrees C lower than in the simulated recent past (RP) climate and 1.3 degrees C higher than in the simulated Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 ka BP) climate. The simulated GS12 is evaluated against proxy data and previous modelling studies of MIS3 stadial climate. We show that the simulated MIS 3 climate, and hence conclusions drawn regarding the dynamics of this climate, is highly model-dependent. The main findings are: (i) Proxy sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are higher than simulated SSTs in the central North Atlantic, in contrast to earlier simulations of MIS 3 stadial climate in which proxy SSTs were found to be lower than simulated SST. (ii) The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) slows down by 50% in the GS12 climate as compared to the RP climate. This slowdown is attained without freshwater forcing in the North Atlantic region, a method used in other studies to force an AMOC shutdown. (iii) El-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections in mean sea level pressure (MSLP) are significantly modified by GS12 and LGM forcing and boundary conditions. (iv) Both the mean state and variability of the simulated GS12 is dependent on the equilibration. The annual global mean T(s) only changes by 0.10 degrees C from model years 500-599 to the last century of the simulation, indicating that the climate system may be close to equilibrium already after 500 yr of integration. However, significant regional differences between the last century of the simulation and model years 500-599 exist. Further, the difference between simulated and proxy SST is reduced from model years 500-599 to the last century of the simulation. The results of the ENSO variability analysis is also shown to depend on the equilibration.

  • 17. Castillo, Miguel
    et al.
    Bishop, Paul
    Jansen, John D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Knickpoint retreat and transient bedrock channel morphology triggered by base-level fall in small bedrock river catchments: The case of the Isle of Jura, Scotland2013In: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 180, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sudden drop in river base-level can trigger a knickpoint that propagates throughout the fluvial network causing a transient state in the landscape. Knickpoint retreat has been confirmed in large fluvial settings (drainage areas > 100 km(2)) and field data suggest that the same applies to the case of small bedrock river catchments (drainage areas < 100 km(2)). Nevertheless, knickpoint recession on resistant lithologies with structure that potentially affects the retreat rate needs to be confirmed with field-based data. Moreover, it remains unclear whether small bedrock rivers can absorb base-level fall via knickpoint retreat. Here we evaluate the response of small bedrock rivers to base-level fall on the isle of Jura in western Scotland (UK), where rivers incise into dipping quartzite. The mapping of raised beach deposits and strath terraces, and the analysis of stream long profiles, were used to identify knickpoints that had been triggered by base-level fall. Our results indicate that the distance of knickpoint retreat scales to the drainage area in a power law function irrespective of structural setting. On the other hand, local channel slope and basin size influence the vertical distribution of knickpoints. As well, at low drainage areas (similar to 4 km(2)) rivers are unable to absorb the full amount of base-level fall and channel reach morphology downstream of the knickpoint tends towards convexity. The results obtained here confirm that knickpoint retreat is mostly controlled by stream discharge, as has been observed for other transient landscapes. Local controls, reflecting basin size and channel slope, have an effect on the vertical distribution of knickpoints; such controls are also related to the ability of rivers to absorb the base-level fall.

  • 18.
    Chabangborn, Akkaneewut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    The Asian monsoon - 50-7 ka BP2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Asian monsoon is one of the largest climatic systems on Earth. It covers an area from the Arabian Sea to the South China Sea and from northern Australia to northern China with the world’s highest population density. Moreover, the Asian monsoon transports heat energy and humidity to higher latitudes. In order to better understand the behaviour of the Asian monsoon and its environmental impact, its variability between 50 and 7 ka BP is analysed using paleo-data compilation, data-model comparisons, and lake sediment analysis.

    The main results presented here are from the compilation of the Asian monsoon variability during the last glacial maximum (LGM) (23 - 19 ka BP) which is presumed to be under persistence cool and dry climatic conditions. The pattern of reconstructed and simulated precipitation agrees well in most of the region. However, the data-model discrepancies show in some areas, which may come from low resolution of the model or the local topographic effect. The reconstructed SSTs are well correlation with simulated SSTs, except in the Arabian Sea. The LGM Asian monsoon changes around 20 – 19 ka BP. The simulated ITCZ varies between 5°N and 15°N in the west and the east of the Asian monsoon region. However, the reconstructed ITCZ is ~5°N in the Arabian Sea, shifts northward in the Bay of Bengal, reaches ~30°N over central of China and migrates southward in the South China Sea. The ITCZ is likely shift northward after 20 ka BP. The climatic change might have been triggered by several factors, e.g., an increased land-sea thermal contrast and a variation of Pacific water inflow.

  • 19. Charkin, A. N.
    et al.
    Dudarev, O. V.
    Semiletov, I. P.
    Kruhmalev, A. V.
    Vonk, J. E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sanchez-Garcia, L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Karlsson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Seasonal and interannual variability of sedimentation and organic matter distribution in the Buor-Khaya Gulf: the primary recipient of input from Lena River and coastal erosion in the southeast Laptev Sea2011In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 2581-2594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming is amplified in the land-sea system of the East Siberian Arctic, which also holds large pools of vulnerable carbon in permafrost. This coastal area is strongly influenced by sediment and carbon transport from both its large rivers and extensive erosion of Pleistocene permafrost along its coastline. This study is investigating the coastal fate of the sediment and organic carbon delivered to the Buor-Khaya Gulf, which is the first recipient of the overwhelming fluvial discharge from the Lena River and is additionally receiving large input from extensive erosion of the coastal ice-complex (permafrost a. k.a. Yedoma; loess soil with high organic carbon content). Both water column suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediments were sampled at about 250 oceanographic stations in the Gulf in this multi-year effort, including one winter campaign, and analyzed for the distribution and sorting of sediment size, organic carbon content, and stable carbon isotope signals. The composition of the surface sediment suggests an overwhelmingly terrestrial contribution from both river and coastal erosion. The objective of this paper is to improve our understanding of the seasonal (i.e., winter vs summer) and interannual variability of these coastal sedimentation processes and the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) distribution in both the water column SPM and the surface sediments of the Buor-Khaya Gulf. Based on data collected during several years in the period 2000-2008, two different sedimentation regimes were revealed for the Buor-Khaya Gulf, the relative importance of each at a given time depend on hydrometeorological conditions, the Lena River water discharge and sea-ice regime: Type 1 erosion-accumulation and Type 2 accumulation. The Type 1 erosion-accumulation sedimentation regime is typical (2000-2006) for the ice-free period of the year (here considered in detail for August 2005). Under such conditions terrigenous sources of SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC) stem predominantly from river discharge, thermal erosion of coastal ice-complex and remobilized bottom sediments. The Type 2 accumulation sedimentation regime develops under ice-covered conditions, and only occasionally during the ice-free period (August 2008). In Type 2 winter, combined terrigenous and marine-biogenic SPM and POC sources are dominating due to relatively low overall terrigenous input (April 2007). In Type 2 summer, river alluvium becomes the major SPM and POC source (August 2008). The water column SPM and POC loadings vary by more than a factor of two between the two regimes. This study underscores the necessity of multi-year investigations to better understand the functioning of the primary recipient of terrestrially expulsed matter in the East Siberian Arctic.

