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  • 1. Achtert, P.
    et al.
    Brooks, I. M.
    Brooks, B. J.
    Moat, B. I.
    Prytherch, J.
    Persson, P. O. G.
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Measurement of wind profiles by motion-stabilised ship-borne Doppler lidar2015In: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 4993-5007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three months of Doppler lidar wind measurements were obtained during the Arctic Cloud Summer Experiment on the icebreakerOden during the summer of 2014. Such ship-borne Doppler measurements require active stabilisation to remove the effects of ship motion. We demonstrate that the combination of a commercial Doppler lidar with a custom-made motion-stabilisation platform enables the retrieval of wind profiles in the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer during both cruising and ice-breaking with statistical uncertainties comparable to land-based measurements. This held true particularly within the atmospheric boundary layer even though the overall aerosol load was very low. Motion stabilisation was successful for high wind speeds in open water and the resulting wave conditions. It allows for the retrieval of vertical winds with a random error below 0.2 m s−1. The comparison of lidar-measured wind and radio soundings gives a mean bias of 0.3 m s−1 (2°) and a mean standard deviation of 1.1 m s−1 (12°) for wind speed (wind direction). The agreement for wind direction degrades with height. The combination of a motion-stabilised platform with a low-maintenance autonomous Doppler lidar has the potential to enable continuous long-term high-resolution ship-based wind profile measurements over the oceans.

  • 2.
    Achtert, Peggy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Birmili, W.
    Nowak, A.
    Wehner, B.
    Wiedensohler, A.
    Takegawa, N.
    Kondo, Y.
    Miyazaki, Y.
    Hu, M.
    Zhu, T.
    Hygroscopic growth of tropospheric particle number size distributions over the North China Plain2009In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 114, p. D00G07-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric submicrometer particle size distributions (diameter D-p ranging from 22 to 900 nm) was studied at a rural/suburban site in the North China Plain within the framework of the international Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006) research project. The goal was to characterize the regional aerosol in the polluted northeastern plain in China. Size descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DHGFs) were determined as a function of relative humidity (RH) by relating the particle number size distribution at a dry condition ( 100 nm), the DHGF are substantially higher than in the Aitken particle mode (D-p < 100 nm) as a result of different chemical composition. The size-dependent behavior of the DHGF highlights the relevance of particulate sulfate production over the North China Plain, accomplished by secondary formation from the gas phase and, potentially, liquid phase processes in convective clouds. Furthermore, all results concerning the DHGF show a significant dependency on meteorological air masses. The hygroscopic growth of accumulation mode particles correlates significantly with the PM1-mass fraction of sulfate ions determined by chemical analysis. Finally, this investigation provides a parameterization of the hygroscopic growth of 250-nm particles, which might be useful when predicting visibility and radiative forcing and performing atmospheric aerosol model validations.

  • 3.
    Achtert, Peggy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Karlsson Andersson, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Khosrawi, Farahnaz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Gumbel, Jörg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    On the linkage between tropospheric and Polar Stratospheric clouds in the Arctic as observed by space-borne lidar2012In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 3791-3798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The type of Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as well as their temporal and spatial extent are important for the occurrence of heterogeneous reactions in the polar stratosphere. The formation of PSCs depends strongly on temperature. However, the mechanisms of the formation of solid PSCs are still poorly understood. Recent satellite studies of Antarctic PSCs have shown that their formation can be associated with deep-tropospheric clouds which have the ability to cool the lower stratosphere radiatively and/or adiabatically. In the present study, lidar measurements aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite were used to investigate whether the formation of Arctic PSCs can be associated with deep-tropospheric clouds as well. Deep-tropospheric cloud systems have a vertical extent of more than 6.5 km with a cloud top height above 7 km altitude. PSCs observed by CALIPSO during the Arctic winter 2007/2008 were classified according to their type (STS, NAT, or ice) and to the kind of underlying tropospheric clouds. Our analysis reveals that 172 out of 211 observed PSCs occurred in connection with tropospheric clouds. 72% of these 172 observed PSCs occurred above deep-tropospheric clouds. We also find that the type of PSC seems to be connected to the characteristics of the underlying tropospheric cloud system. During the Arctic winter 2007/2008 PSCs consisting of ice were mainly observed in connection with deep-tropospheric cloud systems while no ice PSC was detected above cirrus. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the occurrence of PSCs and the top temperature of tropospheric clouds. Thus, our findings suggest that Arctic PSC formation is connected to adiabatice cooling, i.e. dynamic effects rather than radiative cooling.

  • 4.
    Achtert, Peggy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Khaplanov, Mikhail
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Khosrawi, Farahnaz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Gumbel, Jörg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Pure rotational-Raman channels of the Esrange lidar for temperature and particle extinction measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere2013In: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 91-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Department of Meteorology at Stockholm University operates the Esrange Rayleigh/Raman lidar at Esrange(68° N, 21° E) near the Swedish city of Kiruna. This paper describes the design and first measurements of the newpure rotational-Raman channel of the Esrange lidar. The Esrange lidar uses a pulsed Nd:YAG solid-state laser operating at 532 nm as light source with a repetition rate of 20 Hz and a pulse energy of 350 mJ. The minimum vertical resolution is 150m and the integration time for one profile is 5000 shots. The newly implemented channel allows for measurements of atmospheric temperature at altitudes below 35 km and is currently optimized for temperature measurements between 180 and 200 K. This corresponds to conditions in the lower Arctic stratosphere during winter. In addition to the temperature measurements, the aerosol extinction coefficientand the aerosol backscatter coefficient at 532 nm can be measured in dependently. Our filter-based design minimizes the systematic error in the obtained temperature profile to less than 0.51 K. By combining rotational-Raman measurements (5–35 km height) and the integration technique (30–80 kmheight), the Esrange lidar is now capable of measuring atmospheric temperature profiles from the upper troposphere up to the mesosphere. With the improved setup, the system can be used to validate current lidar-based polar stratospheric cloud classification schemes. The new capability of the instrument measuring temperature and aerosol extinction furthermore enables studies of the thermal structure and variability of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. Although several lidars are operated at polar latitudes, there are few instruments that are capable of measuring temperature profiles in the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere, as well as aerosols extinction in the troposphere and lower stratospherewith daylight capability.

  • 5.
    Achtert, Peggy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Khosrawi, Farahnaz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Blum, U.
    Fricke, K. H.
    Investigation of polar stratospheric clouds in January 2008 by means of ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements and microphysical box model simulations2011In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 116, p. D07201-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in heterogeneous chemistry and ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere. The type of PSC as well as their temporal and spatial extent are important for the occurrence of heterogeneous reactions and, thus, ozone depletion. In this study a combination of ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements were used together with microphysical box model simulations along back trajectories to investigate the formation and alteration of Arctic PSCs. The measurements were made by the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar system at Esrange and by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite. Between 20 and 23 January 2008 PSCs composed of liquid particles were observed by CALIPSO between Greenland and the western side of the Scandinavian Mountains. Between 21 and 23 January 2008 the Esrange lidar observed a PSC composed of distinct layers of liquid and solid particles on the eastern side of the mountain range. Microphysical box model simulations along air parcel back trajectories indicate that liquid particles had formed at least 40 h before the observation at Esrange. Furthermore, the model indicates a high HNO(3) uptake into the liquid layer between 10 and 20 h before the observation. The PSC was formed when the air mass was over Greenland. On two occasions during these 20 h, CALIPSO observed PSCs when its measurement tracks crossed the air parcel back trajectory ending at the location of the Esrange lidar. Backscatter ratios calculated from the output of the box model simulation indicate good agreement with the values observed with the Esrange lidar and by CALIPSO. The box model simulations along the back trajectories from Esrange to the CALIPSO ground track and beyond provide us with the unique opportunity to relate ground-based and spaceborne lidar measurements that were not performed at the same spatial location and time. Furthermore, possible differences in the observations from ground and space can be traced to temporal and/or geographically induced changes in particle microphysics within the measured PSCs.

  • 6.
    Achtert, Peggy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Tesche, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Assessing lidar-based classification schemes for polar stratospheric clouds based on 16 years of measurements at Esrange, Sweden2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 1386-1405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lidar measurements of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are commonly analyzed in classification schemes that apply the backscatter ratio and the particle depolarization ratio. This similarity of input data suggests comparable results of different classification schemes—despite measurements being performed with a variety of mostly custom-made instruments. Based on a time series of 16 years of lidar measurements at Esrange (68°N, 21°E), Sweden, we show that PSC classification differs substantially depending on the applied scheme. The discrepancies result from varying threshold values of lidar-derived parameters used to define certain PSC types. The resulting inconsistencies could impact the understanding of long-term PSC observations documented in the literature. We identify two out of seven considered classification schemes that are most likely to give reliable results and should be used in future lidar-based studies. Using polarized backscatter ratios gives the advantage of increased contrast for observations of weakly backscattering and weakly depolarizing particles. Improved confidence in PSC classification can be achieved by a more comprehensive consideration of the effect of measurement uncertainties. The particle depolarization ratio is the key to a reliable identification of different PSC types. Hence, detailed information on the calibration of the polarization-sensitive measurement channels should be provided to assess the findings of a study. Presently, most PSC measurements with lidar are performed at 532 nm only. The information from additional polarization-sensitive measurements in the near infrared could lead to an improved PSC classification. Coincident lidar-based temperature measurements at PSC level might provide useful information for an assessment of PSC classification.

