Endre søk
Begrens søket
123 1 - 50 of 146
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1. Abend, M.
    et al.
    Amundson, S. A.
    Badie, C.
    Brzoska, K.
    Hargitai, R.
    Kriehuber, R.
    Schüle, S.
    Kis, E.
    Ghandhi, S. A.
    Lumniczky, K.
    Morton, S. R.
    O'Brien, G.
    Oskamp, D.
    Ostheim, P.
    Siebenwirth, C.
    Shuryak, I.
    Szatmári, T.
    Unverricht-Yeboah, M.
    Ainsbury, E.
    Bassinet, C.
    Kulka, U.
    Oestreicher, U.
    Ristic, Y.
    Trompier, F.
    Wójcik, Andrzej
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Waldner, L.
    Port, M.
    Inter-laboratory comparison of gene expression biodosimetry for protracted radiation exposures as part of the RENEB and EURADOS WG10 2019 exercise2021Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 9756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale radiation emergency scenarios involving protracted low dose rate radiation exposure (e.g. a hidden radioactive source in a train) necessitate the development of high throughput methods for providing rapid individual dose estimates. During the RENEB (Running the European Network of Biodosimetry) 2019 exercise, four EDTA-blood samples were exposed to an Iridium-192 source (1.36 TBq, Tech-Ops 880 Sentinal) at varying distances and geometries. This resulted in protracted doses ranging between 0.2 and 2.4 Gy using dose rates of 1.5-40 mGy/min and exposure times of 1 or 2.5 h. Blood samples were exposed in thermo bottles that maintained temperatures between 39 and 27.7 degrees C. After exposure, EDTA-blood samples were transferred into PAXGene tubes to preserve RNA. RNA was isolated in one laboratory and aliquots of four blinded RNA were sent to another five teams for dose estimation based on gene expression changes. Using an X-ray machine, samples for two calibration curves (first: constant dose rate of 8.3 mGy/min and 0.5-8 h varying exposure times; second: varying dose rates of 0.5-8.3 mGy/min and 4 h exposure time) were generated for distribution. Assays were run in each laboratory according to locally established protocols using either a microarray platform (one team) or quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, five teams). The qRT-PCR measurements were highly reproducible with coefficient of variation below 15% in >= 75% of measurements resulting in reported dose estimates ranging between 0 and 0.5 Gy in all samples and in all laboratories. Up to twofold reductions in RNA copy numbers per degree Celsius relative to 37 degrees C were observed. However, when irradiating independent samples equivalent to the blinded samples but increasing the combined exposure and incubation time to 4 h at 37 degrees C, expected gene expression changes corresponding to the absorbed doses were observed. Clearly, time and an optimal temperature of 37 degrees C must be allowed for the biological response to manifest as gene expression changes prior to running the gene expression assay. In conclusion, dose reconstructions based on gene expression measurements are highly reproducible across different techniques, protocols and laboratories. Even a radiation dose of 0.25 Gy protracted over 4 h (1 mGy/min) can be identified. These results demonstrate the importance of the incubation conditions and time span between radiation exposure and measurements of gene expression changes when using this method in a field exercise or real emergency situation.

  • 2.
    Adler, Jeremy
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    The unitary scale bar: human and machine readable2008Inngår i: Journal of Microscopy, ISSN 0022-2720, E-ISSN 1365-2818, Vol. 230, nr 1, s. 163-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A format is described for a scale bar that encodes the length represented within the structure of the bar itself, thereby removing the need for any supporting text. Although the 'unitary' scale bar has a conventional appearance it is also machine readable and therefore retains information about the scale even when the file format is changed. The format is based on the metre and is suitable for all terrestrial applications.

  • 3.
    Aili, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Pietsch, Theodore W
    University of Washington, Seattle.
    Jacob Theodor Klein's Critique of Peter Artedi's Ichthyologia (1738)2014Inngår i: Svenska Linnésällskapets årsskrift, ISSN 0375-2038, s. 39-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An anonymous critique of Peter Artedi’s (1705‒1735) Ichthyologia sive opera omnia de piscibus, the latter edited and published posthumously by Carolus Linnaeus (1707‒ 1778) in 1738, is shown to have been written by the Prussian jurist and naturalist Jacob Theodor Klein (1685‒1759), and sent to Hans Sloane (1660−1753) in London for his approval. The critique is transcribed and translated, and its contents assessed in light of Artedi’s contribution to Linnaean systematics. While in some ways highly critical of Artedi, Klein must have been well aware that by criticizing Artedi he was, by association, criticizing Linnaeus as well. Linnaeus’s editorial contributions to the Ichthyologia as well as his on-going antagonistic relationship with Klein are also discussed.

  • 4. Anderson, Bruce T.
    et al.
    Hassanzadeh, Pedram
    Caballero, Rodrigo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation as an initiator of El Nino/Southern Oscillation events2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 10145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climates across both hemispheres are strongly influenced by tropical Pacific variability associated with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Conversely, extratropical variability also can affect the tropics. In particular, seasonal-mean alterations of near-surface winds associated with the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) serve as a significant extratropical forcing agent of ENSO. However, it is still unclear what dynamical processes give rise to year-to-year shifts in these long-lived NPO anomalies. Here we show that intraseasonal variability in boreal winter pressure patterns over the Central North Pacific (CNP) imparts a significant signature upon the seasonal-mean circulations characteristic of the NPO. Further we show that the seasonal-mean signature results in part from year-to-year variations in persistent, quasi-stationary low-pressure intrusions into the subtropics of the CNP, accompanied by the establishment of persistent, quasi-stationary high-pressure anomalies over high latitudes of the CNP. Overall, we find that the frequency of these persistent extratropical anomalies (PEAs) during a given winter serves as a key modulator of intraseasonal variability in extratropical North Pacific circulations and, through their influence on the seasonal-mean circulations in and around the southern lobe of the NPO, the state of the equatorial Pacific 9-12 months later.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The role of science in finding solutions to wicked, systemic problems: This article belongs to Ambio’s 50th Anniversary Collection. Theme: Solutions-oriented research2022Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Per Gösta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Approximate Confidence Intervals for a Binomial p - Once Again2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mapping supply and demand of ecosystem services in the Helge Å catchment area, Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Research on ecosystem services has accelerated the last few years, but there is a knowledge gap on how to integrate the concept into management in a way that is mindful of the complex, dynamic and non-linear dimensions of ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are often approached from a supply side, and more often than not services are approached individually without attempt to capture the trade-offs and synergies between services. The overall aim of this master’s thesis is to contribute to the operationalization of the ecosystem services concept, within a social-ecological systems framework. This is done through a case study of the Helge Å catchment in Southern Sweden, in which I use publically available data to map the supply and demand of a selection of locally relevant provisioning, regulating, and, to some extent, cultural ecosystem services. The thesis analyses some of the challenges of, as well as opportunities for, making tangible sense of this complex social-ecological concept in a way that can inform decision making on ecosystem services for sustainable development. The results show that mapping both supply and demand adds important dimensions to ecosystem service assessment that has value within management contexts. Especially important are the added social dimensions of ecosystem service provision, and the incorporation of societal demand as a factor in mapping. There are some obvious challenges still associated with this type of mapping, foremost associated with mapping of cultural ecosystem services and data availability, which have yet to be resolved through continued research efforts.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8. Artiglia, Luca
    et al.
    Edebeli, Jacinta
    Orlando, Fabrizio
    Chen, Shuzhen
    Lee, Ming-Tao
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.
    Arroyo, Pablo Corral
    Gilgen, Anina
    Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten
    Kleibert, Armin
    Vazdar, Mario
    Carignano, Marcelo Andres
    Francisco, Joseph S.
    Shepson, Paul B.
    Gladich, Ivan
    Ammann, Markus
    A surface-stabilized ozonide triggers bromide oxidation at the aqueous solution-vapour interface2017Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 700Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidation of bromide in aqueous environments initiates the formation of molecular halogen compounds, which is important for the global tropospheric ozone budget. In the aqueous bulk, oxidation of bromide by ozone involves a [Br center dot OOO-] complex as intermediate. Here we report liquid jet X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements that provide direct experimental evidence for the ozonide and establish its propensity for the solution-vapour interface. Theoretical calculations support these findings, showing that water stabilizes the ozonide and lowers the energy of the transition state at neutral pH. Kinetic experiments confirm the dominance of the heterogeneous oxidation route established by this precursor at low, atmospherically relevant ozone concentrations. Taken together, our results provide a strong case of different reaction kinetics and mechanisms of reactions occurring at the aqueous phase-vapour interface compared with the bulk aqueous phase.