  • 20.
    Clason, Caroline C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Applegate, Patrick
    Holmlund, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Modelling Late Weichselian evolution of the Eurasian ice sheets forced by surface meltwater-enhanced basal sliding2014In: Journal of Glaciology, ISSN 0022-1430, E-ISSN 1727-5652, Vol. 60, no 219, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We simulated the Late Weichselian extent and dynamics of the Eurasian ice sheets using theshallow-ice approximation ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS. Our simulated Last Glacial Maximum ice-sheetextents closely resemble geomorphological reconstructions, and areas of modelled fast flow areconsistent with the known locations of palaeo-ice streams. Motivated by documented velocity responseto increased meltwater inputs on Greenland, we tested the sensitivity of the simulated ice sheet to thesurface meltwater effect (SME) through a simple parameterization relating basal sliding to local surfacemelt rate and ice thickness. Model runs including the SME produce significantly reduced ice volumeduring deglaciation, with maximum ice surface velocities much greater than in similar runs that neglectthe SME. We find that the simple treatment of the SME is not applicable across the whole ice sheet;however, our results highlight the importance of the SME for dynamic response to increased melting.The southwest sector of the Scandinavian ice sheet is most sensitive to the SME, with fast flow in theBaltic ice stream region shutting off by 15 kaBP when the SME is turned on, coincident with a retreat ofthe ice-margin position into the Gulf of Bothnia.

  • 21. Cohen, T. J.
    et al.
    Nanson, G. C.
    Jansen, John D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Gliganic, L. A.
    May, J. -H.
    Larsen, J. R.
    Goodwin, I. D.
    Browning, S.
    Price, D. M.
    A pluvial episode identified in arid Australia during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly2012In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 56, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from a relict shoreline on Lake Callabonna record a major pluvial episode in southern central Australia between 1050  70 and 1100  60 Common Era (CE), within the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA). During this pluvial interval Lake Callabonna filled to 10e12 times the volume of the largest historical filling (1974) and reached maximum depths of 4e5 m, compared to the 0.5e1.0 m achieved today. Until now there has been no direct evidence for the MCA in the arid interior of Australia. A multi-proxy, analogue-based atmospheric circulation reconstruction indicates that the pluvial episode was associated with an anomalous meridional atmospheric circulation pattern over the Southern extratropics, with high sea-level pressure ridges in the central Indian Ocean and Tasman Sea, and a trough extending from the Southern Ocean into central Australia. A major decline in the mobility of the Australian aboriginal hunter-gatherer coincides with this MCA period, in southern central Australia.

  • 22.
    Corell, Hanna
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Difference in Particle Transport Between Two Coastal Areas in the Baltic Sea Investigated with High-Resolution Trajectory Modeling2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 4, p. SI 455-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A particle-tracking model based on high-resolution ocean flow data was used to investigate particle residence times and spatial distribution of settling sediment for two geo-morphologically different Swedish coastal areas. The study was a part of a safety assessment for the location of a future nuclear-waste repository, and information about the particle-transport patterns can contribute to predictions of the fate of a possible leakage. It is also, to our knowledge, the first time particle-transport differences between two coastal areas have been quantified in this manner. In Forsmark, a funnel-shaped bay shielded by a number of islands, the average residence time for clay particles was 5 times longer than in the modeled part of Simpevarp, which is open to the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, < 10 % of the released particles left the domain compared to 60-80 % in Simpevarp. These site-specific differences will increase over time with the differences in land uplift between the areas.

  • 23. Cronin, T. M.
    et al.
    Dwyer, G. S.
    Farmer, J.
    Bauch, H. A.
    Spielhagen, R. F.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Briggs, W. M., Jr.
    Stepanova, A.
    Deep Arctic Ocean warming during the last glacial cycle2012In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 631-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Arctic Ocean, the cold and relatively fresh water beneath the sea ice is separated from the underlying warmer and saltier Atlantic Layer by a halocline. Ongoing sea ice loss and warming in the Arctic Ocean(1-7) have demonstrated the instability of the halocline, with implications for further sea ice loss. The stability of the halocline through past climate variations(8-10) is unclear. Here we estimate intermediate water temperatures over the past 50,000 years from the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values of ostracods from 31 Arctic sediment cores. From about 50 to 11 kyr ago, the central Arctic Basin from 1,000 to 2,500 m was occupied by a water mass we call Glacial Arctic Intermediate Water. This water mass was 1-2 degrees C warmer than modern Arctic Intermediate Water, with temperatures peaking during or just before millennial-scale Heinrich cold events and the Younger Dryas cold interval. We use numerical modelling to show that the intermediate depth warming could result from the expected decrease in the flux of fresh water to the Arctic Ocean during glacial conditions, which would cause the halocline to deepen and push the warm Atlantic Layer into intermediate depths. Although not modelled, the reduced formation of cold, deep waters due to the exposure of the Arctic continental shelf could also contribute to the intermediate depth warming.

  • 24.
    Dahlke, Helen E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Early melt season snowpack isotopic evolution in the Tarfala valley, northern Sweden2013In: Annals of Glaciology, ISSN 0260-3055, E-ISSN 1727-5644, Vol. 54, no 62, p. 149-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the stable water isotopic (delta O-18 and delta D) evolution of two snowpacks located at the same elevation on a north-facing (Nf) and a south-facing (Sf) slope within the Tarfala research catchment, northern Sweden, and the potential impact of pre-freshet snowpack melt on streamflow. Our results indicate that over the study period the Sf snowpack showed a more enriched isotopic composition, especially in the top of the profile, and contributed more snowmelt to streamflow than the Nf slope. The Sf snowpack also showed a significantly higher variability in snowpack delta O-18 levels and snowpack snow water equivalent (SWE) over time. Comparing snowpack and snowmelt isotopic values it was seen that the Sf slope experienced earlier snowmelt from upslope positions due to greater insolation that subsequently enhanced the meltwater flux at the base of downslope snowpacks. In contrast, the Nf slope primarily underwent changes within the snowpack and experienced relatively minimal melt. Detailed field-based isotopic snowmelt studies such as this highlight the potential importance of incorporating spatio-temporal runoff generation concepts into distributed energy-balance models, which could allow for more accurate prediction with regard to the spatio-temporal dynamics associated with the snowmelt ion pulse.