  • 7.
    Acosta Navarro, Juan Camilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Anthropogenic influence on climate through changes in aerosol emissions from air pollution and land use change2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Particulate matter suspended in air (i.e. aerosol particles) exerts a substantial influence on the climate of our planet and is responsible for causing severe public health problems in many regions across the globe. Human activities have altered the natural and anthropogenic emissions of aerosol particles through direct emissions or indirectly by modifying natural sources. The climate effects of the latter have been largely overlooked. Humans have dramatically altered the land surface of the planet causing changes in natural aerosol emissions from vegetated areas. Regulation on anthropogenic and natural aerosol emissions have the potential to affect the climate on regional to global scales. Furthermore, the regional climate effects of aerosol particles could potentially be very different than the ones caused by other climate forcers (e.g. well mixed greenhouse gases). The main objective of this work was to investigate the climatic effects of land use and air pollution via aerosol changes.

    Using numerical model simulations it was found that land use changes in the past millennium have likely caused a positive radiative forcing via aerosol climate interactions. The forcing is an order of magnitude smaller and has an opposite sign than the radiative forcing caused by direct aerosol emissions changes from other human activities. The results also indicate that future reductions of fossil fuel aerosols via air quality regulations may lead to an additional warming of the planet by mid-21st century and could also cause an important Arctic amplification of the warming. In addition, the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and the Asian monsoon appear to be sensitive to aerosol emission reductions from air quality regulations. For these reasons, climate mitigation policies should take into consideration aerosol air pollution, which has not received sufficient attention in the past.

  • 8.
    Acosta Navarro, Juan Camilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Historical anthropogenic radiative forcing of changes in biogenic secondary organic aerosol2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities have lead to changes in the energy balance of the Earth and the global climate. Changes in atmospheric aerosols are the second largest contributor to climate change after greenhouse gases since 1750 A.D. Land-use practices and other environmental drivers have caused changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) well before 1750 A.D, possibly causing climate effects through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. Two numerical emission models LPJ-GUESS and MEGAN were used to quantify the changes in aerosol forming BVOC emissions in the past millennium. A chemical transport model of the atmosphere (GEOS-Chem-TOMAS) was driven with those BVOC emissions to quantify the effects on radiation caused by millennial changes in SOA.

    The specific objectives of this licentiate thesis are: 1) to understand what drove the changes in aerosol-forming BVOC emissions (i.e. isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and to quantify these changes; 2) to calculate for the first time the combined historical aerosol direct and aerosol-cloud albedo effects on radiation from changing BVOC emissions through SOA formation; 3) to investigate how important the biological climate feedback associated to BVOC emissions and SOA formation is from a global climate perspective.

    We find that global isoprene emissions decreased after 1800 A.D. by about 12% - 15%. This decrease was dominated by losses of natural vegetation, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions increased by about 2% - 10%, driven mostly by rising surface air temperatures. From 1000 A.D. to 1800 A.D, isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions decline by 3% - 8% driven by both, natural vegetation losses, and the moderate global cooling between the medieval climate anomaly and the little ice age. The millennial reduction in BVOC emissions lead to a 0.5% to 2% reduction in climatically relevant aerosol particles (> 80 nm) and cause a direct radiative forcing between +0.02 W/m² and +0.07 W/m², and an indirect radiative forcing between -0.02 W/m² and +0.02 W/m². The suggested biological climate feedback seems to be too small to have observable consequences on the global climate in the recent past.

  • 9.
    Ahlm, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . University of Oslo, Norway.
    Jones, Andy
    Stjern, Camilla W.
    Muri, Helene
    Kravitz, Ben
    Kristjánsson, Jón Egill
    Marine cloud brightening - as effective without clouds2017In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, no 21, p. 13071-13087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine cloud brightening through sea spray injection has been proposed as a climate engineering method for avoiding the most severe consequences of global warming. A limitation of most of the previous modelling studies on marine cloud brightening is that they have either considered individual models or only investigated the effects of a specific increase in the number of cloud droplets. Here we present results from coordinated simulations with three Earth system models (ESMs) participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G4sea-salt experiment. Injection rates of accumulation-mode sea spray aerosol particles over ocean between 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S are set in each model to generate a global-mean effective radiative forcing (ERF) of -2.0 W m(-2) at the top of the atmosphere. We find that the injection increases the cloud droplet number concentration in lower layers, reduces the cloud-top effective droplet radius, and increases the cloud optical depth over the injection area. We also find, however, that the global-mean clear-sky ERF by the injected particles is as large as the corresponding total ERF in all three ESMs, indicating a large potential of the aerosol direct effect in regions of low cloudiness. The largest enhancement in ERF due to the presence of clouds occur as expected in the subtropical stratocumulus regions off the west coasts of the American and African continents. However, outside these regions, the ERF is in general equally large in cloudy and clear-sky conditions. These findings suggest a more important role of the aerosol direct effect in sea spray climate engineering than previously thought.

  • 10.
    Ahlm, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Julin, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Fountoukis, C.
    Pandis, S. N.
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Particle number concentrations over Europe in 2030: the role of emissions and new particle formation2013In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, ISSN 1680-7367, E-ISSN 1680-7375, Vol. 13, no 20, p. 10271-10283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aerosol particle number concentration is a key parameter when estimating impacts of aerosol particles on climate and human health. We use a three-dimensional chemical transport model with detailed microphysics, PMCAMx-UF, to simulate particle number concentrations over Europe in the year 2030, by applying emission scenarios for trace gases and primary aerosols. The scenarios are based on expected changes in anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and primary aerosol particles with a diameter less than 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) focusing on a photochemically active period, and the implications for other seasons are discussed. For the baseline scenario, which represents a best estimate of the evolution of anthropogenic emissions in Europe, PMCAMx-UF predicts that the total particle number concentration (N-tot) will decrease by 30-70% between 2008 and 2030. The number concentration of particles larger than 100 nm (N-100), a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, is predicted to decrease by 40-70% during the same period. The predicted decrease in N-tot is mainly a result of reduced new particle formation due to the expected reduction in SO2 emissions, whereas the predicted decrease in N-100 is a result of both decreasing condensational growth and reduced primary aerosol emissions. For larger emission reductions, PMCAMx-UF predicts reductions of 60-80% in both N-tot and N-100 over Europe. Sensitivity tests reveal that a reduction in SO2 emissions is far more efficient than any other emission reduction investigated, in reducing N-tot. For N-100, emission reductions of both SO2 and PM2.5 contribute significantly to the reduced concentration, even though SO2 plays the dominant role once more. The impact of SO2 for both new particle formation and growth over Europe may be expected to be somewhat higher during the simulated period with high photochemical activity than during times of the year with less incoming solar radiation. The predicted reductions in both N-tot and N-100 between 2008 and 2030 in this study will likely reduce both the aerosol direct and indirect effects, and limit the damaging effects of aerosol particles on human health in Europe

  • 11. Allen, G.
    et al.
    Coe, H.
    Clarke, A.
    Bretherton, C.
    Wood, R.
    Abel, S. J.
    Barrett, P.
    Brown, P.
    George, R.
    Freitag, S.
    McNaughton, C.
    Howell, S.
    Shank, L.
    Kapustin, V.
    Brekhovskikh, V.
    Kleinman, L.
    Lee, Y-N
    Springston, S.
    Toniazzo, T.
    Krejci, Radovan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Fochesatto, J.
    Shaw, G.
    Krecl, P.
    Brooks, B.
    McMeeking, G.
    Bower, K. N.
    Williams, P. I.
    Crosier, J.
    Crawford, I.
    Connolly, P.
    Allan, J. D.
    Covert, D.
    Bandy, A. R.
    Russell, L. M.
    Trembath, J.
    Bart, M.
    McQuaid, J. B.
    Wang, J.
    Chand, D.
    South East Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled = ong 20 degrees S during VOCALS-REx2011In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 5237-5262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific (SEP) region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in = presenting the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship = d surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise = d characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the = rine Boundary Layer (MBL) and Free Troposphere (FT) along the 20 = grees S parallel between 70 degrees W and 85 degrees W. Significant = nal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and = mposition, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone were seen over = e campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal = vironment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. = adients in aerosol and trace gas concentrations were observed to be = sociated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT was = ten more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; = wever increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic = ture to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex = rtical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence = llutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory = alysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range = urces. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the = served zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free = oposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with = stance offshore - coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in = cent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses = ving resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer = mposition to the east of 75 degrees W was observed to be dominated by = astal emissions from sources to the west of the Andes, with evidence = r diurnal pumping of the Andean boundary layer above the height of the = rine capping inversion. Analysis of intra-campaign variability in = mospheric composition was not found to be significantly correlated = th observed low-frequency variability in the large scale flow pattern; = mpaign-average interquartile ranges of CO, SO(2) and O(3) = ncentrations at all longitudes were observed to dominate over much = aller differences in median concentrations calculated between periods = different flow regimes. The campaign climatology presented here aims = provide a valuable dataset to inform model simulation and future = ocess studies, particularly in the context of aerosol-cloud = teraction and further evaluation of dynamical processes in the SEP = gion for conditions analogous to those during VOCALS-REx. To this end, = r results are discussed in terms of coastal, transitional and remote = atial regimes in the MBL and FT and a gridded dataset are provided as = resource.