  • 9. Avdic, Hanna Björlin
    et al.
    Strannegård, Claes
    Engberg, Hedvig
    Willfors, Charlotte
    Nordgren, Ida
    Frisen, Louise
    Hirschberg, Angelica Linden
    Guath, Mona
    Nordgren, Ann
    Kleberg, Johan L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Reduced effects of social feedback on learning in Turner syndrome2023Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 15858Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Turner syndrome is a genetic condition caused by a complete or partial loss of one of the X chromosomes. Previous studies indicate that Turner syndrome is associated with challenges in social skills, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. A possible mechanism is a reduced social influence on learning. The current study examined the impact of social and non-social feedback on learning in women with Turner syndrome (n=35) and a sex- and age-matched control group (n=37). Participants were instructed to earn points by repeatedly choosing between two stimuli with unequal probabilities of resulting in a reward. Mastering the task therefore required participants to learn through feedback which of the two stimuli was more likely to be rewarded. Data were analyzed using computational modeling and analyses of choice behavior. Social feedback led to a more explorative choice behavior in the control group, resulting in reduced learning compared to non-social feedback. No effects of social feedback on learning were found in Turner syndrome. The current study thus indicates that women with Turner syndrome may be less sensitive to social influences on reinforcement learning, than the general population.

  • 10.
    Axelsson, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Britt, Jakobson
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ämnesdidaktik.
    Kunskap och språk - meningsskapande i naturvetenskap2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barns möte med skolan innebär också ett möte mellan det vardagsspråk barnen blivit kompetenta språkbrukare i och skolspråket som de kan vara mer eller mindre främmande inför. Eftersom språket är människans viktigaste redskap för meningsskapande och skolans ämnen konstitueras av språket kommer eleverna under skolåren behöva bli medvetna om att olika sammanhang i skolan kräver olika språkbruk. I detta forskningsprojekt studeras språkets roll för utvecklingen av naturvetenskapligt lärande. Syftet med studien är att på makro- och mikronivå undersöka hur lärare ämnesmässigt och språkligt stöttar yngre (6-10 år) andraspråksutveckling i skolans naturvetenskapliga ämnen och vilken betydelse denna stöttning har för elevernas språk- och kunskapsutveckling i naturvetenskap. Med makronivå avses de stöttande aktiviteter läraren redan från början planerat och integrerat i undervisningen och med mikronivå avses den mer spontana interaktion som uppstår mellan lärare-elev och elev-elev under dessa aktiviteter. Projektet löper under två år där det första året (ht 08-vt09) är ett forskningsår då material samlas in i olika klasser från förskoleklass till årskurs 4. Datainsamlingen består av observationer när barn deltar i naturvetenskapliga aktiviteter i klassrummet, ljud- och videoinspelningar. fotografier, samtal med lärare och elever samt insamling av lärarplaneringar, elevarbeten och läromedelstexter. Under det andra året (ht09-vt10) möts deltagande lärare från insamlingsåret och forskarna i en aktiionsforskningsgrupp. Denna fas innebär att det insamlade materialet presenteras för lärarna och att analysen av stöttningen ur makro- och mikroperspektiv återkopplas och diskuteras. Resultatet av denna analys och diskussion förväntas leda till en uppsättning "mer framgångsrika" sätt att stötta elevers utveckling i de naturvetenskapliga ämnena som lärarna i denna fas prövar i sina respektive elevgrupper. Genom interaktionen i aktionsforskningsgruppen planerar varje lärare nya aktiviteter i sin elevgrupp, observerar och reflekterar över skeendet samt återför sina reflektioner till gruppen. Forskarna medverkar även detta andra år ute i klasserna med ytterligare materialinsamlingar för att dokumentera utvecklingen. I presentationen ges exempel på hur lärare och elever konstruerar mening under lektioner i naturvetenskap. Det insamlade materialet kommer att analyseras med utgångspunkt i Hallidays (1975) registervariabler field, tenor och mode kopplat till praktiska epistemologier (Wickman & Östman, 2002) och lärares epistemologiska drag (moves) (Lidar, Lundqvist & Östman, 2005) samt jämföras med Lemkes tematiska mönster (1990).

  • 11.
    Björkvik, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stewardship in Swedish Baltic small-scale fisheries: A study on the social-ecological dynamics of local resource use2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability scholars frequently advocate for stewardship as a strategy to foster sustainable development. Stewardship broadly refers to the wise and responsible use of nature, and is considered necessary to ensure the long-term wellbeing of humans and that of life in general. In the academic literature local resource users, like hunters, farmers or fishers, are widely acknowledged to act as stewards of the natural environments their livelihoods depend upon. Research shows that this group of people often are able to use natural resources in a sustainable manner, and that their knowledge of how to do so can improve natural resource management. However, research also emphasizes how different local resource users have different potential to steward natural environments. There is thus a need to better understand what stewardship among local resource users entails more concretely as well as when and how it fosters environmental sustainability. In this thesis, I study stewardship in the case of Swedish Baltic small-scale fisheries. I conceptualize stewardship as an interaction between fishers and the social-ecological context in which they are embedded. This conceptualization implies that stewardship does not exist or emerge from within fishers themselves, but is created, formed and realized through fishing practices. I further define and analyze stewardship using a framework composed of three dimensions: care, agency and knowledge. My findings are contained in four papers. Paper I presents a theoretical model of how local resource users respond to social and ecological change, and shows the model’s empirical relevance. Paper II gives an overview of the diversity and development within present-day Swedish Baltic small-scale fisheries. Paper III investigates the historical development of a Swedish fishery that targets the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Paper IV focuses on fishers’ knowledge and assesses how this knowledge can be applied in fisheries science and management. The papers collectively demonstrate the contextual nature of stewardship and showcase how stewardship varies over time as well as between fishers. The findings illustrate the ambiguous link between stewardship and environmental sustainability, they support the notion that fishers’ knowledge can improve fisheries management, while also suggesting that future research needs to pay more attention to how stewardship is empirically manifested. Overall, the thesis advances the understanding of stewardship by highlighting the social-ecological dynamics of local resource use.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Stewardship in Swedish Baltic small-scale fisheries
    Download (jpg)
    Omslagsframsida
  • 12.
    Björkvik, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Why fishers end up in social-ecological traps: a case study of Swedish eel fisheries in the Baltic Sea2020Inngår i: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 25, nr 1, artikkel-id 21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsustainable fishing can be surprisingly persistent despite devastating social, economic, and ecological consequences. Sustainability science literature suggests that the persistence of unsustainable fisheries can be understood as a social-ecological trap. Few studies have explicitly acknowledged the role of historical legacies for the development of social-ecological traps. Here, we investigate why fishers sometimes end up in social-ecological traps through a reconstruction of the historical interplay between fishers’ motivations, capacities, and opportunities to fish. We focus on the case of a Swedish fishery targeting the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla Anguilla) in the Baltic Sea. We performed the case study using a unique quantitative data set of social and ecological variables that spans over eight decades, in combination with earlier literature and interviews with fishers and fisheries experts. Our analysis reveals that Swedish archipelago fishers are highly dependent on the eel to maintain their fishing livelihood. The dependence on the eel originates from the 1930s, when fishers chose to intensify fishing for this species to ensure future incomes. The dependence persisted over time because of a series of changes, including improved eel fishing technology, heightened competition over catch, reduced opportunities to target other species, implementation of an eel fishing license, and the fishers’ capacity and motivation to deal with dwindling catches. Our study confirms that social-ecological traps are path-dependent processes. In terms of management, this finding means that it becomes progressively more difficult to escape the social-ecological trap with the passage of time. The longer entrapment endures, the more effort it takes and the bigger change it requires to return to a situation where fishers have more options so that unsustainable practices can be avoided. We conclude that fisheries policies need to be based on the premise that unsustainable fishing emerges through multiple rather than single causes.

  • 13.
    Björkvik, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Swedish small-scale fisheries in the Baltic Sea: Decline, diversity and development2020Inngår i: Small-Scale Fisheries in Europe: Status, Resilience and Governance / [ed] José J. Pascual-Fernández, Cristina Pita, Maarten Bavinck, Springer, 2020, s. 559-579Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Can Swedish small-scale fisheries escape decline and live up to their attributed potential to make fisheries more sustainable? Here we address this question by highlighting diversity within these fisheries. Through a specific focus on the Baltic Sea, we demonstrate that small-scale fisheries, defined by scale of operation, are neither sustainable nor unsustainable and have different social and ecological impacts. Based on our analysis we discuss general opportunities and challenges for future development of Swedish small-scale fisheries. Opportunities exist in connection to the creation of niche-products and branding fish as a local and/or exclusive commodity, while major challenges are linked to complexity and extensiveness of regulations, lack of recruitment of new fishers, and ecological sustainability of fishing practices. We argue that attention to diversity in Swedish small-scale fisheries has to be the starting point for meeting future challenges and fulfilling their attributed potential as a sustainable primary production sector.