  • 25.
    Darby A., Dennis
    et al.
    Old Dominion University.
    Myers, Wesley B.
    Old Dominion University.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Rigor, Ignatius
    University of Washington.
    Modern dirty sea ice characteristics and sources: The role of anchor ice2011In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 116, no C09008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive dirty ice patches with up to 7 kg m−2 sediment concentrations in layers of up to 10 cm thickness were encountered in 2005 and 2007 in numerous areas across the central Arctic. The Fe grain fingerprint determination of sources for these sampled dirty ice floes indicated both Russian and Canadian sources, with the latter dominating. The presence of benthic shells and sea weeds along with thick layers (2–10 cm) of sediment covering 5–10 m2 indicates an anchor ice entrainment origin as opposed to suspension freezing for some of these floes. The anchor ice origin might explain the dominance of Canadian sources where only narrow flaw leads occur that would not favor suspension freezing as an entrainment process. Expandable clays, commonly used as an indicator of a Kara Sea origin for dirty sea ice, are present in moderately high percentages (>20%) in many circum-Arctic source areas, including the Arctic coasts of North America. Some differences between the Russian and the North American coastal areas are found in clay mineral abundance, primarily the much higher abundance of chlorite in North America and the northern Barents Sea as opposed to the rest of the Russian Arctic. However, sea ice clay mineralogy matched many source areas, making it difficult to use as a provenance tool by itself. The bulk mineralogy (clay and non-clay) does not match specific sources possibly due to reworking of the sediment in dirty floes through summer melting or the failure to characterize all possible source areas.

  • 26.
    Darracq, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Persson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Scale and model resolution effects on the distributions of advective solute travel times in catchments2010In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1697-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advective solute travel times and their distributions in hydrological catchments are useful descriptors of the dynamics and variation of the physical mass transport among and along the different source-to-recipient pathways of solute transport through the catchments. This article investigates the scale dependence and the effects of model and data resolution on the quantification of advective travel times and their distributions in the Swedish catchment areas of Norrström and Forsmark. In the surface water networks of the investigated (sub)catchments, the mean advective travel time increases with (sub)catchment scale, whereas the relative travel time variability around the mean value (coefficient of variation, CV) is scale-invariant and insensitive to model resolution. In the groundwater and for the whole (sub)catchments, both the mean value and the CV of travel times are scale-invariant, but sensitive to model resolution and accuracy. Such quantifications and results of advective travel times constitute important steps in the development of improved understanding and modelling of nutrient, pollutant and tracer transport through catchments.

  • 27. De Frenne, Pieter
    et al.
    Graae, Bente J.
    Brunet, Joerg
    Shevtsova, Anna
    De Schrijver, An
    Chabrerie, Olivier
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Diekmann, Martin
    Hermy, Martin
    Heinken, Thilo
    Kolb, Annette
    Nilsson, Christer
    Stanton, Sharon
    Verheyen, Kris
    The response of forest plant regeneration to temperature variation along a latitudinal gradient2012In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 109, no 5, p. 1037-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of forest herb regeneration from seed to temperature variations across latitudes was experimentally assessed in order to forecast the likely response of understorey community dynamics to climate warming. Seeds of two characteristic forest plants (Anemone nemorosa and Milium effusum) were collected in natural populations along a latitudinal gradient from northern France to northern Sweden and exposed to three temperature regimes in growth chambers (first experiment). To test the importance of local adaptation, reciprocal transplants were also made of adult individuals that originated from the same populations in three common gardens located in southern, central and northern sites along the same gradient, and the resulting seeds were germinated (second experiment). Seedling establishment was quantified by measuring the timing and percentage of seedling emergence, and seedling biomass in both experiments. Spring warming increased emergence rates and seedling growth in the early-flowering forb A. nemorosa. Seedlings of the summer-flowering grass M. effusum originating from northern populations responded more strongly in terms of biomass growth to temperature than southern populations. The above-ground biomass of the seedlings of both species decreased with increasing latitude of origin, irrespective of whether seeds were collected from natural populations or from the common gardens. The emergence percentage decreased with increasing home-away distance in seeds from the transplant experiment, suggesting that the maternal plants were locally adapted. Decreasing seedling emergence and growth were found from the centre to the northern edge of the distribution range for both species. Stronger responses to temperature variation in seedling growth of the grass M. effusum in the north may offer a way to cope with environmental change. The results further suggest that climate warming might differentially affect seedling establishment of understorey plants across their distribution range and thus alter future understorey plant dynamics.

  • 28. de Souza, Claudio M. D.
    et al.
    Carneiro, Cristine E. A.
    Bau, Joao Paulo T.
    da Costa, Antonio C. S.
    Ivashita, Flavio F.
    Paesano, Andrea, Jr.
    di Mauro, Eduardo
    de Santana, Henrique
    Holm, Nils G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Neubeck, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Zaia, Cassia T. B. V.
    Zaia, Dimas A. M.
    Interaction of forsterite-91 with distilled water and artificial seawater: a prebiotic chemistry experiment2013In: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the interactions between forsterite-91 with distilled water and forsterite-91 with artificial seawater were studied at two pHs (2.0 and 8.0) using different techniques. A large increase in pH was observed for samples incubated at an initially acidic pH (2.0) due to the dissolution of forsterite-91 in distilled water and artificial seawater. Thus, in acidic hydrothermal vents, an increase in the amount of hydrocarbons and magnetite should be expected due to the release of Fe(II). The pH(PZC) decreased and the pH(IEP) increased when forsterite-91 was treated with distilled water and artificial seawater. The ions from the artificial seawater had an effect on zeta potential. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray diffractograms showed halite in the samples of forsterite-91 mixed with artificial seawater. The presence of halite or adsorption of ions on the surface of forsterite-91 could affect the synthesis of magnetite and hydrocarbons in hydrothermal vents, due to a decrease in the dissolution rates of forsterite-91. The dissolution of forsterite-91 yields low concentrations of Fe(III) and Mn(II) as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Microanalysis of forsterite-91 showed a higher amount of Mn, with an oxidation that was likely not + II, as Mn in supernatant solutions was only detected by EPR spectroscopy after mixing with artificial seawater at pH 2.0. As Fe(III) and Mn(II) are catalyst constituents of magnetite and manganese oxide, respectively, their presence is important for synthesis in hydrothermal vents. Etch pits were observed only in the forsterite-91 sample mixed with distilled water at pH 8.0. Na, Cl, S, Ca and K were detected in the samples mixed with artificial seawater by SEM-EDS. Si, Mg, Fe and Al were detected in almost all supernatant samples due to forsterite-91 dissolution. Cr was not dissolved in the experiments, thus Cr in the mineral could serve as an effective catalyst for Fischer Tropsch Types (FTT) reactions in hydrothermal vent systems. X-ray diffractograms of the original forsterite-91 also showed peaks arising from zeolites and clinochlore. After the samples were treated with artificial seawater, X-ray diffractograms showed the dissolution of zeolite. Experiments should be performed in the natural environment to verify the potential for zeolites to act as a catalyst in hydrothermal vents.