  • 12. Almeida, Joao
    et al.
    Schobesberger, Siegfried
    Kuerten, Andreas
    Ortega, Ismael K.
    Kupiainen-Maatta, Oona
    Praplan, Arnaud P.
    Adamov, Alexey
    Amorim, Antonio
    Bianchi, Federico
    Breitenlechner, Martin
    David, Andre
    Dommen, Josef
    Donahue, Neil M.
    Downard, Andrew
    Dunne, Eimear
    Duplissy, Jonathan
    Ehrhart, Sebastian
    Flagan, Richard C.
    Franchin, Alessandro
    Guida, Roberto
    Hakala, Jani
    Hansel, Armin
    Heinritzi, Martin
    Henschel, Henning
    Jokinen, Tuija
    Junninen, Heikki
    Kajos, Maija
    Kangasluoma, Juha
    Keskinen, Helmi
    Kupc, Agnieszka
    Kurten, Theo
    Kvashin, Alexander N.
    Laaksonen, Ari
    Lehtipalo, Katrianne
    Leiminger, Markus
    Leppa, Johannes
    Loukonen, Ville
    Makhmutov, Vladimir
    Mathot, Serge
    McGrath, Matthew J.
    Nieminen, Tuomo
    Olenius, Tinja
    Onnela, Antti
    Petaja, Tuukka
    Riccobono, Francesco
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rissanen, Matti
    Rondo, Linda
    Ruuskanen, Taina
    Santos, Filipe D.
    Sarnela, Nina
    Schallhart, Simon
    Schnitzhofer, Ralf
    Seinfeld, John H.
    Simon, Mario
    Sipila, Mikko
    Stozhkov, Yuri
    Stratmann, Frank
    Tome, Antonio
    Troestl, Jasmin
    Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios
    Vaattovaara, Petri
    Viisanen, Yrjo
    Virtanen, Annele
    Vrtala, Aron
    Wagner, Paul E.
    Weingartner, Ernest
    Wex, Heike
    Williamson, Christina
    Wimmer, Daniela
    Ye, Penglin
    Yli-Juuti, Taina
    Carslaw, Kenneth S.
    Kulmala, Markku
    Curtius, Joachim
    Baltensperger, Urs
    Worsnop, Douglas R.
    Vehkamaki, Hanna
    Kirkby, Jasper
    Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid-amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere2013In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 502, no 7471, p. 359-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleation of aerosol particles from trace atmospheric vapours is thought to provide up to half of global cloud condensation nuclei(1). Aerosols can cause a net cooling of climate by scattering sunlight and by leading to smaller but more numerous cloud droplets, which makes clouds brighter and extends their lifetimes(2). Atmospheric aerosols derived from human activities are thought to have compensated for a large fraction of the warming caused by greenhouse gases(2). However, despite its importance for climate, atmospheric nucleation is poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that sulphuric acid and ammonia cannot explain particle formation rates observed in the lower atmosphere(3). It is thought that amines may enhance nucleation(4-16), but until now there has been no direct evidence for amine ternary nucleation under atmospheric conditions. Here we use the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN and find that dimethylamine above three parts per trillion by volume can enhance particle formation rates more than 1,000-fold compared with ammonia, sufficient to account for the particle formation rates observed in the atmosphere. Molecular analysis of the clusters reveals that the faster nucleation is explained by a base-stabilization mechanism involving acid-amine pairs, which strongly decrease evaporation. The ion-induced contribution is generally small, reflecting the high stability of sulphuric acid-dimethylamine clusters and indicating that galactic cosmic rays exert only a small influence on their formation, except at low overall formation rates. Our experimental measurements are well reproduced by a dynamical model based on quantum chemical calculations of binding energies of molecular clusters, without any fitted parameters. These results show that, in regions of the atmosphere near amine sources, both amines and sulphur dioxide should be considered when assessing the impact of anthropogenic activities on particle formation.

  • 13.
    Andersson, August
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sheesley, Rebecca J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Krusa, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    (14)C-Based source assessment of soot aerosols in Stockholm and the Swedish EMEP-Aspvreten regional background site2011In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In order to propose effective mitigation strategies for BC emissions it is of importance to investigate geographical distributions and seasonal variations of BC emission sources. Here, a radiocarbon methodology is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of soot carbon (SC). SC is isolated for subsequent off-line (14)C quantification with the chemothermal oxidation method at 375 degrees C (CTO-375 method), which reflects a recalcitrant portion of the BC continuum known to minimize inadvertent inclusion of any non-pyrogenic organic matter. Monitored wind directions largely excluded impact from the Stockholm metropolitan region at the EMEP-Aspvreten rural station 70 km to the south-west. Nevertheless, the Stockholm city and the rural stations yielded similar relative source contributions with fraction biomass (f(biomass)) for fall and winter periods in the range of one-third to half. Large temporal variations in (14)C-based source apportionment was noted for both the 6 week fall and the 4 month winter observations. The f(biomass) appeared to be related to the SC concentration suggesting that periods of elevated BC levels may be caused by increased wood fuel combustion. These results for the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia combine with other recent (14)C-based studies of combustion-derived aerosol fractions to suggest that biofuel combustion is contributing a large portion of the BC load to the northern European atmosphere.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Langner, Joakim
    Inter-annual variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe during 1958-2003 simulated with a regional CTM2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 7, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Inter-annual variability of surface ozone(O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over Europe hasbeen studied over the period 1958-2003 using athree-dimensional Chemistry-Transport Model coupledto meteorological data from the ERA40 data setproduced at the European Centre of Medium-rangeWeather Forecasts (ECMWF). Emissions and boundaryconditions were kept at present levels throughoutthe simulation period. It was found that the annualmean NO2 concentration varies between ±50% andthe summer mean O3 concentration varies between-10 and +20 percent (%) compared to the 46-yearaverage over the model domain. There is alsovariation in ozone and NO2 over longer time scales.The last 22 years display high concentrations ofozone in central and south-western Europe and lowconcentrations in north-eastern Europe. The first22 years display very high concentrations of NO2over the North Sea. There is indication of trends inozone and nitrogen dioxide but this has to beinvestigated further. Such information is one factorthat should be taken into account when consideringfuture control strategies.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Langner, Joakim
    Bergström, Robert
    Interannual variation and trends in air pollution over Europe due to climate variability during 1958–2001 simulated with a regional CTM coupled to the ERA40 reanalysis2007In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 59, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional Chemistry Transport Model was used to study the meteorologically induced interannual variability and trends in deposition of sulphur and nitrogen as well as concentrations of surface ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) and its constituents over Europe during 1958–2001. The model was coupled to the meteorological reanalysis ERA40, produced at the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. Emissions and boundary conditions of chemical compounds and PM were kept constant at present levels.

    The average European interannual variation, due to meteorological variability, ranges from 3% for O3, 5%for NO2, 9% for PM, 6–9% for dry deposition, to about 20% for wet deposition of sulphur and nitrogen. For the period 1979–2001 the trend in ozone, due to climate variability is increasing in central and southwestern Europe and decreasing in northeastern Europe, the trend in NO2 is approximately opposite. The trend in PM is positive in eastern Europe. There are negative trends in wet deposition in southwestern and central Europe and positive trends in dry deposition overall. A bias in ERA40 precipitation could be partly responsible for the trends. The variation and trends need to be considered when interpreting measurements and designing measurement campaigns.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    A Variational data assimilation scheme and its use of meteorological observations1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meteorological data assimilation is the process by which a model simulation of the atmosphere is corrected by observations. In operational weather forecasting, this is done in near real-time, to provide accurate initial conditions for numerical forecasts. The accuracy of the forecasts depends crucially on the accuracy of the data assimilation.

    The increase in available computing power and the theoretical advances in data assimilation methods have recently enabled the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to develop and introduce operationally a new data assimilation scheme (4D-Var), based on variational methods. The four papers of this thesis present recent developments that have exploited some of the most promising possibilities of 4D-Var with respect to observation usage. They have all been incorporated in operational practice at ECMWF.

    Variational data assimilation schemes have several advantages that make the new scheme more flexible than earlier schemes with respect to the use of observations. The introduction of 4D-Var has enabled the effective use of a wider range of meteorological observations than previously possible. This includes, as will be demonstrated in this thesis, both conventional observations and satellite measurements.