  • 14. Blank, Malou
    et al.
    Sjögren, Karl-Göran
    Knipper, Corina
    Frei, Karin M.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Isotope values of the bioavailable strontium in inland southwestern Sweden-A baseline for mobility studies2018Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikkel-id e0204649Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The inland area of southwestern Sweden is well known for its well-preserved archaeological animal and human remains dating back to the Mesolithic and Neolithic (10000-4000 and 4000-1700 BC). They allow application of multiple bioarchaeological methods, giving insights into various and complementary aspects of prehistoric human life, as well as economic and social structures. One important aspect concerns human mobility and its relation to social networks and to circulation of objects. Here, strontium isotope analysis plays a crucial role. The present study aims to construct a strontium isotope baseline of southwestern Sweden with considerably greater coverage and higher resolution than previously published data. As the region has been affected by glacial events, the relation between bedrock geology and isotope signals of the bioavailable strontium in such areas is given special attention. We determined strontium isotope ratios for 61 water and five archaeological animal samples, and combined the data with previous measurements of two water and 21 non-domestic faunal samples. The results reveal a complex pattern. Several areas with distinct baseline ranges can be distinguished, although with overlaps between some of them. Overall, the bioavailable strontium isotope signals mirror the basement geology of the region. The highest ratios occur in the geologically oldest eastern parts of the Precambrian terrain, while lower ratios are found in the western part, and the lowest ratios occur in the youngest Paleozoic areas. At the same time, there are minor deviations compared to the underlying bedrock, due to glacial transport, overlying sediments, and local intrusions of younger rocks. The background data set now available allows for more nuanced and detailed interpretations of human and animal mobility in the region, in particular by identification of subregions with differing strontium isotope ratios within the Precambrian province. Also, we can now identify long distance mobility with greater confidence.

  • 15. Brand, Stephen K.
    et al.
    Schmidt, Joel E.
    Deem, Michael W.
    Daeyaert, Frits
    Ma, Yanhang
    Terasaki, Osamu
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK). ShanghaiTech University, China.
    Orazov, Marat
    Davis, Mark E.
    Enantiomerically enriched, polycrystalline molecular sieves2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, nr 20, s. 5101-5106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zeolite and zeolite-like molecular sieves are being used in a large number of applications such as adsorption and catalysis. Achievement of the long-standing goal of creating a chiral, polycrystalline molecular sieve with bulk enantioenrichment would enable these materials to perform enantioselective functions. Here, we report the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched samples of a molecular sieve. Enantiopure organic structure directing agents are designed with the assistance of computational methods and used to synthesize enantioenriched, polycrystalline molecular sieve samples of either enantiomer. Computational results correctly predicted which enantiomer is obtained, and enantiomeric enrichment is proven by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The enantioenriched and racemic samples of the molecular sieves are tested as adsorbents and heterogeneous catalysts. The enantioenriched molecular sieves show enantioselectivity for the ring opening reaction of epoxides and enantioselective adsorption of 2-butanol (the R enantiomer of the molecular sieve shows opposite and approximately equal enantioselectivity compared with the S enantiomer of the molecular sieve, whereas the racemic sample of the molecular sieve shows no enantioselectivity).

  • 16. Bratman, Gregory N.
    et al.
    Anderson, Christopher B.
    Berman, Marc G.
    Cochran, Bobby
    de Vries, Sjerp
    Flanders, Jon
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Frumkin, Howard
    Gross, James J.
    Hartig, Terry
    Kahn, Peter H.
    Kuo, Ming
    Lawler, Joshua J.
    Levin, Phillip S.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Mitchell, Richard
    Ouyang, Zhiyun
    Roe, Jenny
    Scarlett, Lynn
    Smith, Jeffrey R.
    van den Bosch, Matilda
    Wheeler, Benedict W.
    White, Mathew P.
    Zheng, Hua
    Daily, Gretchen C.
    Nature and mental health: An ecosystem service perspective2019Inngår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, nr 7, artikkel-id eaax0903Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of empirical evidence is revealing the value of nature experience for mental health. With rapid urbanization and declines in human contact with nature globally, crucial decisions must be made about how to preserve and enhance opportunities for nature experience. Here, we first provide points of consensus across the natural, social, and health sciences on the impacts of nature experience on cognitive functioning, emotional well-being, and other dimensions of mental health. We then show how ecosystem service assessments can be expanded to include mental health, and provide a heuristic, conceptual model for doing so.

  • 17.
    Campbell, Laura-Bethia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Women in Conservation: Narratives of Care, Place and Practice in the Lowveld Region, South Africa2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the diverse values, perspectives and lived experiences of conservation practitioners can offer insight into more effective pathways to just, diverse and inclusive stewardship practices. Within the cultural dimension of stewardship, sense of place (as a source of care) has the potential to articulate the relational ties between humans, nonhumans and the environment. These interactions can help to explain how specific stewardship practices emerge in real-world contexts. Women continue to be underrepresented and marginalized in conservation arenas; particularly in contexts which are historically male-dominated, and shaped by exclusionary approaches based on ‘fortress conservation’ ideals. Through (virtual) in-depth interviews and photo-elicitation, this study explores (a) the role of place meanings in informing conservation practices in the Lowveld region, South Africa, (b) how women conservationists navigate and perform socio-spatial identities within the highly gendered, political and militarised social-ecological systems in this region, and (c) the implications of (a) and (b) on landscape-level stewardship. Findings indicate that place meanings operate as personal motivations and inform gendered performances of conservation practitioners, in turn influencing the (re)production of hegemonic narratives and practices. Participants’ photographic narratives revealed a shared ‘gravitational pull’ to the Lowveld: revered as the ‘mecca of conservation’ and the ‘epicenter of biodiversity’. This research highlights the role of women in restoring relationships and practices ‘beyond the fence’, yet shows that in order to cope and claim space participants both challenge and draw on normative femininities and masculinities. In doing so, personal approaches and priorities are shaped by (and in some cases inadvertently reproduce) hegemonic masculinities which are a barrier to more inclusive conservation practices. Critically, women conservationists question the appropriateness of ‘gender mainstreaming’ attempts, calling for empowerment and equal opportunity for women in conservation on the basis of competency and capability rather than gender. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Castro, Azucena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Buenoos Aires, Argentine; Stanford University, U.S.A..
    Futuros multiespecie: Prácticas vinculantes para un planeta en emergencia2023Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [es]

    Futuros multiespecie explora los modos en que diversas prácticas artísticas contemporáneas elaboran relaciones entre humanos y no humanos ante los futuros climáticos con foco en América Latina. En un recorrido que incluye el sonido de paisajes en extinción en Colombia, tejidos para aves en la Patagonia, imágenes de esqueletos de salmón del Pacífico, lxs artistas, investigadorxs, educadorxs y curadorxs ofrecen nuevos métodos de indagación sobre los vínculos entre formas de vida y no vida en un planeta herido por la violencia extractiva y neocolonial. Los diversos ensayos e intervenciones artísticas y curatoriales activan lo multiespecie como alternativa estética y política para futuros que convocan lo ancestral y lo no humano contra los imaginarios del catastrofismo climático.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Cavazzana, Annachiara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. TU Dresden, Germany.
    Röhrborn, Anja
    Garthus-Niegel, Susan
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Hummel, Thomas
    Croy, Ilona
    Sensory-specific impairment among older people: An investigation using both sensory thresholds and subjective measures across the five senses2018Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 8, artikkel-id e0202969Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related sensory impairment is a slow and gradual progress, which affects multiple modalities. Two contradictory hypotheses exist about the age-related decline of sensory thresholds. The common factor theory assumes one underlying factor-which accounts for the loss of several sensory modalities simultaneously-and the specific factor theory predicts that the sensory decline is uncorrelated between different modalities. In this study, we aimed to explore whether (i) there is a common factor of sensory thresholds in older people, (ii) older people assume that sensory decline in one modality also affects other modalities, (iii) there is a relation between sensory threshold and the subjective assessment of sensory function. This was accomplished by collecting both threshold measures and self-reported ratings for smell, hearing, taste, vision, and touch function in a group of 104 older people (mean age: 67.2 years; SD: 9.85; range: 50-100 years). Results indicated that there was no common factor of sensory thresholds, hence an impairment in one modality did not necessarily imply a shortfall in other modalities. In contrast, our results suggested one or two common factor(s) for the participants' ratings. Participants who reported a diminished function in one sense tended to generalize this rating to the other senses as well. The correspondence between subjective ratings and sensory thresholds was relatively good for vision and audition, although no correlations were observed for the other domains. These findings have implications for clinicians, suggesting that subjective measures should be combined with sensory threshold measurements when evaluating sensory dysfunction. Also, these data convey a positive message for older people and their physicians by showing that loss in one sensory modality does not necessarily generalize to losses across all sensory modalities.

  • 20.
    Cheng, Maurice M. W.
    et al.
    Te Kura Toi Tangata School of Education, The University of Waikato, New Zealand.
    Danielsson, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ämnesdidaktik.
    Lin, Angel M. Y.
    Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Resolving puzzling phenomena by the simple particle model: examining thematic patterns of multimodal learning and teaching2020Inngår i: Learning: Research and Practice, ISSN 2373-5082, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 70-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the roles of multimodality and thematic patterns in the teaching of the particle model of matter. Although the particle model is a fundamental topic in science education, there is no consensus on (1) whether or not the model should be introduced in early grades and (2) how to introduce the model to students for the very first time. Drawing from teacher development projects in Sweden (Grade 3) and in Hong Kong (Grade 7), we suggest that the learning and teaching of the particle model can be facilitated by utilising a variety of modes. With multimodal scaffolding, Grade 3 students were able to demonstrate aspects of the particle model related to the expansion of gases in a warmer environment. The paper illustrates teaching episodes from the two projects in terms of (i) aspects of the particle model that were constructed using different semiotic modes, (ii) shifts in the salience of different modes in the teaching and learning process, and (iii) a thematic pattern that the classroom interactions adopted to explain puzzling phenomena. For a theoretical advancement, we suggest that thematic analysis should be extended to multimodal interactions.