  • 29. Dehnert, Andreas
    et al.
    Kracht, Oliver
    Preusser, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Akcar, Naki
    Kemna, Hans Axel
    Kubik, Peter W.
    Schlüchter, Christian
    Cosmogenic isotope burial dating of fluvial sediments from the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany2011In: Quaternary Geochronology, ISSN 1871-1014, E-ISSN 1878-0350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmogenic isotope burial dating, using 10Be and 26Al, was applied to PlioePleistocene fluvial successionsfrom the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The approach consists of three principal steps: (1)measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in depth profiles, (2) modelling of hypothetical nuclide concentrationsbased on a first-order conceptualisation of the geological context and the principal succession ofdepositions and subsequent erosional and burial phases, and (3) using parameter estimation to identifyvalues for the a priori unknown model parameters (burial age, initial nuclide concentrations, terraceerosion rates) that result in minimal disagreement between hypothetical and measured nuclideconcentrations.

  • 30. Dehnert, Andreas
    et al.
    Preusser, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Evolution of an overdeepened trough in the northern Alpine Foreland at Niederweningen, Switzerland.2012In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quaternary deposits in the overdeepened Wehntal, Switzerland, were investigated using both seismicprofiling and the analysis of 93.6 m long drill core using sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology,magnetic properties, and luminescence dating. The sediments reveal evidence for two glacial advancesthat reached the area during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. The first advance (w185 ka) may have carvedout the basin or at least removed the entire previous Quaternary sediment filling. This first advance likelyreached far beyond the limit of the maximum of the Last Glaciation. The second advance (w140 ka) wasof smaller extent, possibly of cold-based nature, and likely reached only slightly beyond the limits of theLast Glaciation.

  • 31.
    Dessirier, Benoît
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Numerical modeling of groundwater and air flow between compacted bentonite and fractured crystalline rock2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The geological repository for final storage of spent nuclear fuel, envisioned by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Management Company (SKB), relies on several barriers: copper canisters deposited in holes in the floor of underground tunnels in deep bedrock, embedded in a buffer of compacted bentonite. The initially unsaturated buffer would take up water from the surrounding rock mass and swell to seal any potential gap. This initial two-phase (gas and liquid) regime with two components (air and water) may impact the final density, swelling pressure and biogeochemical conditions in the buffer. A main objective of this work is to identify factors and mechanisms that govern deposition hole inflow and bentonite wetting under the prevailing two-phase flow conditions in sparsely fractured bedrock. For this purpose, we use the numerical code TOUGH2 to perform two-phase flow simulations, conditioned by a companion field experiment (the Bentonite Rock Interaction Experiment or BRIE) performed in a 417 m deep tunnel of the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in southeastern Sweden. The models predict a significant de-saturation of the rock wall, which was confirmed by field data. To predict the early buffer wetting rates and patterns, the position of local flowing fractures and estimates of local rock matrix permeability appear more important than the total open hole groundwater inflow. A global sensitivity analysis showed that the buffer wetting time and the persistence of unsaturated conditions over extended periods of time in the rock depend primarily on the local fracture positions, rock matrix permeability, ventilation conditions in the tunnel and pressure far in the rock. Dismantling photographs from BRIE were used to reconstruct a fine-scale snapshot of saturation at the bentonite/rock interface, showing tremendous spatial variability. The high level of heterogeneity in the rock generates complex two-phase flow phenomena (air trapping, dissolution), which need to be accounted for in buffer design and rock suitability criteria. In particular, results suggest that uncertainties regarding two-phase flow behavior are relatively high close to residual air saturation, which may also have important implications for other applications involving two-phase flows, such as geological storage of carbon dioxide.

  • 32.
    Dessirier, Benoît
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Frampton, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    A global sensitivity analysis of two-phase flow between fractured crystalline rock and bentonite with application to spent nuclear fuel disposal2015In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 182, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep crystalline rock is investigated as a possible long term solution in Sweden and Finland. The fuel rods would be cased in copper canisters and deposited in vertical holes in the floor of deep underground tunnels, embedded within an engineered bentonite buffer. Recent experiments at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden) showed that the high suction of unsaturated bentonite causes a de-saturation of the adjacent rock at the time of installation, which was also independently predicted in model experiments. Remaining air can affect the flow patterns and alter bio-geochemical conditions, influencing for instance the transport of radionuclides in the case of canister failure. However, thus far, observations and model realizations are limited in number and do not capture the conceivable range and combination of parameter values and boundary conditions that are relevant for the thousands of deposition holes envisioned in an operational final repository.

    In order to decrease this knowledge gap, we introduce here a formalized, systematic and fully integrated approach to study the combined impact of multiple factors on air saturation and dissolution predictions, investigating the impact of variability in parameter values, geometry and boundary conditions on bentonite buffer saturation times and on occurrences of rock de-saturation. Results showed that four parameters consistently appear in the top six influential factors for all considered output (target) variables: the position of the fracture intersecting the deposition hole, the background rock permeability, the suction representing the relative humidity in the open tunnel and the far field pressure value. The combined influence of these compared to the other parameters increases as one targets a larger fraction of the buffer reaching near-saturation. Strong interaction effects were found, which means that some parameter combinations yielded results (e.g., time to saturation) far outside the range of results obtained by the rest of the scenarios. This study also addresses potential air trapping by dissolution of part of the initial air content of the bentonite, showing that neglecting gas flow effects and trapping could lead to significant underestimation of the remaining air content and the duration of the initial aerobic phase of the repository.