    In the first paper we develop a method for the use of satellite radiance observations, and investigate the aspects of 4D-Var that make the scheme particularly well suited for the assimilation of data from a growing variety of space based observing systems. In the second paper we develop a variational quality control method. The third paper investigates the flow-dependence of the 4D-Var response to time series of surface pressure observations in the vicinity of a rapidly developing storm. The final paper presents a diagnostic method for tuning of the 4D-Var system.

  • 17. Angevine, Wayne
    et al.
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Zagar, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Modeling of the coastal boundary layer and pollutant transport in New England2006In: Journal of applied meteorology (1988), ISSN 0894-8763, E-ISSN 1520-0450, Vol. 45, p. 137-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Ansmann, A.
    et al.
    Seifert, P.
    Tesche, Matthias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Wandinger, U.
    Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajokull/Grimsvotn volcanic plumes2012In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, no 20, p. 9399-9415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polarization lidar photometer networking (POLIPHON) method introduced to separate coarse-mode and fine-mode particle properties of Eyjafjallajokull volcanic aerosols in 2010 is extended to cover Saharan dust events as well. Furthermore, new volcanic dust observations performed after the Grimsvotn volcanic eruptions in 2011 are presented. The retrieval of particle mass concentrations requires mass-specific extinction coefficients. Therefore, a review of recently published mass-specific extinction coefficients for Saharan dust and volcanic dust is given. Case studies of four different scenarios corroborate the applicability of the profiling technique: (a) Saharan dust outbreak to central Europe, (b) Saharan dust plume mixed with biomass-burning smoke over Cape Verde, and volcanic aerosol layers originating from (c) the Eyjafjallajokull eruptions in 2010 and (d) the Grimsvotn eruptions in 2011. Strong differences in the vertical aerosol layering, aerosol mixing, and optical properties are observed for the different volcanic events.

  • 19.
    Applegate, Patrick
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Alley, Richard B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Challenges in the Use of Cosmogenic Exposure Dating of Moraine Boulders to Trace the Geographic Extents of Abrupt Climate Changes: The Younger Dryas Example2011In: Abrupt Climate Change: Mechanisms, Patterns, and Impacts / [ed] Rashid, H; Polyak, L; MosleyThompson, E, Washington DC: American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2011, p. 111-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmogenic exposure dating has sometimes been used to identify moraines associated with short-lived climatic events, such as the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka). Here we point out two remaining challenges in using exposure dating to identify moraines produced by abrupt climate changes. Specifically, (1) a commonly applied sampling criterion likely yields incorrect exposure dates at some sites, and (2) geomorphic processes may introduce bias into presently accepted nuclide production rate estimates. We tit a geomorphic process model that treats both moraine degradation and boulder erosion to collections of exposure dates from two moraines that were deposited within a few thousand years of the Younger Dryas. Subsampling of the modeled distributions shows that choosing boulders for exposure dating based on surface freshness yields exposure dates that underestimate the true age of the moraine by up to several thousand years. This conclusion applies only where boulders do not erode while buried but do erode after exhumation. Moreover, one of our fitted data sets is part of the global nuclide production rate database. Our fit of the moraine degradation model to this data set suggests that nuclide production rates at that site are several percent higher than previously thought. Potential errors associated with sampling strategies and production rate estimates are large enough to interfere with exposure dating of moraines, especially when the moraines are associated with abrupt climate changes. We suggest sampling strategies that may help minimize these problems, including a guide for determining the minimum number of samples that must be collected to answer particular paleoclimate questions.

  • 20. Asmi, A.
    et al.
    Wiedensohler, A.
    Laj, P.
    Fjaeraa, A. -M
    Sellegri, K.
    Birmili, W.
    Weingartner, E.
    Baltensperger, U.
    Zdimal, V.
    Zikova, N.
    Putaud, J. -P
    Marinoni, A.
    Tunved, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hansson, Hans-Christen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Fiebig, M.
    Kivekas, N.
    Lihavainen, H.
    Asmi, E.
    Ulevicius, V.
    Aalto, P. P.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Kristensson, A.
    Mihalopoulos, N.
    Kalivitis, N.
    Kalapov, I.
    Kiss, G.
    de Leeuw, G.
    Henzing, B.
    Harrison, R. M.
    Beddows, D.
    O'Dowd, C.
    Jennings, S. G.
    Flentje, H.
    Weinhold, K.
    Meinhardt, F.
    Ries, L.
    Kulmala, M.
    Number size distributions and seasonality of submicron particles in = rope 2008-20092011In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 5505-5538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two years of harmonized aerosol number size distribution data from 24 = ropean field monitoring sites have been analysed. The results give a = mprehensive overview of the European near surface aerosol particle = mber concentrations and number size distributions between 30 and 500 = of dry particle diameter. Spatial and temporal distribution of = rosols in the particle sizes most important for climate applications = e presented. We also analyse the annual, weekly and diurnal cycles of = e aerosol number concentrations, provide log-normal fitting parameters = r median number size distributions, and give guidance notes for data = ers. Emphasis is placed on the usability of results within the aerosol = delling community.

  • 21. Austin, John
    et al.
    Struthers, Hamish
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Scinocca, J.
    Plummer, D. A.
    Akiyoshi, H.
    Baumgaertner, A. J. G.
    Bekki, S.
    Bodeker, G. E.
    Braesicke, P.
    Bruehl, C.
    Butchart, N.
    Chipperfield, M. P.
    Cugnet, D.
    Dameris, M.
    Dhomse, S.
    Frith, S.
    Garny, H.
    Gettelman, A.
    Hardiman, S. C.
    Joeckel, P.
    Kinnison, D.
    Kubin, A.
    Lamarque, J. F.
    Langematz, U.
    Mancini, E.
    Marchand, M.
    Michou, M.
    Morgenstern, O.
    Nakamura, T.
    Nielsen, J. E.
    Pitari, G.
    Pyle, J.
    Rozanov, E.
    Shepherd, T. G.
    Shibata, K.
    Smale, D.
    Teyssedre, H.
    Yamashita, Y.
    Chemistry-climate model simulations of spring Antarctic ozone2010In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 115, p. D00M11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coupled chemistry-climate model simulations covering the recent past and continuing throughout the 21st century have been completed with a range of different models. Common forcings are used for the halogen amounts and greenhouse gas concentrations, as expected under the Montreal Protocol (with amendments) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1b Scenario. The simulations of the Antarctic ozone hole are compared using commonly used diagnostics: the minimum ozone, the maximum area of ozone below 220 DU, and the ozone mass deficit below 220 DU. Despite the fact that the processes responsible for ozone depletion are reasonably well understood, a wide range of results is obtained. Comparisons with observations indicate that one of the reasons for the model underprediction in ozone hole area is the tendency for models to underpredict, by up to 35%, the area of low temperatures responsible for polar stratospheric cloud formation. Models also typically have species gradients that are too weak at the edge of the polar vortex, suggesting that there is too much mixing of air across the vortex edge. Other models show a high bias in total column ozone which restricts the size of the ozone hole (defined by a 220 DU threshold). The results of those models which agree best with observations are examined in more detail. For several models the ozone hole does not disappear this century but a small ozone hole of up to three million square kilometers continues to occur in most springs even after 2070.

  • 22.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Svensson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    An ensemble of arctic simulations of the AOE-2001 field experiment2011In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 2, p. 146-170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Bari, D. Demirhan
    et al.
    Gabriel, A.
    Kornich, H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Peters, D. W. H.
    The effect of zonal asymmetries in the Brewer-Dobson circulation on ozone and water vapor distributions in the northern middle atmosphere2013In: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, ISSN 2169-897X, Vol. 118, no 9, p. 3447-3466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The longitudinal variations in the time-mean transport by the Brewer-Dobson circulation are studied using a three-dimensional (3-D) residual circulation approach to analyze the effects on zonal asymmetries in stratospheric ozone (O-3) and middle atmospheric water vapor (H2O). For January, the monthly mean residual winds, including both the Eulerian flow and the eddy-induced time-mean flow, were derived from general circulation model simulations with interactive chemistry (HAMMONIA), reanalysis (ERA-Interim), and satellite data (Aura/MLS). Extending the picture of the zonal mean two-dimensional Brewer-Dobson circulation, we find a 3-D circulation structure in relation to the zonal wave one in the middle atmosphere, including northward and downward residual winds over northern Europe/Asia with the downwelling directed toward the center of the polar vortex over northern Siberia, as well as southward and upward residual winds over the northern Pacific/Aleutians, and a pronounced cross-polar transport from Asia to North America in the middle stratosphere. The residual advection of O-3 and H2O shows that the observed wave one patterns in O-3 and H2O are produced by the zonal asymmetries in the residual mass transport in which Eulerian and eddy time-mean transports are largely counteracting. In comparison to observations, the model underestimates the effects of planetary waves but overestimates those of transient waves in configuring the stationary waves in O-3 and H2O. Overall, the 3-D residual circulation approach provides a useful diagnostic for understanding regional differences in middle atmospheric trace gas distributions and for validating general circulation models with interactive chemistry.