  • 21.
    Cottman, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Cykelolyckor, orsaksfaktorer och samband: Ett metodtest i GIS för att hitta ett eventuellt samband mellan cykelolyckor och platsen där de sker2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Examen
  • 22.
    Dauriach, Alice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere programme, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Financial institutions, companies, and the biosphere2022Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    International organisations, governments and civil society have become increasingly vocal in their demands that financial institutions take social and environmental responsibility for the companies they invest in. Some financial institutions have started to assume this responsibility in practice by building international alliances and standards, by reallocating their capital, and by trying to influence corporate policies towards environmental and social goals. Through their ability to allocate and price capital, financial institutions are sometimes believed to be a leverage point to enact rapid and large-scale change towards sustainability. The influence these financial institutions have is still under-researched, however, especially on companies in sectors associated with changes in the biosphere which pose severe risks to human development. In this thesis, I ask: to what extent can financial institutions advance biosphere-based sustainability through their investments in companies? I have three main aims. The first one is to identify key companies and financial institutions which can be linked to changes in the biosphere that pose severe risks to human wellbeing. I select the most critical commodity production sectors driving large-scale biosphere change using insights from social-ecological systems science. I focus on economic activities that result in anthropogenic land use changes that either affect known tipping points in the climate system (the Amazon rainforest), or that increase the risk of emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. The second aim is to develop methods to assess the degree of influence that financial institutions have on corporate activities, drawing from finance research and management theory. I investigate the relationship between financial institutions and large companies, and especially to what extent companies are reliant on different financial flows for their operations, in order to determine through which mechanisms financial institutions could exert influence on them, if at all. Assessing the potential influence of financial institutions on companies requires combining existing methods and bringing together disconnected sources of data about environmental impact, business activity, investments, and financing sources. The third aim is to analyse what factors pose limits to financial influence.

    Paper 1 analyses the role played by financial institutions as owners in industries associated with anthropogenic land use changes and, as a result, increased zoonotic disease risks. We identify publicly listed companies present in nine regional case studies, as well as the financial institutions that invest in them. We analyse those financial institutions’ potential influence based on both their ownership size and their position in the network of owners.

    Paper 2 examines the origin of loans obtained by all companies operating in the high deforestation-risk sectors of mineral production, soy trade or cattle trade in the Brazilian Amazon. We assess to what extent companies rely on relatively unaccountable sources of credit, notably credit from secrecy jurisdictions and transnational intra-company credit, which may limit the potential for influence from financial institutions.

    In conclusion, I find that financial institutions have an important role to play in many sectors and regions analysed, but that this role is limited by a number of factors. These factors include the prevalence of non-financial shareholders in some companies, especially in case studies in the Global South, and the reliance of companies on internal finance and financial flows from secrecy jurisdictions. Companies themselves, and the inner workings of their corporate groups – their private owners, their subsidiaries in various countries, their ethical stance – seem to also be of great importance.

  • 23.
    de Gysser, Isabell
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Språkstödjande undervisning i de naturorienterade ämnena: En studie i grundskolans år 4-6 utifrån lärares perspektiv på undervisning2016Student paper second term, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att belysa och tillföra ämnesdidaktisk kunskap kring språkstödjande undervisning i de naturorienterade ämnena i grundskolans årskurser 4-6. Studien ställer upp tre forskningsfrågor som handlar om hur några lärare beskriver sin undervisning i de naturorienterade ämnena utifrån ett språkligt förhållningssätt, vilka praktiska tillvägagångssätt de väljer att använda samt hur dessa val syftar till att skapa förståelse för ämnesspecifikt innehåll hos eleverna. Studien har således ett perspektiv på undervisning utifrån en lärarhorisont och grundar sig på sex kvalitativa semistrukturerade lärarintervjuer. Insamlat material har analyserats och resulterat i fem teman som strukturerar informanternas utsagor om deras språkinriktade undervisning: mötet med ämnesspråket, svårigheter och signifikant svårare områden, metoder och aktiviteter, synlig kunskapsutveckling samt framgångsfaktorer. Studien visar i likhet med tidigare empirisk forskning kring det naturvetenskapliga språkets särdrag att det skolspråk eleverna möter i NO-undervisningen i årskurs 4-6 har komplexa beståndsdelar. Undervisningen handlar mycket om att stötta eleverna i den språkligt och innehållsligt abstrakta världen genom metoder och aktiviteter som kopplar nytt ämnesstoff till en för eleverna välkänd kontext. När lärarna beskriver didaktiska val handlar det i stor utsträckning om sådana som kontextualiserar ämnesinnehållet, gör eleverna delaktiga i kommunikativa sammanhang samt ställer upp ett stödjande ramverk kring språket. Utifrån studiens resultat och teoretiska bakgrund kan lärarstudenter, lärare, skolledare eller annan personal verksam i svensk skola finna belägg för vikten av att ställa upp kunskapsmål och språkliga mål. Diskussionen i studien leder fram till ett förslag på vidare studier som handlar om de, från tidigare forskning uppställda tre kännetecken för en funktionell språkinriktad undervisning; kontextualisering, interaktion samt språkstöttning, skulle kunna utökas till att även omfatta en aspekt som handlar om vikten av repetition i undervisningen. I den här studien blev denna fjärde aspekt framträdande tillsammans med de tre övriga. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24. De, Sadhitro
    et al.
    Mitra, Dhrubaditya
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    Pandit, Rahul
    Dynamic multiscaling in stochastically forced Burgers turbulence2023Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 7151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We carry out a detailed study of dynamic multiscaling in the turbulent nonequilibrium, but statistically steady, state of the stochastically forced one-dimensional Burgers equation. We introduce the concept of interval collapse time, which we define as the time taken for a spatial interval, demarcated by a pair of Lagrangian tracers, to collapse at a shock. By calculating the dynamic scaling exponents of the moments of various orders of these interval collapse times, we show that (a) there is not one but an infinity of characteristic time scales and (b) the probability distribution function of the interval collapse times is non-Gaussian and has a power-law tail. Our study is based on (a) a theoretical framework that allows us to obtain dynamic-multiscaling exponents analytically, (b) extensive direct numerical simulations, and (c) a careful comparison of the results of (a) and (b). We discuss possible generalizations of our work to higher dimensions, for the stochastically forced Burgers equation, and to other compressible flows that exhibit turbulence with shocks.

  • 25. Diodato, Nazzareno
    et al.
    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för medeltidsstudier. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Bolincentret för klimatforskning (tills m KTH & SMHI).
    Bellocchi, Gianni
    Historical information sheds new light on the intensification of flooding in the Central Mediterranean2023Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 10664Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological disasters, such as floods, can have dire consequences for human societies. Historical information plays a key role in detecting whether particular types of hydrological disasters have increased in frequency and/or magnitude and, if so, they are more likely attributable to natural or human-induced climatic and other environmental changes. The identification of regions with similar flood conditions is essential for the analysis of regional flooding regimes. To this end, we here present the longest existing flood reconstruction for the Eastern Liguria Area (ELA) in northwestern Italy, covering 1582 to 2022 CE, which offers a case study representative of the central Mediterranean region. An Annual Flood Intensification Index was developed to transform the historical data into a continuous annual hydrological time-series contained by a homogeneous data structure for the study-area. We found two change-points (trend breaks) in the reconstructed time-series, in 1787 and 1967, with only occasional heavy floods comparable to present-day disasters occurring before the first change-point, and an increasing intensification of floods after the second change-point up to the present day. The recent intensification of flooding in the ELA, associated with changes in land use and land cover, also appears to coincide with phases in which hydrological hazards have become more changeable and extreme in disaster-affected areas. This is evidenced by river basin responses to human-induced disturbances.