  • 33.
    Dessirier, Benoît
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Frampton, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Impact of near-wall rock characteristics on bentonite buffer wetting: In situ study of nuclear fuel deposition holes in deep bedrockManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Modeling and uncertainty assessment of nutrient runoff from larger catchments2011In: International Seminar on Pollution runoff from urban and non-urban catchments, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, March 30, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Eklund, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ståndortsfaktorer och vegetation: En problematiserande litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A site is an area where a population of a specific plant species has its habitat, often the connotation is forestry. The prerequisites for this, the site indices (also site variables or stand variables), can be found in the characteristics of the ground (edaphic factors) as well as the climatic impact. These elements affect the growth and production, which is of interest in forestry and forest sciences. Upon this the plants interact with each other as well as with other organisms, i.e. fungi, bacteria and animals, and there is also an anthropogenic impact where factors such as livestock grazing, atmospheric deposition and forest production strongly affects the vegetation.

    By studying some of the more prominent theories on vegetation societies/sociologies and plant strategies, as well as different aspects of the site concept, the hypothesis was that a problematizing picture of site indices can be found and some confounding variables that can give erroneous interpretation of results.

    A number of major works in vegetation classification was gone through, supplemented by supporting literature. An article search was conducted to find journal articles, using combinations of specific search terms related to site indices. To narrow down the results and give a more regional touch to the thesis, the filter was set only to show results from Scandinavia and Finland. The articles were grouped into themes and handled theme-wise.

    Even though there are few principal factors controlling the vegetation there are a number of variables which locally can have a large impact, such as snow, genetic traits and symbiosis. These variables can be hard to measure, and a lot of things at a detailed level are poorly investigated. Land use modifies the edaphic properties long after the usage have changed or been discontinued. The amounts and cycles of nitrogen and carbon are recurrent uncertainties in the articles, where deposits of nitrogen from the atmosphere plays an important but uneven role and measurements can be hard to compare due to differences in weather and climate. Added to this, organisms in the ground have a major role in the plants’ nutrient uptake, but the effects can be hard to study. A concluding remark is that even though all aspects of a site cannot always be included more confounding variables could be taken in account and models should be able to be calibrated to different theories on vegetation societies/sociologies and plant strategies. Many factors normally not counted as site indices, i.e. snow depth, soil biota symbiosis, and land use, could be valuable to include in e.g. modelling. 

  • 36.
    Fagerlind, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Deconstructing the Great Acceleration2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Anthropocene is characterized by a strong human influence on the Earth System that is threatening the future prosperity of human societies. A mid-20th century onset of the Anthropocene is being proposed supported by the global phenomenon the Great Acceleration, but much concern has been raised that defining the Anthropocene based on global averages fails to recognize the massive inequalities in humanity’s contribution to current pressures on the Earth System. This study uses increase in growth rate as in indication of system change and conducts a statistical analysis to determine the largest change in the socio-economic domain of the Earth System on both a global and national level. The aim is to examine the empirical support for an unequal Anthropocene from a systems perspective. 814 of these events are identified across all the Great Acceleration indicators. The magnitude of the changes is typically large, with the growth rate increasing by more than 100% in 86% of the identified events. The findings suggest that while there is good evidence for a substantial change in the socio-economic domain of the Earth System the mid-20th century it is not the result of a globally synchronous event, but rather the culmination of a gradual process that display large temporal disparities with these system changes moving like waves across the Earth. The observed disparities show striking similarities to current developmental status suggesting that when deconstructed, the Great Acceleration can be used both to support global patterns and to illustrate inequalities between countries and people, making it a powerful tool to communicate the many facets of the Anthropocene.

  • 37.
    Farineau, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Diamonds in the Rough: Remote predictive mapping using multispectral satellite imagery for kimberlite exploration on northeast Banks Island, NT2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates the use and limitations of Remote Predictive Mapping (RPM) as an aid to kimberlite exploration on northeast Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. It focuses on the effectiveness of ASTER and Landsat 8 optical multi-spectral satellite imagery for discerning the spectral properties of different bedrock and surficial materials that outcrop or blanket the regional terrain. Statistical algorithms and digital image enhancement techniques were used to highlight patterns and anomalies within each scene in order to determine the range of materials and specific deposits (e.g., till, glaciofluvial) that could be the source of recovered kimberlite indicator minerals (KIMs) from stream sediment samples. Field inspection and sampling were in part guided by these patterns and anomalies. During the course of fieldwork, numerous outliers of the Pliocene Beaufort Formation fluvial sand and gravel deposits were discovered on upland surfaces in northeastern Banks Island. These outcrops sit well beyond (east) of any previous mapped Beaufort Fm. extents, and it is hypothesized that as they exist within catchments where Industry has recovered KIMs, they could be a source of bedrock-inherited KIMs. Field observations and spectral sampling using a portable spectroradiometer were integrated with ASTER and Landsat data to predict the spatial extents of Beaufort Fm. deposits. Using test and field-validated Beaufort Fm. sites, Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) whole pixel spectral target detection was compared with Matched Filtering (MF), Mixture-Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) sub-pixel spectral target detection methods and Parallelepiped classification for ASTER scenes 1228 and 0686.  Each method was also performed on ASTER scene 0541 to assess the potential for Quaternary sediment discrimination, using pixel ROIs from a field-validated glaciolacustrine deposit. The sub-pixel sensitivity of the MF/MTMF methods was determined to have the best potential for the discrimination of surficial materials on NE Banks Island.  MF/MTMF also had the best results for discriminating Beaufort Fm. in scene 1228, but Parallelepiped classification was the most effective prediction method for scene 0686. These inconsistent results indicate spectral variability between Beaufort Fm. sites, a consideration for any further study in the region.  