  • 24. Baron, Phillippe
    et al.
    Murtagh, Donal
    Urban, J
    Sagawa, S
    Ochiai, H
    Koernich, H
    Khosrawi, Farahnaz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Kikuchi, K
    Mizobuchi, S
    Sagi, K
    Kasai, Y
    Yasui, M
    Observation of horizontal winds in the middle-atmosphere between 30° S and 55° N during the northern winter 2009–20102012In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 13, p. 6049-6064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the links between stratospheric dynamics, climate and weather have been demonstrated, direct observations of stratospheric winds are lacking. We report observations of winds between 8 and 0.01 hPa (~35–80 km) from October 2009 to April 2010 by the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on the International Space Station. The altitude range covers the region between 35–60 km where previous space-borne wind instruments show a lack of sensitivity. Both zonal and meridional wind components were obtained, though not simultaneously, in the latitude range from 30° S to 55° N and with a single profile precision of 7–9 m s−1 between 8 and 0.6 hPa and better than 20 m s−1 at altitudes above. The vertical resolution is 5–7 km except in the upper part of the retrieval range (10 km at 0.01 hPa). In the region between 1–0.05 hPa, a mean difference <2 m s−1 is found between SMILES profiles retrieved from different spectroscopic lines and instrumental settings. Good agreement (mean difference of ~2 m s−1) is also found with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis in most of the stratosphere except for the zonal winds over the equator (mean difference of 5–10 m s−1). In the mesosphere, SMILES and ECMWF zonal winds exhibit large differences (> 20 m s−1), especially in the tropics. We illustrate our results by showing daily and monthly zonal wind variations, namely the semi-annual oscillation in the tropics and reversals of the flow direction between 50° N–55° N during sudden stratospheric warmings in the stratosphere. The daily comparison with ECMWF winds reveals that in the beginning of February, a significantly stronger zonal westward flow is measured in the tropics at 2 hPa compared to the flow computed in the analysis (difference of ~20 m s−1). The results show that the comparison between SMILES and ECMWF winds is not only relevant for the quality assessment of the new SMILES winds but it also provides insights on the quality of the ECMWF winds themselves. Although the instrument was not specifically designed for measuring winds, the results demonstrate that space-borne sub-mm wave radiometers have the potential to provide good quality data for improving the stratospheric winds in atmospheric models.

  • 25. Beddows, D. C. S.
    et al.
    Dall'Osto, M.
    Harrison, R. M.
    Kulmala, M.
    Asmi, A.
    Wiedensohler, A.
    Laj, P.
    Fjaeraa, A. M.
    Sellegri, K.
    Birmili, W.
    Bukowiecki, N.
    Weingartner, E.
    Baltensperger, U.
    Zdimal, V.
    Zikova, N.
    Putaud, J-P
    Marinoni, A.
    Tunved, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hansson, Hans-Christen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Fiebig, M.
    Kivekas, N.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Lihavainen, H.
    Asmi, E.
    Ulevicius, V.
    Aalto, P. P.
    Mihalopoulos, N.
    Kalivitis, N.
    Kalapov, I.
    Kiss, G.
    de Leeuw, G.
    Henzing, B.
    O'Dowd, C.
    Jennings, S. G.
    Flentje, H.
    Meinhardt, F.
    Ries, L.
    van der Gon, H. A. C. Denier
    Visschedijk, A. J. H.
    Variations in tropospheric submicron particle size distributions across the European continent 2008-20092014In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 4327-4348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster analysis of particle number size distributions from background sites across Europe is presented. This generated a total of nine clusters of particle size distributions which could be further combined into two main groups, namely: a south-to-north category (four clusters) and a west-to-east category (five clusters). The first group was identified as most frequently being detected inside and around northern Germany and neighbouring countries, showing clear evidence of local afternoon nucleation and growth events that could be linked to movement of air masses from south to north arriving ultimately at the Arctic contributing to Arctic haze. The second group of particle size spectra proved to have narrower size distributions and collectively showed a dependence of modal diameter upon the longitude of the site (west to east) at which they were most frequently detected. These clusters indicated regional nucleation (at the coastal sites) growing to larger modes further inland. The apparent growth rate of the modal diameter was around 0.6-0.9 nm h(-1). Four specific air mass back-trajectories were successively taken as case studies to examine in real time the evolution of aerosol size distributions across Europe. While aerosol growth processes can be observed as aerosol traverses Europe, the processes are often obscured by the addition of aerosol by emissions en route. This study revealed that some of the 24 stations exhibit more complex behaviour than others, especially when impacted by local sources or a variety of different air masses. Overall, the aerosol size distribution clustering analysis greatly simplifies the complex data set and allows a description of aerosol aging processes, which reflects the longer-term average development of particle number size distributions as air masses advect across Europe.

  • 26.
    Bender, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology.
    A note on the effect of GCM tuning on climate sensitivity2008In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9318 , Vol. 3, no 1, p. 014001-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Bender, Frida A. -M.
    et al.
    Charlson, Robert J.
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Leahy, Louise V.
    Quantification of Monthly Mean Regional-Scale Albedo of Marine Stratiform Clouds in Satellite Observations and GCMs2011In: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, ISSN 1558-8424, E-ISSN 1558-8432, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 2139-2148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planetary albedo the reflectivity for solar radiation is of singular importance in determining the amount of solar energy taken in by the Earth-atmosphere system. Modeling albedo, and specifically cloud albedo, correctly is crucial for realistic climate simulations. A method is presented herein by which regional cloud albedo can be quantified from the relation between total albedo and cloud fraction, which in observations is found to be approximately linear on a monthly mean scale. This analysis is based primarily on the combination of cloud fraction data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and albedo data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), but the results presented are also supported by the combination of cloud fraction and proxy albedo data from satelliteborne lidar [Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CA LIPSO)]. These data are measured and derived completely independently from the CERES-MODIS data. Applied to low-level marine stratiform clouds in three regions (off the coasts of South America, Africa, and North America), the analysis reveals regionally uniform monthly mean cloud albedos, indicating that the variation in cloud shortwave radiative properties is small on this scale. A coherent picture of low effective cloud albedo emerges, in the range from 0.35 to 0.42, on the basis of data from CERES and MODIS. In its simplicity, the method presented appears to be useful as a diagnostic tool and as a constraint on climate models. To demonstrate this, the same method is applied to cloud fraction and albedo output from several current-generation climate models [from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 3 (CMIP3), archive]. Although the multimodel mean cloud albedo estimates agree to within 20% with the satellite-based estimates for the three focus regions, model-based estimates of cloud albedo are found to display much larger variability than do the observations, within individual models as well as between models.

  • 28.
    Bender, Frida A.-M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Rodhe, Henning
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Charlson, Robert J.
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Loeb, Norman
    22 views of the global albedo - comparison between 20 GCMs and two satellites2006In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 320-330Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Bender, Frida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Engström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Karlsson, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Factors controlling cloud albedo in marine subtropical stratocumulus regions in climate models and satellite observations2016In: Journal of Climate, ISSN 0894-8755, E-ISSN 1520-0442, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 3559-3587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the radiative properties of five subtropical marine stratocumulus cloud regions, on monthly mean scale. Through examination of the relation between total albedo and cloud fraction, and its variability and relation to other parameters, some of the factors controlling the reflectivity, or albedo, of the clouds in these regions are investigated. It is found that the main part of the variability in albedo at a given cloud fraction can be related to temporal, rather than spatial variability, indicating spatial homogeneity in cloud radiative properties in the studied regions. This is seen most clearly in satellite observations, but also in an ensemble of climate models. Further comparison between satellite data and output from climate models shows that there is good agreement with respect to the role of liquid water path, the parameter that can be assumed to be the primary source of variability in cloud reflectivity for a given cloud fraction. On the other hand, the influence of aerosol loading on cloud albedo differs between models and observations. The cloud-albedo effect, or cloud brightening caused by aerosol through its coupling to cloud droplet number concentration and droplet size, is found not to dominate in the satellite observations on monthly mean scale, as it appears to do on this scale in the climate models. The disagreement between models and observations is particularly strong in regions with frequent occurrence of absorbing aerosols above clouds, where satellite data contrary to the climate models indicate a scene darkening with increasing aerosol loading.