  • 26.
    Dreijer, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The complex evolution of Japan's distant water fisheries: Exploring the evolution of Japan's distant water fisheries from 1950-20142018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries are dynamic social-ecological systems shaped by the interplay of diverse political, economic, social and ecological factors. Recently, recognition has grown that fisheries are complex adaptive systems and warrant examination within a broader social-ecological context. While there has been a recent trend within fisheries science and management towards embracing more holistic approaches, research on global fisheries rarely addresses the complexities that shape large-scale fishing patterns. In this thesis I adopt a complex systems perspective with the ambition of understanding the complex and context-specific nature of global fishing by exploring the evolution of the Japanese distant water fishery (DWF). By combining investigation of global catch statistics with a review of associated primary, secondary and grey literature, I produce a narrative of how the Japanese DWF has expanded and contracted between 1950 and 2014, its geographical extent, and the factors that have contributed to these patterns. The results illustrate how complex and context-specific the DWF system is in the case of Japan. Using this in-depth study, I then address recent publications on global fisheries that use approaches that tend to minimise complexity through generalisations rather than seeking a deeper understanding of how this complexity shapes global fisheries. Finally, based on the exploratory findings of this thesis, I suggest that to better understand the complex dynamics inherent to global fisheries, further research informed by complexity thinking is needed on distant water fishing nations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27. Eliaz, D.
    et al.
    Paul, S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Benyamin, D.
    Cernescu, A.
    Cohen, S. R.
    Rosenhek-Goldian, I.
    Brookstein, O.
    Miali, M. E.
    Solomonov, A.
    Greenblatt, M.
    Levy, Y.
    Raviv, U.
    Barth, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Shimanovich, U.
    Micro and nano-scale compartments guide the structural transition of silk protein monomers into silk fibers2022Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 7856Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Silk is a unique, remarkably strong biomaterial made of simple protein building blocks. To date, no synthetic method has come close to reproducing the properties of natural silk, due to the complexity and insufficient understanding of the mechanism of the silk fiber formation. Here, we use a combination of bulk analytical techniques and nanoscale analytical methods, including nano-infrared spectroscopy coupled with atomic force microscopy, to probe the structural characteristics directly, transitions, and evolution of the associated mechanical properties of silk protein species corresponding to the supramolecular phase states inside the silkworm's silk gland. We found that the key step in silk-fiber production is the formation of nanoscale compartments that guide the structural transition of proteins from their native fold into crystalline beta-sheets. Remarkably, this process is reversible. Such reversibility enables the remodeling of the final mechanical characteristics of silk materials. These results open a new route for tailoring silk processing for a wide range of new material formats by controlling the structural transitions and self-assembly of the silk protein's supramolecular phases.

  • 28. Ericsson, Malin
    et al.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Fors, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Zavala, Catalina
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Childhood social class and cognitive aging in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, nr 27, s. 7001-7006Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we analyzed genetically informative data to investigate within-person change and between-person differences in late-life cognitive abilities as a function of childhood social class. We used data from nine testing occasions spanning 28 y in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging and parental social class based on the Swedish socioeconomic index. Cognitive ability included a general factor and the four domains of verbal, fluid, memory, and perceptual speed. Latent growth curve models of the longitudinal data tested whether level and change in cognitive performance differed as a function of childhood social class. Between-within twin-pair analyses were performed on twins reared apart to assess familial confounding. Childhood social class was significantly associated with mean-level cognitive performance at age 65 y, but not with rate of cognitive change. The association decreased in magnitude but remained significant after adjustments for level of education and the degree to which the rearing family was supportive toward education. A between-pair effect of childhood social class was significant in all cognitive domains, whereas within-pair estimates were attenuated, indicating genetic confounding. Thus, childhood social class is important for cognitive performance in adulthood on a population level, but the association is largely attributable to genetic influences.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Identifying algebraic reasoning about fractions2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Ewa Bergqvist, Magnus Österholm, Carina Granberg, Lovisa Sumpter, Umeå, Sweden: PME , 2018, Vol. 1, s. 255-262Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue for this paper is to identify algebraic reasoning through students´sense-making actions, during a lesson, where students and a teacher develop learning models for mixed numbers. The analysis focuses the students’ work, trying to make sense of the unknown fractional part of the number. This unknown part was elaborated when the students suggested to “add a little bit more” to construct equality. The un-known part developed to a fractional part with help of an emerging learning model containing algebraic symbols: B=W+p/a. In this activity. The potentialities in the students’ algebraic reasoning were identifyed as: an additive relationship between the integer and the fractional part of the number, and a multiplicative relationship between the numerator and the denominator in this fractional part.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    EU:s gemensamma jordbrukspolitikoch dess effekter på lantbrukaresbeslut samt landskapet: En fältstudie i Bettna, Södermanlands Län2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har varit medlemmar i EU sedan 1995. Sedan dess har stora förändringar skettbåde i EU:s gemensamma jordbrukspolitik (GJP) och inom Sveriges jordbruk. Tidigarestudier har undersökt de ekologiska och ekonomiska effekterna av GJP med kvantitativametoder och modellering. Denna studie undersöker hur GJP har påverkat lantbrukaresbeslut i deras jordbruksverksamhet samt hur detta påverkar landskapet i samhälletBettna, Södermanlands län. Empirin som ligger till grund för uppsatsen har samlats ingenom semistrukturerade intervjuer med boende i Bettna som är involverade ijordbruket som heltids- eller deltidslantbrukare. De slutsatser som har framkommit äratt GJP inte haft särskilt stor påverkan på lantbrukarnas beslut i hur de driver sinjordbruksverksamhet. Detta trots att majoriteten av heltidslantbrukarna och vissadeltidslantbrukare var ekonomiskt beroende av stöden. Landskapet i Bettna har till vissdel förändrats till följd av GJP, dels genom att det förs ett mer extensivt jordbruk medökad vallodling, samt restaurering av betesmarker.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Florêncio, Cláudia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Learning to bridge conservation and development: A case study of the Environmental Monitors Programme in Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a world that faces several social and environmental problems and achieving sustainable development in contexts where it is necessary to alleviate poverty without eroding the capacity of the ecosystems to support future generations is challenging. Therefore, fostering sustainable development requires enabling both society and environment to cope with disturbances, adapt to and shape change (resilience).

    Literature suggests that adaptive co-management practices are appropriate for building resilience and fostering sustainable development. Additionally, studies have highlighted the role of bridging organizations in coordinating and facilitating adaptive co-management. However, adaptive co-management has not been studied in poverty contexts.

    This thesis aims to understand what the main tasks of bridging organizations are, and how they facilitate and stimulate adaptive co-management in poverty contexts and their role in nurturing sustainability.

    The Environmental Monitors Programme of the Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve was chosen as a case-study. Biosphere reserves are considered learning sites for sustainable development. The programme was studied through the lenses of a bridging organization.

    Semi-structured interviews and participatory observation with stakeholders identified: 1) the importance of existing networks and collaborations; 2) monitoring contribution to the identification of social and environmental issues, experimentation contribution to the implementation of sustainable harvesting practices; 3) environmental education combined with social learning lead to community empowerment and adaptive responses that e.g. address erosion; 4) environmental monitors have a crucial role in linking organizations and communities; 5) challenges related to low income settings include communities’ basic needs.

    This study illustrates the need to address both social and ecological problems in a concerted manner, by capacitating and empowering communities while conserving the environment. Additionally, points out the need of studying alternative co-management strategies that give focus on different priorities regarding stakeholders’ interests and the influence of power in decision-making in poverty contexts.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Abstract
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Forselius, Ellen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Spatial patterns of pollution associated with creosote treated poles in Mälardalen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Creosote is a product name given to a mixture of several hundred compounds, which is often used to protect wooden poles from rot and insect damage, however it has also been linked to causing cancer in humans. Alternative materials for power poles include concrete, steel, composite and non-treated wooden poles. This report looks at Mälarenergi Elnät ABs 17,000 creosote coated poles and their patterns of pollution. GIS analyses in ArcGIS were used to evaluate which creosote poles are most critical to replace by implementing a system of "penalty points" based on the spatial distribution of the poles. 15 of the creosote poles were selected for a field study to investigate how much creosote is leaked to the ground.1,000 of the power poles were assigned penalty points of 10 or higher which could be a starting point in pole replacement, although the penalty points system could be used in many different ways for this purpose. Of the 15 power poles investigated during the field work, 5 showed higher leakage than recommended by Naturvårdsverkets guidelines for sensitive ground use. These 15 poles only make up 0,1% of Mälarenergi Elnät ABs total creosote coated poles, but the results are considered alarming enough to at least merit further studies of the creosote leakage.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    PTF12os and iPTF13bvn: Two stripped-envelope supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on research made by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF], and it is particularly closely tied to the still ongoing research on the stripped-envelope (SE) supernova (SN), iPTF13bvn (Type Ib), that occurred in the nearby galaxy NGC 5806. This SN was initially thought to have been the explosion of a very massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, but I have shown that this is very likely not the case. I suggest instead that the most likely scenario is that iPTF13bvn originated from a binary system where the envelope was stripped off from the SN progenitor by tidal forces from a companion star, in a similar way as for the very well studied Type IIb SN 2011dh. I have also investigated another SE SN, PTF12os (Type IIb), that occurred in the same galaxy as iPTF13bvn, with the conclusion that PTF12os and iPTF13bvn are very similar amongst themselves, and that both of them are also remarkably similar to SN 2011dh, in terms of all of the available observations (light-curves, spectra). Hydrodynamical models have been used to constrain the explosion parameters of iPTF13bvn, PTF12os and SN 2011dh; finding 56Ni masses in the range 0.063 − 0.075 M⊙, ejecta masses in the range 1.85 − 1.91 M⊙. Using the 56Ni-masses derived from our hydrodynamical modeling in combination with nebular models and late-time spectroscopy we were able to constrain the Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) mass to ∼ 12 M⊙ for iPTF13bvn and ≲ 15 M⊙ for PTF12os. In current stellar evolution models, stars with these masses on the ZAMS cannot lose their hydrogen envelopes and become SE SNe without binary interactions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34. Fru, Ernest Chi
    et al.
    Al Bahri, Jalila
    Brosson, Christophe
    Bankole, Olabode
    Aubineau, Jeremie
    El Albani, Abderrazzak
    Nederbragt, Alexandra
    Oldroyd, Anthony
    Skelton, Alasdair
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Löwhagen, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Webster, David
    Stockholms universitet.
    Fantong, Wilson Y.
    Mills, Benjamin J. W.
    Alcott, Lewis J.
    Konhauser, Kurt O.
    Lyons, Timothy W.
    Transient fertilization of a post-Sturtian Snowball ocean margin with dissolved phosphate by clay minerals2023Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikkel-id 8418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine sedimentary rocks deposited across the Neoproterozoic Cryogenian Snowball interval, similar to 720-635 million years ago, suggest that post-Snowball fertilization of shallow continental margin seawater with phosphorus accelerated marine primary productivity, ocean-atmosphere oxygenation, and ultimately the rise of animals. However, the mechanisms that sourced and delivered bioavailable phosphate from land to the ocean are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate a causal relationship between clay mineral production by the melting Sturtian Snowball ice sheets and a short-lived increase in seawater phosphate bioavailability by at least 20-fold and oxygenation of an immediate post-Sturtian Snowball ocean margin. Bulk primary sediment inputs and inferred dissolved seawater phosphate dynamics point to a relatively low marine phosphate inventory that limited marine primary productivity and seawater oxygenation before the Sturtian glaciation, and again in the later stages of the succeeding interglacial greenhouse interval.