  • 38.
    Fors, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Jalilehvand, Farideh
    Risberg, Emiliana Damian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bjordal, Charlotte
    Phillips, Ebba
    Sandström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Sulfur and iron analyses of marine archaeological wood in shipwrecks from the Baltic Sea and Scandinavian waters2012In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 2521-2532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses of marine archaeological wood from shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea area, Kronan, Riksnyckeln, Tattran, the Puck Bay Boat and the Ghost wreck, and at the Scandinavian West coast, the Gota wreck, Stora Sofia and the Viking shipwrecks of Skuldelev, show accumulation of sulfur compounds. The penetration profiles of sulfur and iron into the wood and the speciation of characteristic sulfur groups were evaluated by combining X-ray spectroscopic analyses, in particular S K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and X-ray fluorescence, with ESCA and elemental analyses. The combined analyses support the hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria reacts and accumulates at low iron concentration mainly as organically bound sulfur, which as in previous studies was found by X-ray spectro-microscopy to accumulate in lignin-rich parts of the wood cell walls. The presence of iron(II) ions from corroding iron promotes formation of pyrite and other iron(II) sulfides, which easily oxidise in aerobic conditions with high humidity. No significant differences in sulfur and iron accumulation were found in wood from shipwrecks in the east coast brackish water and the west coast seawater. Sediments from three wreck sites, the Gota wreck, Stora Sofia and Kronan, were analyzed to a depth of a few decimeters and showed especially at the Stora Sofia high sulfur concentrations, exceeding 3 mass%. S K-edge XANES analyses of the sediments showed mainly reduced forms of sulfur, in particular pyrite and iron(II) sulfides together with elemental sulfur.

  • 39. Gallagher, K
    et al.
    Bodin, T
    Sambridge, M
    Weiss, D
    Kylander, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Large, David
    Inference of abrupt changes in noisy geochemical records using transdimensional changepoint models2011In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 311, no 1-2, p. 182-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method to quantify abrupt changes (or changepoints) in data series, represented as a function of depth or time. These changes are often the result of climatic or environmental variations and can be manifested in multiple datasets as different responses, but all datasets can have the same changepoint locations/timings. The method we present uses transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo to infer probability distributions on the number and locations (in depth or time) of changepoints, the mean values between changepoints and, if required, the noise variance associated with each dataset being considered. This latter point is important as we generally will have limited information on the noise, such as estimates only of measurement uncertainty, and in most cases it is not practical to make repeat sampling/measurement to assess other contributions to the variation in the data. We describe the main features of the approach (and describe the mathematical formulation in supplementary material), and demonstrate its validity using synthetic datasets, with known changepoint structure (number and locations of changepoints) and distribution of noise variance for each dataset. We show that when using multiple data, we expect to achieve better resolution of the changepoint structure than when we use each dataset individually. This is conditional on the validity of the assumption of common changepoints between different datasets. We then apply the method to two sets of real geochemical data, both from peat cores, taken from NE Australia and eastern Tibet. Under the assumption that changes occur at the same time for all datasets, we recover solutions consistent with those previously inferred qualitatively from independent data and interpretations. However, our approach provides a quantitative estimate of the relative probability of the inferred changepoints, allowing an objective assessment of the significance of each change.

  • 40.
    Gartz, Mira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Plantdiversitet på svenska slåtterängar: En GIS-analys med kulturella perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High plant species diversity depends on a landscape that provides enough habitual space,functional connectivity and heterogeneity. Habitat destruction and land use change is recognizedas the biggest threat to biodiversity of today. The Swedish landscape has not only undergonedramatic changes in land-use the last 60 years, it also contains some of the last fragments inEurope of the highly valuable hay-meadows. Many of the Swedish hay-meadows are consideredto hold high ecological values and are protected by Natura 2000 regulations. Yet there are nosystematic conservation strategies for the hay-meadows and most of the work is done byvolunteers. This study aims to further investigate how the surrounding landscape affects thetotal plant species richness on Swedish hay-meadows. A local scale GIS-analysis on landscapessurrounding 21 hay-meadows across two time steps was carried out. The historical land-use wascompared with the present landscapes and with species data from the same areas. Results showthat the forest cover has grown almost 12% in 60 years. There is a negative correlation betweenforest and the plant species richness of both time steps. The total area of arable fields hasdropped 19%, although no statistical correlation with the plant species richness of either timestep was found. The ex-arable fields of 1950 however, did show a negative impact, both aloneand together with open pasture. Open pasture has decreased 17%, although no statisticalcorrelation was found between this land-cover category and plant species richness. The overallresults indicate that the historical land-use on the local scale is of greater importance on thecurrent plant species richness than present land-use. This should be considered within landscapeplanning and when designing conservation strategies.

  • 41.
    Gartz, Mira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Plantdiversitet på svenska slåtterängar: En GIS-analys med kulturella perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High plant species diversity depends on a landscape that provides enough habitual space, functional connectivity and heterogeneity. Habitat destruction and land use change is recognized as the biggest threat to biodiversity of today. The Swedish landscape has not only undergone dramatic changes in land-use the last 60 years, it also contains some of the last fragments in Europe of the highly valuable hay-meadows. Many of the Swedish hay-meadows are considered to hold high ecological values and are protected by Natura 2000 regulations. Yet there are no systematic conservation strategies for the hay-meadows and most of the work is done by volunteers. This study aims to further investigate how the surrounding landscape affects the total plant species richness on Swedish hay-meadows. A local scale GIS-analysis on landscapes surrounding 21 hay-meadows across two time steps was carried out. The historical land-use was compared with the present landscapes and with species data from the same areas. Results show that the forest cover has grown almost 12% in 60 years. There is a negative correlation between forest and the plant species richness of both time steps. The total area of arable fields has dropped 19%, although no statistical correlation with the plant species richness of either time step was found. The ex-arable fields of 1950 however, did show a negative impact, both alone and together with open pasture. Open pasture has decreased 17%, although no statistical correlation was found between this land-cover category and plant species richness. The overall results indicate that the historical land-use on the local scale is of greater importance on the current plant species richness than present land-use. This should be considered within landscape planning and when designing conservation strategies.