  • 30.
    Bender, Frida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology.
    Rodhe, Henning
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology.
    Vem ska man tro på om klimatet?2008In: Svenska Dagbladet, no 2008-10-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31. Bengtsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Claesson, Stefan
    Rodhe, Henning
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Öquist, Gunnar
    Extrema oväder hänger inte ihop med ett varmare klimat2009In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 16 decemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Bengtsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    On the Convective-Scale Predictability of the Atmosphere2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-represented description of convection in weather and climate models is essential since convective clouds strongly influence the climate system. Convective processes interact with radiation, redistribute sensible and latent heat and momentum, and impact hydrological processes through precipitation. Depending on the models’ horizontal resolution, the representation of convection may look very different. However, the convective scales not resolved by the model are traditionally parameterized by an ensemble of non-interacting convective plumes within some area of uniform forcing, representing the “large scale”. A bulk representation of the mass-flux associated with the individual plumes in the defined area provide the statistical effect of moist convection on the atmosphere. Studying the characteristics of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system it is found that the control forecast of the ensemble system is not variable enough in order to yield a sufficient spread using an initial perturbation technique alone. Such insufficient variability may be addressed in the parameterizations of, for instance, cumulus convection where the sub-grid variability in space and time is traditionally neglected. Furthermore, horizontal transport due to gravity waves can act to organize deep convection into larger scale structures which can contribute to an upscale energy cascade. However, horizontal advection and numerical diffusion are the only ways through which adjacent model grid-boxes interact in the models. The impact of flow dependent horizontal diffusion on resolved deep convection is studied, and the organization of convective clusters is found very sensitive to the method of imposing horizontal diffusion. However, using numerical diffusion in order to represent lateral effects is undesirable. To address the above issues, a scheme using cellular automata in order to introduce lateral communication, memory and a stochastic representation of the statistical effects of cumulus convection is implemented in two numerical weather models. The behaviour of the scheme is studied in cases of organized convective squall-lines, and initial model runs show promising improvements.

  • 33.
    Bengtsson, Lisa K.
    et al.
    Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut (SMHI), Norrköping.
    Magnusson, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Källén, Erland
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Independent Estimations of the Asymptotic Variability in an Ensemble Forecast System2008In: Monthly Weather Review, ISSN 0027-0644, E-ISSN 1520-0493, Vol. 136, no 11, p. 4105-4112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One desirable property within an ensemble forecast system is to have a one-to-one ratio between the root-mean-square error (rmse) of the ensemble mean and the standard deviation of the ensemble (spread). The ensemble spread and forecast error within the ECMWF ensemble prediction system has been extrapolated beyond 10 forecast days using a simple model for error growth. The behavior of the ensemble spread and the rmse at the time of the deterministic predictability are compared with derived relations of rmse at the infinite forecast length and the characteristic variability of the atmosphere in the limit of deterministic predictability. Utilizing this methodology suggests that the forecast model and the atmosphere do not have the same variability, which raises the question of how to obtain a perfect ensemble.

  • 34.
    Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut (SMHI), Norrköping.
    Körnich, Heiner
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Källén, Erland
    Svensson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Large-Scale Dynamical Response to Subgrid-Scale Organization Provided by Cellular Automata2011In: Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, ISSN 0022-4928, E-ISSN 1520-0469, Vol. 68, no 12, p. 3132-3144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the limited resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, sub-grid scale physical processes are parameterized, and represented by grid-box means. However, some physical processes are better represented by a mean and its variance, a typical example being deep convection, with scales varying from individual updraughts to organized meso-scale systems. In this study, we investigate, in an idealized setting, whether a cellular automaton (CA) can be used in order to enhance sub-grid scale organization by forming clusters representative of the convective scales, and yield a stochastic representation of sub-grid scale variability. We study the transfer of energy from the convective to the larger atmospheric scales through nonlinear wave interactions. This is done using a shallow water (SW) model initialized with equatorial wave modes. By letting a CA act on a finer resolution than that of the SW model, it can be expected to mimic the effect of, for instance, gravity wave propagation on convective organization. Employing the CA-scheme allows to reproduce the observed behaviour of slowing down equatorial Kelvin modes in convectively active regions, while random perturbations fail to feed back on the large-scale flow. The analysis of kinetic energy spectra demonstrates that the CA sub-grid scheme introduces energy back-scatter from the smallest model scales to medium scales. However, the amount of energy back-scattered depends almost solely on the memory time scale introduced to the sub-grid scheme, whereas any variation in spatial scales generated does not influence the energy spectra markedly.

  • 35.
    Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut (SMHI), Norrköping.
    Steinheimer, M.
    Bechtold, P.
    Geleyn, J-F.
    A stochastic parameterization for deep convection using cellularautomataIn: Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, ISSN 0022-4928, E-ISSN 1520-0469Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut (SMHI), Norrköping.
    Tijm, Sander
    Vána, Filip
    Svensson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Impact of flow-dependent horizontal diffusion on resolved convectionin AROME.2012In: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, ISSN 1558-8424, E-ISSN 1558-8432, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 54-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horizontal diffusion in numerical weather prediction models is, in general, applied to reduce numerical noise at the smallest atmospheric scales. In convection-permittingmodels, with horizontal grid spacing on the order of 1–3 km, horizontal diffusion can improve themodel skill of physical parameters such as convective precipitation. For instance, studies using the convection-permitting Applications of Research to Operations at Mesoscale model (AROME) have shown an improvement in forecasts of large precipitation amounts when horizontal diffusion is applied to falling hydrometeors. The nonphysical nature of such a procedure is undesirable, however. Within the current AROME, horizontal diffusion is imposed using linear spectral horizontal diffusion on dynamicalmodel fields. This spectral diffusion is complemented by nonlinear, flow-dependent, horizontal diffusion applied on turbulent kinetic energy, cloud water, cloud ice, rain, snow, and graupel. In this study, nonlinear flowdependent diffusion is applied to the dynamical model fields rather than diffusing the already predicted falling hydrometeors. In particular, the characteristics of deep convection are investigated. Results indicate that, for the same amount of diffusive damping, the maximum convective updrafts remain strong for both the current and proposed methods of horizontal diffusion. Diffusing the falling hydrometeors is necessary to see a reduction in rain intensity, but amore physically justified solution can be obtained by increasing the amount of damping on the smallest atmospheric scales using the nonlinear, flow-dependent, diffusion scheme. In doing so, a reduction in vertical velocity was found, resulting in a reduction in maximum rain intensity.

  • 37.
    Benze, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . University of Colorado, USA.
    Gumbel, Jörg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Randall, Cora E.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Hultgren, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Lumpe, Jerry D.
    Baumgarten, Gerd
    Making limb and nadir measurements comparable: A common volume study of PMC brightness observed by Odin OSIRIS and AIM CIPS2018In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 167, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining limb and nadir satellite observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) has long been recognized as problematic due to differences in observation geometry, scattering conditions, and retrieval approaches. This study offers a method of comparing PMC brightness observations from the nadir-viewing Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and the limb-viewing Odin Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). OSIRIS and CIPS measurements are made comparable by defining a common volume for overlapping OSIRIS and CIPS observations for two northern hemisphere (NH) PMC seasons: NH08 and NH09. We define a scattering intensity quantity that is suitable for either nadir or limb observations and for different scattering conditions. A known CIPS bias is applied, differences in instrument sensitivity are analyzed and taken into account, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity and common volume definition on the comparison are discussed. Not accounting for instrument sensitivity differences or inhomogeneities in the PMC field, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness (CIPS - OSIRIS) is -102 +/- 55%. The differences are largest for coincidences with very inhomogeneous clouds that are dominated by pixels that CIPS reports as non-cloud points. Removing these coincidences, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness reduces to -6 +/- 14%. The correlation coefficient between the CIPS and OSIRIS measurements of PMC brightness variations in space and time is remarkably high, at 0.94. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement despite different retrieval approaches and observation geometries.

  • 38.
    Berger, M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Brandefelt, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    The sensitivity of the Arctic sea ice to orbitally induced insolation changes: a study of the mid-Holocene Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 2 and 3 simulations2013In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 969-982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work the Arctic sea ice in the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial climates are analysed and compared on the basis of climate-model results from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PMIP2) and phase 3 (PMIP3). The PMIP3 models generally simulate smaller and thinner sea-ice extents than the PMIP2 models both for the pre-industrial and the mid-Holocene climate. Further, the PMIP2 and PMIP3 models all simulate a smaller and thinner Arctic summer sea-ice cover in the mid-Holocene than in the pre-industrial control climate. The PMIP3 models also simulate thinner winter sea ice than the PMIP2 models. The winter sea-ice extent response, i.e. the difference between the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial climate, varies among both PMIP2 and PMIP3 models. Approximately one half of the models simulate a decrease in winter sea-ice extent and one half simulates an increase. The model-mean summer sea-ice extent is 11% (21 %) smaller in the mid-Holocene than in the pre-industrial climate simulations in the PMIP2 (PMIP3). In accordance with the simple model of Thorndike (1992), the sea-ice thickness response to the insolation change from the pre-industrial to the mid-Holocene is stronger in models with thicker ice in the pre-industrial climate simulation. Further, the analyses show that climate models for which the Arctic sea-ice responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are similar may simulate rather different sea-ice responses to the change in solar forcing between the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial. For two specific models, which are analysed in detail, this difference is found to be associated with differences in the simulated cloud fractions in the summer Arctic; in the model with a larger cloud fraction the effect of insolation change is muted. A sub-set of the mid-Holocene simulations in the PMIP ensemble exhibit open water off the north-eastern coast of Greenland in summer, which can provide a fetch for surface waves. This is in broad agreement with recent analyses of sea-ice proxies, indicating that beach-ridges formed on the north-eastern coast of Greenland during the early-to mid-Holocene.