  • 35.
    Fryers Hellquist, Katharina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring Change Agents in Watershed Governance: The Case of Lake Mälaren, Sweden.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The world is changing rapidly and it has become increasingly important to build resilience, through adaptation and transformation, to maintain the ecosystem services that watersheds provide. The importance of change agents to prepare for and navigate the transformation, as well as build resilience in the new state has been highlighted by scholars, however not in a comprehensive way, but rather as a final conclusion. This study investigates the role and perceptions of change agents around Lake Mälaren, Sweden. Through in-depth interviews, it explores incentives for change, visions, and strategies to reach those visions. The findings show that many actors without holistic and overarching governance creates dissatisfaction among change agent. Components of their visions are shared: well-functioning ecosystems that provide ecosystem services in the future, and to achieve legislated goals. Their strategy on how to reach their vision diverge: powerful political decisions and stricter steering, or changes in values and the inclusion of local knowledge of citizens. This study adds nuance to visions, highlights the importance of a common strategy and that collaboration is key to maintain the future provision of the essential ecosystem services watersheds provide.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Brooklyn College, USA; CUNY Graduate Center, USA.
    Can squirrel monkeys learn an AB(n)A grammar? A re-evaluation of Ravignani et al. (2013)2017Inngår i: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 5, artikkel-id e3806Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ravignani et al (2013) abituated squirrel monkeys to sound sequences conforming to an ABnA grammar (n = 1, 2, 3), then tested them for their reactions to novel grammatical and non -grammatical sequences. Although they conclude that the monkeys consistently recognized and generalized the sequence AB(n)A, I remark that this conclusion is not robust. The statistical significance of results depends on specific choices of data analysis, namely dichotomization of the response variable and omission of specific data points. Additionally, there is little evidence of generalization to novel patterns (n = 4, 5), which is important to conclude that the monkeys recognized the AB(n)A grammar beyond the habituation patterns. Lastly, many test sequences were perceptually similar to habituation sequences, raising the possibility that the monkeys may have generalized based on perceptual similarity rather than based on grammaticality.

  • 37.
    Gonzalez, Taís
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Understanding women's stewardship in the Amazon: A decolonial-process-relational perspective2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread and increasing forest degradation in the Amazon contrasts with a range of individual or collective practices developed by local agents, which have the potential to reconcile conservation and local understanding of the quality of life and economic development. The role of women among these initiatives has been overlooked or not well understood.  Therefore, methods are needed that allow their voices and understandings to be centralized. In this thesis, I make use of decolonial and process-relational approaches to do justice to women, as an invitation to a folk science, when addressing questions about their role in landscape stewardship practices in the Amazon. How can these practices contribute in an innovative way to food diversity and biodiversity conservation in the region? What are the processes that can facilitate or restrict women's individual or collective agency? 

     

    Women play a crucial role in landscape stewardship. Still, their agency is severely restricted by the ongoing neo-colonial processes, which affects socioecological spaces. However, they have been organizing themselves to overcome obstacles through their local networks. By understanding womenature and their stewardship practices of caring for the land as an indissoluble part of the forest means to understand in depth the tipping points of the Amazon, which are interconnected to the tipping points of its populations. This is a key factor to broaden our understanding of togetherness that can lead to a more equitable and fairer path towards sustainability in and for the Amazon.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Goodness, Julie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Anderson, Pippin M. L.
    Plant patterning and social selection for traits in the urban environment: Comparative reflections from Cape Town and StockholmManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    GRIGORYEVA, VICTORIA
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Att förbättra utbildningen för en hållbar utveckling: Lärares utsagor om framgångsfaktorer i arbetet för en hållbar utveckling2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    För pedagoger är det viktigt att se det som skapar framgång och ger positiv perspektiv.

    Min undersökning kan hjälpa till att fördjupa förståelsen för vilka faktorer som främjar utbildning för hållbar utveckling. Syftet med studien är att ta reda på faktorer som är viktiga för att främja och förbättra utbildning för hållbar utveckling. Enligt styrdokumenten är hållbar utveckling en nödvändig komponent i utbildning. Materialet erhölls genom kvalitativa djupintervjuer med 6 lärare, inkluderar förskollärare, grundskollärare, gymnasielärare, representanter från Håll Sverige Rent, Naturskolan som har av erfarenhet i praktiskt arbete med hållbar utveckling inom framgångsrikt Grön Flaggs certifieringsprogram. Det analyserades och sammanställdes sedan i löpande text. Genom SWOT- analys identifieras och kategoriseras starka sidor, svaga sidor, möjligheter och hot bland faktorer som främjar utbildning för hållbar utveckling. Starka sidor och möjligheter betraktas som framgångsfaktorer.  Resultaten visar vilka faktorer som är viktiga för att främja och förbättra utbildning för hållbar utveckling utifrån lärarens perspektiv. Den studien belyser framgångsfaktorer för utbildning för hållbar utveckling i praktiskt arbete.

    Min förhoppning är att min undersökning ska öka förutsättningarna för att utveckla en internationell dialog och samarbete inom kompetensutveckling inom utbildning för hållbar utveckling.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FramgångsfaktorerVictoriaGrig
  • 40. Guo, Donglin
    et al.
    Wang, Huijun
    Romanovsky, Vladimir E.
    Haywood, Alan M.
    Pepin, Nick
    Salzmann, Ulrich
    Sun, Jianqi
    Yan, Qing
    Zhang, Zhongshi
    Li, Xiangyu
    Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.
    Feng, Ran
    Lohmann, Gerrit
    Stepanek, Christian
    Abe-Ouchi, Ayako
    Chan, Wing-Le
    Peltier, W. Richard
    Chandan, Deepak
    von der Heydt, Anna S.
    Contoux, Camille
    Chandler, Mark A.
    Tan, Ning
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Bolincentret för klimatforskning (tills m KTH & SMHI).
    Hunter, Stephen J.
    Kamae, Youichi
    Highly restricted near-surface permafrost extent during the mid-Pliocene warm period2023Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 120, nr 36, artikkel-id e2301954120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate understanding of permafrost dynamics is critical for evaluating and mitigating impacts that may arise as permafrost degrades in the future; however, existing projections have large uncertainties. Studies of how permafrost responded historically during Earth's past warm periods are helpful in exploring potential future permafrost behavior and to evaluate the uncertainty of future permafrost change projections. Here, we combine a surface frost index model with outputs from the second phase of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project to simulate the near-surface (similar to 3 to 4 m depth) permafrost state in the Northern Hemisphere during the mid-Pliocene warm period (mPWP, similar to 3.264 to 3.025 Ma). This period shares similarities with the projected future climate. Constrained by proxy-based surface air temperature records, our simulations demonstrate that near-surface permafrost was highly spatially restricted during the mPWP and was 93 +/- 3% smaller than the preindustrial extent. Near-surface permafrost was present only in the eastern Siberian uplands, Canadian high Arctic Archipelago, and northernmost Greenland. The simulations are similar to near-surface permafrost changes projected for the end of this century under the SSP5-8.5 scenario and provide a perspective on the potential permafrost behavior that may be expected in a warmer world.