  • 42. Gennari, Giordana
    et al.
    Rosenberg, Thomas
    Spezzaferi, Silvia
    Berger, Jean-Pierre
    Fleitmann, Dominik
    Preusser, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Al-shanti, Mahmoud
    Matter, Albert
    Faunal evidence of a Holocene pluvial phase in Southern Arabia with remarks on the morphological variability of Helenina anderseni2011In: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, ISSN 0096-1191, E-ISSN 1943-264X, Vol. 41, p. 248-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although foraminifera have been found living in inlandsaline lakes isolated from the sea, this phenomenon has rarelybeen recognized in the fossil record. This study documents theoccurrence of benthic foraminifera in Holocene lake sedimentslocated nearly 500 km inland from the Red Sea, in theAl-Mundafan region of southern Saudi Arabia. The lakeformed during a regional pluvial period, 10,500–6000 yr BP.The presence of foraminifera and brackish charophytes in thestudied section represent an interval when the lake wasslightly brackish due to high evaporation. The studiedsediments yielded a bispecific benthic foraminiferal faunacomprised of Helenina anderseni and Trichohyalus aguayoi,as well as the brackish charophyte genus Lamprothamnium.The benthic foraminifera are species characteristic ofmangrove swamps, salt marshes, and lagoons, which areenvironments currently widespread along the Red Sea coasts.Because the Al Mundafan area was never connected to the seaduring the Quaternary, wading birds must have been thevector that transported the foraminifera to the paleolake

  • 43. Giesler, Reiner
    et al.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Lundin, Erik J.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Spatiotemporal variations of pCO(2) and delta C-13-DIC in subarctic streams in northern Sweden2013In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 176-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current predictions of climate-related changes in high-latitude environments suggest major effects on the C export in streams and rivers. To what extent this will also affect the stream water CO2 concentrations is poorly understood. In this study we examined the spatiotemporal variation in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)) and in stable isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (delta C-13-DIC) in subarctic streams in northern Sweden. The selected watersheds are characterized by large variations in high-latitude boreal forest and tundra and differences in bedrock. We found that all streams generally were supersaturated in pCO(2) with an average concentration of 850 mu atm. The variability in pCO(2) across streams was poorly related to vegetation cover, and carbonaceous bedrock influence was manifested in high DIC concentrations but not reflected in either stream pCO(2) or delta C-13-DIC. Stream water pCO(2) values were highest during winter base flow when we also observed the lowest delta C-13-DIC values, and this pattern is interpreted as a high contribution from CO2 from soil respiration. Summer base flow delta C-13-DIC values probably are more affected by in situ stream processes such as aquatic production/respiration and degassing. A challenge for further studies will be to disentangle the origin of stream water CO2 and quantify their relative importance.

  • 44. Gilg, H. Albert
    et al.
    Hall, Adrian M.
    University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK.
    Ebert, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Cool kaolins in Finland2013In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 392, p. 454-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use D/H and 18O/16O ratios to explore the age of kaolins on the Fennoscandian Shield. Sub-Cretaceous kaolins in southern Scandinavia have isotopic compositions indicative of weathering under warm mean annual temperatures (MATs) of > 15 °C. Deep kaolins on the shield surface in Finland previously also have been regarded as products of humid tropical weathering of Mesoproterozoic to Eocene age. New oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios indicate, however, weathering by cool groundwater under MATs of 13–15 °C. Isotope ratios are also not consistent with deep (> 1 km) burial by cover rocks, indicating that a very old age for the weathering is unlikely. Palaeotemperatures are below Cretaceous MATs, yet substantially above Plio-Pleistocene MATs. Comparisons with palaeotemperatures in N Europe and around the Arctic Ocean indicate that the Finnish kaolins developed on the shield surface in the Palaeogene or, alternatively, Miocene. Deep weathering was selectively developed in highly fractured shield rocks and took place in response to latest Cretaceous and Palaeogene uplift and after stripping of Palaeozoic cover rocks. The cool kaolins in Finland indicate that previous routine attributions of kaolinitic weathering products in the geological record to humid tropical environments should be closely scrutinised.

  • 45. Glimskär, Anders
    et al.
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Land Type Categories as a Complement to Land Use and Land Cover Attributes in Landscape Mapping and Monitoring2015In: Land Use and Land Cover Semantics: Principles, Best Practices, and Prospects / [ed] Ola Ahlqvist, Dalia Varanka, Steffen Fritz, and Krzysztof Janowicz, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015, p. 171-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of land cover and land use descriptions varies, and this influences how these concepts are perceived in different contexts. The increasing need for spatial data for multipurpose monitoring and modeling also increases the demands for compatibility, repeatability, detail, and well-documented criteria. We suggest that threshold values along a continuous scale can be used to create nominal classes for a common conceptual framework. However, the exact values of these thresholds need to be based on well-defined functional and systematic criteria. Ecological and environmental gradients are often mosaic and complex, and several types of land use may coexist at the same site. In reality, land use can be seen as a “shifting cloud” of activities varying in both time and space. We advocate the use of strict definitions of land cover as physical structures and land use as human activities, which raises the need for a complementary concept, which we call “land type,” with stable threshold values based on mutually exclusive functional criteria. Such functional criteria often put clear limits to what spatial resolution is appropriate, since the suitability for a certain purpose (e.g., agriculture or forestry) is determined by the user of the land, rather than by the independent observer. Our example of land type categories comprises a two-level hierarchical classification with seven main types and altogether 28 subtypes. As an example, we discuss the overlapping Swedish definitions of forest and arable land. The criteria that define our main land types are less dependent on how the area is managed at a specific moment in time, and they are therefore less sensitive to short-term variation. The land types define the limits for what land cover and land use can be expected at a certain site, given, for example, ground conditions, water, or artificial structures. Since such land types need to incorporate functional and qualitative understanding and interpretation, human visual interpretation is needed, whereas automated remote sensing methods are suitable mainly for the structural aspects of land cover.

  • 46.
    Goehring, Brent, M.
    et al.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University.
    Lohne, Öystein S.
    Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen.
    Mangerud, Jan
    Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen.
    Svendsen, John Inge
    Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen.
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Univ Bergen, Dept Earth Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Schaefer, Joerg
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University.
    Finkel, Robert
    Earth and Planetary Science Department, University of California-Berkeley.
    Late Glacial and Holocene 10Be production rates for western Norway2012In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new regional calibration of the 10Be production rate from two well-dated surfaces insouthern Norway: a rock avalanche with 14C-dated wood and a precisely dated Younger Dryas moraine. Calculated10Be production rates are 4.260.13 and 4.650.14 at g1 a1 for the Lal/Stone and Lifton scaling models,respectively. Our regional production rate for southern Norway is 5% lower than the canonical global 10Be productionrate with lower uncertainties. Our 10Be production rate agrees with regional 10Be production rates from north-easternNorth America and New Zealand. The 10Be production rate estimate presented here can be used to improve theprecision and accuracy of exposure-dated ice-marginal features, as well as other surfaces, in northern Europe.