  • 39. Bigg, E. Keith
    et al.
    Leck, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology.
    The composition of fragments of bubbles bursting at the ocean surface2008In: Journal of geophysical research: Atmospheres, Vol. 113, no D11, p. D11209-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air bubbles bursting on artificial seawater in laboratory experiments have been found to inject numerous particles <200 nm diameter into the atmosphere, some experiments showing copious production of particles as small as 10 nm. Some observations of the real marine aerosol support the presence of a large proportion of sea salt <200 nm diameter, while others suggest that it is absent, or nearly so. It is argued here that the observations showing its presence may be misinterpretations. If this is so, modification of currently accepted theories of particle injection into the atmosphere by bursting bubbles would be required. Highly surface active exopolymers produced by bacteria and algae, the microgels formed by them, and large concentrations of submicrometer particulates are known to be present in the ocean. Their possible influence on bubble formation, bubble bursting and particle injection into the atmosphere are discussed. Electron microscopy of individual particles at a number of sites supports the proposal that the exopolymers are involved in these processes. Ultraviolet light and acidification cause structural and chemical changes to exopolymers and their gels exposed to the atmosphere so that marine aerosol will have properties that change with atmospheric residence time.

  • 40. Birch, C. E.
    et al.
    Brooks, I. M.
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Shupe, M. D.
    Mauritsen, T.
    Sedlar, J.
    Lock, A. P.
    Earnshaw, P.
    Persson, P. O. G.
    Milton, S. F.
    Leck, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Modelling atmospheric structure, cloud and their response to CCN in the central Arctic: ASCOS case studies2012In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 3419-3435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations made during late summer in the central Arctic Ocean, as part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), are used to evaluate cloud and vertical temperature structure in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM). The observation period can be split into 5 regimes; the first two regimes had a large number of frontal systems, which were associated with deep cloud. During the remainder of the campaign a layer of low-level cloud occurred, typical of central Arctic summer conditions, along with two periods of greatly reduced cloud cover. The short-range operational NWP forecasts could not accurately reproduce the observed variations in near-surface temperature. A major source of this error was found to be the temperature-dependant surface albedo parameterisation scheme. The model reproduced the low-level cloud layer, though it was too thin, too shallow, and in a boundary-layer that was too frequently well-mixed. The model was also unable to reproduce the observed periods of reduced cloud cover, which were associated with very low cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations (< 1 cm(-3)). As with most global NWP models, the MetUM does not have a prognostic aerosol/cloud scheme but uses a constant CCN concentration of 100 cm(-3) over all marine environments. It is therefore unable to represent the low CCN number concentrations and the rapid variations in concentration frequently observed in the central Arctic during late summer. Experiments with a single-column model configuration of the MetUM show that reducing model CCN number concentrations to observed values reduces the amount of cloud, increases the near-surface stability, and improves the representation of both the surface radiation fluxes and the surface temperature. The model is shown to be sensitive to CCN only when number concentrations are less than 10-20 cm(-3).

  • 41.
    Birch, Cathryn
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Brooks, Ian
    University of Leeds.
    Michael, Tjernström
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Milton, Sean
    UK Met Office.
    Earnshaw,
    UK Met Office.
    Persson, Ola
    NOAA/ESRL-PSD.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    WeatherTech Scandinavia.
    The performance of a global and mesoscale model over the central Arctic Ocean during the summer melt season2009In: Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmospheres, Vol. 114, p. D13104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of turbulent fluxes, clouds, radiation, and profiles of meanmeteorological parameters, obtained over an ice floe in the central Arctic Ocean during theArctic Ocean Experiment 2001, are used to evaluate the performance of U.K. Met OfficeUnified Model (MetUM) and Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System(COAMPS) in the lower atmosphere during late summer. Both the latest version of theMetUM and the version operational in 2001 are used in the comparison to gain aninsight as to whether updates to the model have improved its performance over the Arcticregion. As with previous model evaluations over the Arctic, the pressure, humidity,and wind fields are satisfactorily represented in all three models. The older version of theMetUM underpredicts the occurrence of low-level Arctic clouds, and the liquid and icecloud water partitioning is inaccurate compared to observations made during SHEBA.In the newer version, simulated ice and liquid water paths are improved, but theoccurrence of low-level clouds are overpredicted. Both versions overestimate the amountof radiative heat absorbed at the surface, leading to a significant feedback of errorsinvolving the surface albedo, which causes a large positive bias the surface temperature.Cloud forcing in COAMPS produces similar biases in the downwelling shortwave andlongwave radiation fluxes to those produced by UM(G25). The surface albedoparameterization is, however, more realistic, and thus, the total heat flux and surfacetemperature are more accurate for the majority of the observation period.

  • 42. Björk, Göran
    et al.
    Nordberg, Kjell
    Arneborg, Lars
    Bornmalm, Lennart
    Harland, Rex
    Robijn, Ardo
    Ödalen, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Seasonal oxygen depletion in a shallow sill fjord on the Swedish west coast2017In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 175, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the summer of 2008, oxygen depleted water, between 5 and 12 m depth, was discovered in Sannasfjord on the Swedish west coast. The resulting sediments were black, benthic macrofauna were absent and Beggiatoa bacterial mats were a characteristic feature. This phenomenon, which was observed several years in a row, appears to be a relatively new phenomenon starting in the mid-1980s. In this study we attempt to find the underlying causes by investigating climatic effects (temperature, wind and precipitation), the local supply of nutrients from land, ecosystem change and the supply of organic material from the open Skagerrak. An analysis of long meteorological time series indicates that climatic effects are contributory, but probably not a dominating factor leading to hypoxia. Results from an advection-diffusion model solving for oxygen show that the observed increase in the river supply of nutrients has a high potential to generate hypoxia. Although complex and more difficult to quantify, it appears that ecosystem changes, with higher abundance of filamentous algae, may have played an important role. It is also possible that an enhanced supply of organic material from the open Skagerrak has contributed.

  • 43. Björklund, Jesper A.
    et al.
    Gunnarson, Björn E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Krusic, Paul J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Grudd, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    Östlund, Lars
    Linderholm, Hans W.
    Advances towards improved low-frequency tree-ring reconstructions, using an updated Pinus sylvestris L. MXD network from the Scandinavian Mountains2013In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, ISSN 0177-798X, E-ISSN 1434-4483, Vol. 113, no 3-4, p. 697-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dendrochronological use of the parameter maximum density (MXD) in Pinus Sylvestris L., at high latitudes, has provided valuable insights into past summer temperature variations. Few long MXD chronologies, from climatically coherent regions, exist today, with the exception being in northern Europe. Five, 500-year-long, Fennoscandian, MXD chronologies were compared with regard to their common variability and climate sensitivity. They were used to test Signal-free standardization techniques, to improve inferences of low-frequency temperature variations. Climate analysis showed that, in accordance with previous studies on MXD in Fennoscandia, the summer temperature signal is robust (R (2) > 50 %) and reliable over this climatically coherent region. A combination of Individual standardization and regional curve standardization is recommended to refine long-term variability from these MXD chronologies and relieve problems arising from low replication and standardization end-effects.

  • 44.
    Björklund, Justina Awasum
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    De Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust: concentrations, human exposure estimates, and sources2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 2276-2281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are globally distributed, persistent, toxic, and are found in human blood and serum. Exposure pathways are not well characterized. To better understand indoor dust ingestion as a potential pathway for human exposure, we determined the concentrations of these compounds in dust collected from 10 houses, 38 apartments, 10 day care centers, 10 offices, and 5 cars. Samples were prepared using a rapid extraction and cleanup method and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. PFOS and PFOA were found in dust samples from all microenvironments and their concentrations were significantly positively correlated to each other. Highest median concentrations were seen in offices (PFOS: 110 ng/g dry weight) and apartments (PFOA: 93 ng/g dw). Adult and toddler dust ingestion exposures were estimated and compared to dietary exposure data from Canada and Spain. Results show that diet is the most important exposure route, but in a worst case scenario, dust ingestion may also be significant.