  • 41. Hagström, Hannes
    et al.
    Andreasson, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Jerkeman, Mats
    Carlsten, Mattias
    Body composition measurements and risk of hematological malignancies: A population-based cohort study during 20 years of follow-up2018Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 8, artikkel-id e0202651Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High body mass index (BMI) is associated with development of hematological malignancies (HMs). However, although BMI is a well-established measurement of excess weight, it does not fully reflect body composition and can sometimes misclassify individuals. This study aimed at investigating what body composition measurements had highest association with development of HM. Body composition measurements on 27,557 individuals recorded by healthcare professionals as part of the Malmo Diet and Cancer study conducted in Sweden between 1991-1996 were matched with data from national registers on cancer incidence and causes of death. Cox regression models adjusted for age and sex were used to test the association between one standard deviation increments in body composition measurements and risk of HM. During a median follow-up of 20 years, 564 persons developed an HM. Several body composition measurements were associated with risk of developing an HM, but the strongest association was found for multiple myeloma (MM). Waist circumference (HR 1.31, p = 0.04) and waist-hip ratio (HR 1.61, p = 0.05) had higher risk estimates than BMI (HR 1.18, p = 0.07) for MM. In conclusion, our study shows that measurements of abdominal adiposity better predict the risk of developing HM, particularly MM, compared to BMI.

  • 42.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Development and Resilience: Re-thinking poverty and intervention in biocultural landscapes2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The practices related to the growing, harvesting, preparation, and celebration of food over millennia have given rise to diverse biocultural landscapes the world over. These landscapes – rich in biological and cultural diversity – are often characterised by persistent poverty, and, as such, are often the target of development interventions. Yet a lack of understanding of the interdependencies between human well-being, nature, and culture in these landscapes means that such interventions are often unsuccessful - and can even have adverse effects, exacerbating the poverty they were designed to address. This thesis investigates different conceptualisations of persistent poverty in rural biocultural landscapes, the consequences of these conceptualisations, and the ways in which development interventions can benefit from, rather than erode, biocultural diversity.

    The thesis first reviews conceptualisations of persistent poverty and specifically, the notion of a poverty trap (Paper I), and examines the consequences of different conceptualisations of traps for efforts to alleviate poverty (Paper II). Paper I argues that the trap concept can be usefully broadened beyond a dominant development economics perspective to incorporate critical interdependencies between humans and nature. Paper II uses multi-dimensional dynamical systems models to show how nature and culture can be impacted by different development interventions, and, in turn, how the degradation of both can undermine the effectiveness of conventional poverty alleviation strategies in certain contexts.

    In the second section, the thesis focuses on the effects of, and responses to, trap-like situations and development interventions in a specific context of high biocultural diversity: the Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan. Paper III advances a typology of responses to traps based around the mismatch of desires, abilities and opportunities. Observing daily practice provides a way to study social-ecological relationships as a dynamic process, as practices can embody traditional and tacit knowledge in a holistic way.  Paper IV examines the diverse effects of a development intervention on the coevolution of biocultural landscapes and the ways in which everyday practice – particularly around food – can be a source of both innovation and resilience.

    Papers I-IV together combine insights from diverse disciplines and methodologies, from systematic review to dynamic systems thinking and participant observation. Paper V provides a critical analysis of the opportunities and challenges involved in pursuing such an approach in sustainability science, underscoring the need to balance methodological groundedness with epistemological agility.

    Overall, the thesis contributes to understanding resilience and development, highlighting the value of viewing their interrelation as a dynamic, coevolving process. From this perspective, development should not be regarded as a normative endpoint to be achieved, but rather as a coevolving process between constantly changing ecological and social contexts. The thesis proposes that resilience can be interpreted as the active and passive filtering of practices via the constant discarding and retention of old and new, social and ecological, and endogenous and exogenous factors. This interpretation deepens understanding of resilience as the capacity to persist, adapt and transform, and ultimately shape new development pathways. The thesis also illustrates how daily practices, such as the growing, harvesting, and preparation of food, offer a powerful heuristic device for understanding this filtering process, and therefore the on-going impact of development interventions in rural landscapes across the world.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Development and Resilience
    Download (jpg)
    Omslagsframsida
  • 43.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Akorbirshoeva, Anzurat
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The effects of development interventions on coevolved practices in biocultural landscapesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Baht, a festive porridge prepared for the Persian New Year in the Pamir Mountains is made from a sweet variety of red wheat, Rashtak, which grows only in the high reaches of its most remote valley. The relationship between ecology and culture in landscapes like the Pamirs runs deep, with everyday practices and rituals having co-evolved with the harsh environment over millennia. Such tightly intertwined biocultural landscapes are, however, often among the world’s poorest and thus are particularly subject to external development interventions. This paper investigates the effects of a particular development intervention, the introduction of an improved wheat seed, on everyday traditional practices and the rituals that maintain them. The intervention contributed towards the near extinction of Rashtak, along with many other traditional seed varieties. Using Norgaard’s coevolutionary framework we analyse the changes in relations between ecology and society resulting from diverse community responses to the intervention. We observe that rituals, which emerge from successful everyday practices, can provide a valuable entry point to understanding co-evolutionary processes in biocultural landscapes. Through participatory observation in two villages, specifically around the practices of food preparation, we examine contrasting responses to the introduced seed in the context of larger-scale development in the region. Our findings show how in one village, Rashtak has been lost but the ritual of baht remains, though the daily practices and social-ecological relationships linked to the ritual have been strongly altered. In the other community, the new ‘improved’ seed was only cultivated on small areas of land in a process of trial and error and farmers maintained their traditional varieties alongside the new seed. Thereby, the rituals around baht remain deeply rooted in social-ecological relationships that have been maintained over the years. The paper describes innovative individual responses to development interventions in everyday life in both communities and finds that some can be important sources of resilience. For example, in the community that lost Rashtak, along with many other local seeds, the knowledge around how to cultivate the land is maintained in a ‘harvest dance’ choreographed and taught be a local school teacher. Rituals, as a repository of social memory, can play an important role in development processes whilst maintaining important social-ecological relationships for future resilience. A deeper understanding of coevolutionary processes in a landscape may help develop approaches for identifying and harnessing endogenous responses to local, regional and global change and help empower more appropriate and effective development pathways.

  • 44. Haniffa, Muzlifah
    et al.
    Taylor, Deanne
    Linnarsson, Sten
    Aronow, Bruce J.
    Bader, Gary D.
    Barker, Roger A.
    Camara, Pablo G.
    Camp, J. Gray
    Chedotal, Alain
    Copp, Andrew
    Etchevers, Heather C.
    Giacobini, Paolo
    Gottgens, Berthold
    Guo, Guoji
    Hupalowska, Ania
    James, Kylie R.
    Kirby, Emily
    Kriegstein, Arnold
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    Marioni, John C.
    Meyer, Kerstin B.
    Niakan, Kathy K.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Olabi, Bayanne
    Pe'er, Dana
    Regev, Aviv
    Rood, Jennifer
    Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit
    Satija, Rahul
    Teichmann, Sarah A.
    Treutlein, Barbara
    Vento-Tormo, Roser
    Webb, Simone
    A roadmap for the Human Developmental Cell Atlas2021Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 597, nr 7875, s. 196-205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This Perspective outlines the Human Developmental Cell Atlas initiative, which uses state-of-the-art technologies to map and model human development across gestation, and discusses the early milestones that have been achieved. The Human Developmental Cell Atlas (HDCA) initiative, which is part of the Human Cell Atlas, aims to create a comprehensive reference map of cells during development. This will be critical to understanding normal organogenesis, the effect of mutations, environmental factors and infectious agents on human development, congenital and childhood disorders, and the cellular basis of ageing, cancer and regenerative medicine. Here we outline the HDCA initiative and the challenges of mapping and modelling human development using state-of-the-art technologies to create a reference atlas across gestation. Similar to the Human Genome Project, the HDCA will integrate the output from a growing community of scientists who are mapping human development into a unified atlas. We describe the early milestones that have been achieved and the use of human stem-cell-derived cultures, organoids and animal models to inform the HDCA, especially for prenatal tissues that are hard to acquire. Finally, we provide a roadmap towards a complete atlas of human development.

  • 45.
    Hassan, Mahmood Ul
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Hayat, Omar
    Noreen, Zahra
    Selecting the best probability distribution for at-site flood frequency analysis; a study of Torne River2019Inngår i: SN Applied Sciences, ISSN 2523-3963, E-ISSN 2523-3971, Vol. 1, nr 12, artikkel-id 1629Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At-site flood frequency analysis is a direct method of estimation of flood frequency at a particular site. The appropriate selection of probability distribution and a parameter estimation method are important for at-site flood frequency analysis. Generalized extreme value, three-parameter log-normal, generalized logistic, Pearson type-III and Gumbel distributions have been considered to describe the annual maximum steam flow at five gauging sites of Torne River in Sweden. To estimate the parameters of distributions, maximum likelihood estimation and L-moments methods are used. The performance of these distributions is assessed based on goodness-of-fit tests and accuracy measures. At most sites, the best-fitted distributions are with LM estimation method. Finally, the most suitable distribution at each site is used to predict the maximum flood magnitude for different return periods.