  • 47. Goldner, A.
    et al.
    Huber, M.
    Caballero, Rodrigo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Does Antarctic glaciation cool the world?2013In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 173-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compare the simulated climatic impact of adding an Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to the greenhouse world of the Eocene and removing the AIS from the modern world. The modern global mean surface temperature anomaly (Delta T) induced by Antarctic Glaciation depends on the background CO2 levels and ranges from -1.22 to -0.18 K. The Eocene Delta T is nearly constant at similar to-0.25 K. We calculate an climate sensitivity parameter S[Antarctica] which we define as Delta T divided by the change in effective radiative forcing (Delta Q(Antarctica)) which includes some fast feedbacks imposed by prescribing the glacial properties of Antarctica. The main difference between the modern and Eocene responses is that a negative cloud feedback warms much of the Earth's surface as a large AIS is introduced in the Eocene, whereas this cloud feedback is weakly positive and acts in combination with positive sea-ice feedbacks to enhance cooling introduced by adding an ice sheet in the modern. Because of the importance of cloud feedbacks in determining the final temperature sensitivity of the AIS, our results are likely to be model dependent. Nevertheless, these model results suggest that the effective radiative forcing and feedbacks induced by the AIS did not significantly decrease global mean surface temperature across the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT -34.1 to 33.6 Ma) and that other factors like declining atmospheric CO2 are more important for cooling across the EOT. The results illustrate that the efficacy of AIS forcing in the Eocene is not necessarily close to one and is likely to be model and state dependent. This implies that using EOT paleoclimate proxy data by itself to estimate climate sensitivity for future climate prediction requires climate models and consequently these estimates will have large uncertainty, largely due to uncertainties in modelling low clouds.

  • 48.
    Grabs, T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Bishop, K.
    Laudon, H.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Seibert, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Riparian zone hydrology and soil water total organic carbon (TOC): implications for spatial variability and upscaling of lateral riparian TOC exports2012In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 3901-3916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater flowing from hillslopes through riparian (near-stream) soils often undergoes chemical transformations that can substantially influence stream water chemistry. We used landscape analysis to predict total organic carbon (TOC) concentration profiles and groundwater levels measured in the riparian zone (RZ) of a 67 km(2) catchment in Sweden. TOC exported laterally from 13 riparian soil profiles was then estimated based on the riparian flow-concentration integration model (RIM). Much of the observed spatial variability of riparian TOC concentrations in this system could be predicted from groundwater levels and the topographic wetness index (TWI). Organic riparian peat soils in forested areas emerged as hotspots exporting large amounts of TOC. These TOC fluxes were subject to considerable temporal variations caused by a combination of variable flow conditions and changing soil water TOC concentrations. Mineral riparian gley soils, on the other hand, were related to rather small TOC export rates and were characterized by relatively time-invariant TOC concentration profiles. Organic and mineral soils in RZs constitute a heterogeneous landscape mosaic that potentially controls much of the spatial variability of stream water TOC. We developed an empirical regression model based on the TWI to move beyond the plot scale and to predict spatially variable riparian TOC concentration profiles for RZs underlain by glacial till.

  • 49. Graham, Alastair G. C.
    et al.
    Dutrieux, Pierre
    Vaughan, David G.
    Nitsche, Frank O.
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Greenwood, Sarah L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Larter, Robert D.
    Jenkins, Adrian
    Seabed corrugations beneath an Antarctic ice shelf revealed by autonomous underwater vehicle survey: Origin and implications for the history of Pine Island Glacier2013In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, ISSN 2169-9011, Vol. 118, no 3, p. 1356-1366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [1] Ice shelves are critical features in the debate about West Antarctic ice sheet change and sea level rise, both because they limit ice discharge and because they are sensitive to change in the surrounding ocean. The Pine Island Glacier ice shelf has been thinning rapidly since at least the early 1990s, which has caused its trunk to accelerate and retreat. Although the ice shelf front has remained stable for the past six decades, past periods of ice shelf collapse have been inferred from relict seabed “corrugations” (corrugated ridges), preserved 340 km from the glacier in Pine Island Trough. Here we present high-resolution bathymetry gathered by an autonomous underwater vehicle operating beneath an Antarctic ice shelf, which provides evidence of long-term change in Pine Island Glacier. Corrugations and ploughmarks on a sub-ice shelf ridge that was a former grounding line closely resemble those observed offshore, interpreted previously as the result of iceberg grounding. The same interpretation here would indicate a significantly reduced ice shelf extent within the last 11 kyr, implying Holocene glacier retreat beyond present limits, or a past tidewater glacier regime different from today. The alternative, that corrugations were not formed in open water, would question ice shelf collapse events interpreted from the geological record, revealing detail of another bed-shaping process occurring at glacier margins. We assess hypotheses for corrugation formation and suggest periodic grounding of ice shelf keels during glacier unpinning as a viable origin. This interpretation requires neither loss of the ice shelf nor glacier retreat and is consistent with a “stable” grounding-line configuration throughout the Holocene.

  • 50.
    Graham, Robert M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    The role of Southern Ocean fronts in the global climate system2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The location of fronts has a direct influence on both the physical and biological processes in the Southern Ocean. However, until recently fronts have been poorly resolved by available data and climate models. In this thesis we utilise a combination of high resolution satellite data, model output and ARGO data to improve our basic understanding of fronts.

    A method is derived whereby fronts are identified as local maxima in sea surface height gradients. In this way fronts are defined locally as jets, rather than continuous-circumpolar water mass boundaries. A new climatology of Southern Ocean fronts is presented. This climatology reveals a new interpretation of the Subtropical Front. The currents associated with the Subtropical Front correspond to the western boundary current extensions from each basin, and we name these the Dynamical Subtropical Front. Previous studies have instead suggested that the Subtropical Front is a continuous feature across the Southern Ocean associated with the super gyre boundary.

    A comprehensive assessment of the relationship between front locations and wind stress is conducted. Firstly, the response of fronts to a southward shift in the westerly winds is tested using output from a 100 year climate change simulation on a high resolution coupled model. It is shown that there was no change in the location of fronts within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as a result of a 1.3° southward shift in the westerly winds. Secondly, it is shown that the climatological position of the Subtropical Front is 5-10° north of the zero wind stress curl line, despite many studies assuming that the location of the Subtropical Front is determined by the zero wind stress curl.

    Finally, we show that the nutrient supply at ocean fronts is primarily due to horizontal advection and not upwelling. Nutrients from coastal regions are entrained into western boundary currents and advected into the Southern Ocean along the Dynamical Subtropical Front. 

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