  • 45. Björkman, Mats P.
    et al.
    Kuhnel, Rafael
    Partridge, Daniel G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Roberts, Tjarda J.
    Aas, Wenche
    Mazzola, Mauro
    Viola, Angelo
    Hodson, Andy
    Ström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Isaksson, Elisabeth
    Nitrate dry deposition in svalbard2013In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 65, p. 19071-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic regions are generally nutrient limited, receiving an extensive part of their bio-available nitrogen from the deposition of atmospheric reactive nitrogen. Reactive nitrogen oxides, as nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrate aerosols (p-NO3), can either be washed out from the atmosphere by precipitation or dry deposited, dissolving to nitrate (NO3-). During winter, NO3- is accumulated in the snowpack and released as a pulse during spring melt. Quantification of NO3- deposition is essential to assess impacts on Arctic terrestrial ecology and for ice core interpretations. However, the individual importance of wet and dry deposition is poorly quantified in the high Arctic regions where in-situ measurements are demanding. In this study, three different methods are employed to quantify NO3- dry deposition around the atmospheric and ecosystem monitoring site, Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, for the winter season (September 2009 to May 2010): (1) A snow tray sampling approach indicates a dry deposition of -10.27 +/- 3.84 mg m(-2) (+/- S.E.); (2) A glacial sampling approach yielded somewhat higher values -30.68 +/- 12.00 mg m(-2); and (3) Dry deposition was also modelled for HNO3 and p-NO3 using atmospheric concentrations and stability observations, resulting in a total combined nitrate dry deposition of -10.76 +/- 1.26 mg m(-2). The model indicates that deposition primarily occurs via HNO3 with only a minor contribution by p-NO3. Modelled median deposition velocities largely explain this difference: 0.63 cm s(-1) for HNO3 while p-NO3 was 0.0025 and 0.16 cm s(-1) for particle sizes 0.7 and 7 mm, respectively. Overall, the three methods are within two standard errors agreement, attributing an average 14% (total range of 2-44%) of the total nitrate deposition to dry deposition. Dry deposition events were identified in association with elevated atmospheric concentrations, corroborating recent studies that identified episodes of rapid pollution transport and deposition to the Arctic.

  • 46.
    Björkvald, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry. Geokemi.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Borg, Hans
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Trace metals and sulphur isotopes in samll boreal streams: the influence of landscape type2008In: 2008 Ocean Sciences Meeting: From the watershed to the global ocean, 2008, p. 1-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport of trace metals (TM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from headwater streams to the sea is influenced by various landscape elements. Our focus was to investigate the influence of major landscape elements on observed concentrations of dissolved metals (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Fe, Pb), DOC, sulphate, and sulphur isotope composition in streams, north- eastern Sweden, a coastal region characterized by peat wetlands and coniferous forests.

    Stream water samples collected from 10 streams (0.13 to 67 km2) in a boreal stream network reveal that landscape type (i.e. coverage of wetland and forest) is significant for river chemistry. Streams with different catchment characteristics responded differently to hydrological episodes. In forested streams, concentrations of TM, Fe and DOC increased, while they decreased in wetland influenced streams. Furthermore, Fe and Pb correlated positively with wetland coverage. Moreover, significantly lower average sulphate concentrations, but higher isotope values, were observed in wetland streams.

    This study emphasises the importance of understanding stream water chemistry from a landscape perspective in order to identify potential environments where climate change may induce enhanced metal mobilization in the future.

  • 47. Bocquet, Florence
    et al.
    Balsley, Ben
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Svensson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Comparing Estimates of Turbulence Based on Near-Surface Measurements in the Nocturnal Stable Boundary Layer2011In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 138, no 1, p. 43-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tethered Lifting System (TLS) estimates of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (epsilon) are reasonably well correlated with concurrent measurements of vertical velocity variance (sigma(2)(w)) obtained from sonic anemometers located on a nearby 60-m tower during the CASES-99 field experiment. Additional results in the first 100m of the nocturnal stable boundary layer confirm our earlier claim that the presence of weak but persistent background turbulence exists even during the most stable atmospheric conditions, where e can exhibit values as low as 10(-7) m(2) s(-3). We also present a set of empirical equations that incorporates TLS measurements of temperature, horizontal wind speed, and e to provide a proxy measurement for sigma(2)(w) at altitudes higher than tower heights.

  • 48. Bolmgren, K.
    et al.
    Vanhoenacker, Didrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Swedish Natural History Museum.
    Miller-Rushing, A. J.
    One man, 73 years, and 25 species. Evaluating phenological responses using a lifelong study of first flowering dates2013In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 367-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenological shifts linked to global warming reflect the ability of organisms to track changing climatic conditions. However, different organisms track global warming differently and there is an increasing interest in the link between phenological traits and plant abundance and distribution. Long-term data sets are often used to estimate phenological traits to climate change, but so far little has been done to evaluate the quality of these estimates. Here, we use a 73-year long data series of first flowering dates for 25 species from north-temperate Sweden to evaluate (i) correlations between first flowering dates and year for different time periods and (ii) linear regression models between first flowering date and mean monthly temperatures in preceding months. Furthermore, we evaluate the potential of this kind of data to estimate the phenological temperature sensitivities (i.e. number of days phenological change per degree temperature change, beta(60)) in such models. The sign of the correlations between first flowering dates and year were highly inconsistent among different time periods, highlighting that estimates of phenological change are sensitive to the specific time period used. The first flowering dates of all species were correlated with temperature, but with large differences in both the strength of the response and the period(s) of the year that were most strongly associated with phenological variation. Finally, our analyses indicated that legacy data sets need to be relatively long-term to be useful for estimating phenological temperature sensitivities (beta(60)) for inter-specific comparisons. In 10-year long observation series only one out of 24 species reached a parts per thousand yen80 % probability of estimating temperature sensitivity (beta(60)) within a +/- 1 range, and 17 out of 24 species reached a parts per thousand yen80 % probability when observation series were 20 years or shorter. The standard error for beta(60) ranged from 0.6 to 2.0 for 10-year long observation series, and 19 out of 24 species reached SE < 1 after 15 years. In general, late flowering species will require longer time series than early flowering species.

  • 49. Bosveld, Fred C.
    et al.
    Baas, Peter
    Steeneveld, Gert-Jan
    Holtslag, Albert A. M.
    Angevine, Wayne M.
    Bazile, Eric
    de Bruijn, Evert I. F.
    Deacu, Daniel
    Edwards, John M.
    Ek, Michael
    Larson, Vincent E.
    Pleim, Jonathan E.
    Raschendorfer, Matthias
    Svensson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    The Third GABLS Intercomparison Case for Evaluation Studies of Boundary-Layer Models. Part B: Results and Process Understanding2014In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 152, no 2, p. 157-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe and analyze the results of the third global energy and water cycle experiment atmospheric boundary layer Study intercomparison and evaluation study for single-column models. Each of the nineteen participating models was operated with its own physics package, including land-surface, radiation and turbulent mixing schemes, for a full diurnal cycle selected from the Cabauw observatory archive. By carefully prescribing the temporal evolution of the forcings on the vertical column, the models could be evaluated against observations. We focus on the gross features of the stable boundary layer (SBL), such as the onset of evening momentum decoupling, the 2-m minimum temperature, the evolution of the inertial oscillation and the morning transition. New process diagrams are introduced to interpret the variety of model results and the relative importance of processes in the SBL; the diagrams include the results of a number of sensitivity runs performed with one of the models. The models are characterized in terms of thermal coupling to the soil, longwave radiation and turbulent mixing. It is shown that differences in longwave radiation schemes among the models have only a small effect on the simulations; however, there are significant variations in downward radiation due to different boundary-layer profiles of temperature and humidity. The differences in modelled thermal coupling to the land surface are large and explain most of the variations in 2-m air temperature and longwave incoming radiation among models. Models with strong turbulent mixing overestimate the boundary-layer height, underestimate the wind speed at 200 m, and give a relatively large downward sensible heat flux. The result is that 2-m air temperature is relatively insensitive to turbulent mixing intensity. Evening transition times spread 1.5 h around the observed time of transition, with later transitions for models with coarse resolution. Time of onset in the morning transition spreads 2 h around the observed transition time. With this case, the morning transition appeared to be difficult to study, no relation could be found between the studied processes, and the variation in the time of the morning transition among the models.

  • 50. Bothe, O.
    et al.
    Jungclaus, J. H.
    Zanchettin, D.
    Zorita, E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Climate of the last millennium: ensemble consistency of simulations and reconstructions2013In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 1089-1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are simulations and reconstructions of past climate and its variability consistent with each other? We assess the consistency of simulations and reconstructions for the climate of the last millennium under the paradigm of a statistically indistinguishable ensemble. In this type of analysis, the null hypothesis is that reconstructions and simulations are statistically indistinguishable and, therefore, are exchangeable with each other. Ensemble consistency is assessed for Northern Hemisphere mean temperature, Central European mean temperature and for global temperature fields. Reconstructions available for these regions serve as verification data for a set of simulations of the climate of the last millennium performed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. Consistency is generally limited to some sub-domains and some sub-periods. Only the ensemble simulated and reconstructed annual Central European mean temperatures for the second half of the last millennium demonstrates unambiguous consistency. Furthermore, we cannot exclude consistency of an ensemble of reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere temperature with the simulation ensemble mean. If we treat simulations and reconstructions as equitable hypotheses about past climate variability, the found general lack of their consistency weakens our confidence in inferences about past climate evolutions on the considered spatial and temporal scales. That is, our available estimates of past climate evolutions are on an equal footing but, as shown here, inconsistent with each other.

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