  • 46.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The environment knows no borders: Investigating the collective challenge of governing policy issue interdependencies2021Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of today’s most pressing environmental problems cross-cut jurisdictional, geographical, and administrative boundaries, creating interdependencies between different locations and between policy issues that no single actor can address alone. In practice, however, environmental policy is still often contained within the traditional responsibilities of the public sector and frequently judged ineffective, particularly in the European context. Whether and how interdependencies are actually associated with collaboration between policy actors has remained difficult to establish.  

    This cumulative thesis focuses on interdependent environmental challenges that policy actors need to manage. Specifically, this thesis describes and analyses policy issue interdependencies and how they align with the collaborations of policy actors. In addition, this thesis explores how policy issue interdependencies can be revealed, concretised, and analysed. Interdependencies are effectively represented by networks, both as conceptual models and as analytical methods. Therefore, the studies in this thesis use a multilevel network model to explore the structural alignment between interdependencies and collaboration through the perspective of institutional fit.

    This thesis reports findings from two research projects. The first project focuses on policy issue interdependencies relating to regional water degradation. This project describes and analyses these interdependencies in relation to collaborative networks across administrative boundaries (Papers I–III). The second project focuses on climate change impacts that propagate through food trade dependencies. This project contributes insights into the effect of climate change on food trade networks that cross national borders, illustrating a need for global climate adaptation (Paper IV).

    Paper I introduces a methodological procedure for assessing policy issue interdependencies and develops policy issue networks by identifying overlapping causal relationships between policy issues and their environmental targets. By applying the procedure empirically to water governance, the paper shows that policy issue interdependencies vary in degree and type. Paper II combines the policy issue networks from Paper I with collaborative networks of policy actors in a multilevel network to analyse the impact policy issue interdependencies have on who policy actors select for collaborative partners and to clarify if and how patterns of collaboration among actors are formed. Paper III differentiates reinforcing and counteracting policy issue interdependencies and studies how these impact the perceptions and collaborations of the actors. Paper IV, shifting the focus to the global level, analyses climate change impacts related to food trade dependencies across national borders. Specifically, Paper IV investigates the impact of climate change on the structure of global food trade networks and therefore contributes a baseline scenario analysis for future studies that investigate policy issue interdependencies and policy actor collaborations on the global level.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    The environment knows no borders
    Download (jpg)
    Omslagsframsida
  • 47.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Croft, Simon
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    West, Chris
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cross-Border Climate Impacts in Food Trade NetworksManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate impacts are predicted to become redistributed through countries’ reliance on food trade networks. This constitutes a significant challenge for climate adaptation planning, and may affect how countries engage in geopolitical and cooperative action. This paper explores potential impacts of climate change on global food trade networks. We ask: i) to what extent might climate change impacts entail a change in the structure of global food trade networks, and ii) how might a change in supply be distributed among the countries in trade blocs? We propose a simple network model to identify how climate change impacts on crops yields may be translated into changes in trade. Combining FAO and ISIMIP data, the model is applied to three key staple crops in the global food system: wheat, rice and maize. We use network community detection and functional cartography to analyse the degree to which global production is concentrated within different trade blocs before and after climate change impacts, and how countries distribute supply depending on their different network role. Our results predict that food trade networks may become more disaggregated as countries, particularly major global producers, may increasingly distribute their trade across modules with climate change impacts. Results also estimate that global food security may much depend on production change in a few major global producers, and whether trade blocs can balance production loss in some vulnerable countries. Overall, our model contributes a baseline scenario analysis of cross-border impacts on food trade networks, and insight into whether current food trade structures will allow counties to maintain current supply.

  • 48.
    Holm, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    The Geobiology of Magnesium2011Inngår i: Comets, Rocks and Life / [ed] Kirsi Lehto & Harry Lehto, Turku, 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the eight main elements of Earth’s crust and one of the four major elements making up the mass of the whole Earth. Mg is one of the main constituents of silicate minerals that build up Earth, like olivine, pyroxenes, serpentine, talc, phyllosilicates (clay minerals), etc. The concentration of divalent magnesium (Mg2+) in ocean water is 52.8 mmol/kg. The intra- and extracellular concentration in organisms, on the other hand, is about 1 mmol/kg. The coordination geometry of magnesium is strictly octahedral, i.e. the Mg atom coordinates six atoms – almost always oxygen – around itself in its first coordination shell. In the marine geochemical environment magnesium is particularly important since the tri-octahedral layer of the common phyllosilicates in sediments consist primarily of brucite, the mineral name of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2). The ocean floor beneath the sediment layers consists of basalts and ultramafic rocks that have relatively low silica contents (45-52% and <45%, respectively) but have a high content of primary ferromagnesian silicate minerals (olivine and pyroxenes). Alteration of these minerals in contact with water leads to ‘serpentinization’, a process in which olivine and pyroxenes are transformed to serpentine. The serpentine cannot accommodate all of the magnesium of the primary minerals, so dissolved magnesium is abundant in serpentinization environments and the mineral brucite is formed as a separate mineral phase at temperatures below about 315°C. Brucite may be transformed into double-layer hydroxides (DLH) if a fraction of the divalent Mg2+ is replaced by common trivalent cations such as Al3+, Fe3+, and Cr3+. Polyphosphate generation often has an absolute requirement for divalent metal ions, typically Mg(II). It has been shown by several investigators that magnesium pyrophosphate (MgPPi) is easily formed under mild abiotic hydrothermal conditions (165-180°C) from magnesium salts and orthophosphate (Pi). The Mg2+ is an essential catalyst for many biochemical reactions. It is well known that Mg2+ is required for the stabilization of the diphosphate group of ADP and the triphosphate group of ATP. The reason is that Mg2+ forms six-membered rings with the oxygen and phosphorus atoms of ADP and ATP.

  • 49.
    Holm, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Baltscheffsky, Herrick
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Early plate tectonics, pyrophosphate, Na+, and the origin of life2011Inngår i: Origins2011 International Conference / [ed] Muriel Gargaud & Robert Pascal, Montpellier, 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Life may have started in association with early plate tectonic processes. Considerable geological evidence supports an initiation of plate tectonics on Earth shortly after the end of the Hadean about 4 Ga ago. The salinity of the young ocean was probably high, since sodium is rapidly mobilized from rocks by hydrothermal processes. Such processes also lead to the continuous release of Mg2+ and precipitation of brucite, Mg(OH)2, during serpentinization of olivine in mafic rocks of the ocean floor. The serpentinization processes are now recognized as probably the most important metamorphic hydration reactions that may contribute to our understanding of the origin of life, since they are coupled to the formation of source molecules like H2, thought to have been required for the origin of life. The transformation of olivine at relatively low temperature (50-300°C) to the serpentine mineral lizardite as the prevalent phase is particularly associated with reduction of water to hydrogen and oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). During weathering of olivine and pyroxene in mafic rocks Fe(OH)2 may be formed as an intermediate phase (in solid solution with Mg(OH)2)during the partial oxidation of Fe(II). Fe(OH)2 is metastable with respect to magnetite and will convert to this mineral via a spontaneous reaction. However, the conversion also creates a small amount of native iron, which means that the ocean floor is quite reducing. The oceanic crust is hydrated to a depth of a kilometer or more and can therefore provide a substantial flux of water for serpentinization of upper mantle rocks when it is subducted. A modern hydrothermal environment in which Na+ and Mg2+ are abundant exists in sediment-starved alkaline subduction zones, like the Mariana forearc in the western Pacific Ocean. It is considered to mimic the Archean Earth. Pyrophosphate could have been formed during early subduction of oceanic lithosphere by dehydration of protonated orthophosphates. The key to pyrophosphate formation in these geological environments is low water to rock ratio, i.e. low local activity of water. The difference in complexity between the inorganic pyrophosphate and ATP also supports the possible role of PPi as early energy donor for the origin of life.

  • 50.
    Holén, Elinor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Using soil properties to indicate regulating ecosystem services in a Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecological landscape2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In semi-arid low yielding agro-ecological landscapes such as the Sahel both water and soil nutrients are limiting factors for crop growth. In addition to this there is a distinct difference in how well different land cover/land use types, so called ecotopes, perform in producing ecosystem services (ES) related to small-scale agriculture. This thesis seeks to explain differences in provisioning ES supply with the prevalence of regulating ES using indicators as proxies. The results show that the produced biomass is three times higher in the ecotope characterized as Depression than in Field. However, there are no or little significant differences between ecotopes regarding nutrients, organic matter and texture. In evaporation measurements the ecotope characterized as Fallow turned out to have the lowest evaporation rate, while there seemed to be little or no difference between Field and Depression. Water holding capacity, on the other hand, was slightly higher in Depression, which would mean that crops would manage a dry spell for between 6 to 10 days longer compared to other ecotopes. The absence of distinct differences in chemical and physical properties of the soil, even though this difference is evident in provisioning ES supply, shows that selecting relevant indicators is not easily done with available standard soil-plant systems indicators. Potential differences relating to water regulation could be further investigated by looking at factors that determine the direction of water flows and distance to ground water as a potential water supply for crops, e.g. topography, soil depth and the occurrence of crusts and hardpans as well as how they impact the patterns of runoff and runon in the landscape. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
123 1 - 50 of 146
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf