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  • 1.
    Elly Amani, Gamukama
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Popov, Oliver
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mugisha, Joseph Y. T.
    Group Decision Evaluation of Internet Services in the Context of DevelopmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents group decision assessment for the Internet services in the context of development (ISCD). The assessment is achieved through the use of a decision model whose fundamental goal is to provide a systematic approach for addressing the problem of misalignments among the Internet stakeholders’ objectives. The modelling of the problem is approached from the perspectives of delivering/receiving the Internet services that maximizes the respective stakeholders’ objectives. Based on the AHP theory, it structures the problem into four hierarchies with three aspects of consideration as (a) services relevance in context of development, (b) services delivery mechanism convergence to IP Infrastructure and (c) services commensurability to traffic classes’ requirements. An assessment of the aggregated individually derived final priorities (AIP) reveals that for aligning the stakeholders’ objectives at local level, end users should first strive to implement the Internet components/applications that can cause high impact to their transactions/business, followed by those services/applications that can “empower” them to fulfil their goals. While at global level, the affordability of recurring subscriptions for Internet access, end user terminal equipment cost, and coverage rage/penetration are the key issues that the policy makers should address in view of achieving the ISCD objectives. Finally the paper includes strategic options for the best course of action in aligning the stakeholders’ objectives.

  • 2.
    Gamukama, Elly A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Popov, Oliver B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Social Welfare Approach in Increasing the Benefits from the Internet in Developing Countries2011In: International Journal on Network Security, ISSN 2152-5064, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 29-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines the Internet usage and itsmarket environment in developing countries under theperceived assumption that the Internet is one of the mostimportant drivers for development. It gives an insight onprocesses’ (both unintended and intended) implications andtheir effects on achieving real Internet benefits in theenvironments where network infrastructures are limited suchas the ones found in the developing regions. A welfare basedapproach is proposed in which the Internet providers and endusersidentify a set of objective that leads them in achievingincreased benefits. Analytical model of the maincharacteristics in the approach is presented and eventuallyshown how the end user bit rate could be regulated based onthe utility bounds that lead general satisfaction to all users.User satisfaction signifies delivery of expected QoS and aswell as willing to pay for such services.

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  • 3.
    Gamukama, Elly Amani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Analytical modelling of Internet provision and usage in context of development through a utility based framework2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology and development (ICTD) is a research area that has broadly captured the attention of the public and the academics in the last two decades. It deals with the interaction and the relations between the humans and the society in general on one side and the technology on the other side. The focus in this thesis is on the computing and communication technology, herein referred to as the “Internet – the IP based technology”, which is seen as one of the enablers for economic and social growth.

    The benefit of the Internet connectivity and usage in inducing and enhancing positive social changes in basic dimensions of human life is generally accepted as one of the most important drivers for development. The success and the inevitability of the Internet in the developed world underline its proliferation and diffusion essential in less developed countries. However, sometimes these processes are being impaired by unintended and intended consequences created by the social dynamics that drives the current information technological innovations and evolutions, stakeholders’ desire of fulfilling one’s utility egos, all coupled with market environments.

    This thesis takes an insight in both unintended and intended implications and their effects on enabling development in the environments where the Internet Protocol (IP) based infrastructures are limited like in Least Developing regions/countries.  The results of this insight study have led in;

    a)      Establishing the basic Internet services that would trigger the exploitation of one’s potential for development.

    This has been achieved through the use of analytical scientific methods to classify Internet traffic characteristics and derive the relevance levels of their corresponding Internet services groups in fostering development.

    b)      Developing a framework that lays down structure guidelines to facilitate Decision Makers especially in least developed countries to make scientifically informed subjective judgements for Internet services in the context of development.

    c)      Designing and developing of the Internet Services in the Context of Developing (ISCD) model that enables the alignment of the apparent divergent/misalignment objectives of Internet stakeholders in the present Internet structure to have their respective maximised intended benefits.

    Empirical testing of the model led in setting strategic options for aligning stakeholders goals in view of the ISCD along two main domains (i) network management policies – that focuses on provisions of services, and (ii) Internet consumption/usage – that focus on services relevance, commensurability to specific requirements as pertains LDCs, and services delivery mechanism convergence to all-IP.

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  • 4.
    Gamukama, Elly Amani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Fairness on the Internet and its Importance in Development Context2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of fairness with respect to resource sharing among the competing flows is one of the important considerations in network design. This is true in particular for IP networks (which are the foundation of the Internet), where the service model is based on best effort and any possible distortion of it may lead to flow starvation and eventually system imbalances. In fact, fairness should be one of the major objectives both on a network layer and transport layer. This is evident in the case of elastic flows such as TCP, where fairness may have a major impact on congestion resolution. On a network layer, fairness mechanisms combined with scheduling and queuing policies lead to equitable service, which may also induce higher router utilization and hence better network performance. The paper investigates the current trends in understanding and applying the fairness concept on the Internet and hence in heterogeneous networks. Then it studies and examines the extension of the fairness concept in the context of development and developing regions, where both the traditional lack of infrastructure and costly communication services have also affected the penetration of the Internet and more even distribution of its benefits. The key question is whether or not it is plausible to identify a framework for the evaluation of efficiently-fairness tradeoffs that may provide a sound basis for a model of a more equitable access to the Internet to a diversity of users with different needs and financial possibilities representing mainly developing regions and emerging economies.

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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Gamukama, Elly Amani
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Popov, Oliver
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Mugisha, J. Y. T.
    The Decision Model for the Internet Services in the Context of Development2015In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 55, p. 622-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet Services in the Context of Development (ISCD) model is structured in four levels of hierarchy based on the Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP) theory. The model provides a formal approach of establishing the relative importance of Internet services in the context of fostering national development. This paper presents the fundamental conceptsof themodel. Pairwise Comparisons (PCs) technique the cornerstone of the AHP theory is used as the baseline technique for measuring the intensity of preference between the Internet traffic classes (therein their respective services they deliver to end users) in the process of formulating the judgment matrix. The ISCD model is modelled to process data obtained from a group of individual decision makers that are independent from each other. Hence decision makers are weighted in the process of aggregating their priority vectors and the normalized weighted geometric mean method (NWGMM) is used to compute the group's priority vector, which is the final output of the model.

  • 6.
    Gamukama, Elly Amani
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Popov, Oliver
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The Level of Scientific Methods Use in Computing Research Programs2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research investigates the level to whichscientists’ use scientific methods in computing researchprograms. Data was collected from a representative sample ofresearchers in the field. The findings show that the presentresearch programs are more driven by the market forces.Innovations come up as a consequence of satisfying themarket calls but not necessarily a result of advancement inbasic science. Researchers’ investigations are driven by threecharacteristics; proof of performance, concept and existence.Also noted from the study, some researchers lack a cleardistinction between the methods. They tend to mix methods intheir research programs as longer as the industry acceptstheir outcome artifact. Consequently, there is lack of a clearcurriculum to instill such methodological concepts at graduatelevel in some of the computing schools.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Homem, Irvin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Advancing Automation in Digital Forensic Investigations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital Forensics is used to aid traditional preventive security mechanisms when they fail to curtail sophisticated and stealthy cybercrime events. The Digital Forensic Investigation process is largely manual in nature, or at best quasi-automated, requiring a highly skilled labour force and involving a sizeable time investment. Industry standard tools are evidence-centric, automate only a few precursory tasks (E.g. Parsing and Indexing) and have limited capabilities of integration from multiple evidence sources. Furthermore, these tools are always human-driven.

    These challenges are exacerbated in the increasingly computerized and highly networked environment of today. Volumes of digital evidence to be collected and analyzed have increased, and so has the diversity of digital evidence sources involved in a typical case. This further handicaps digital forensics practitioners, labs and law enforcement agencies, causing delays in investigations and legal systems due to backlogs of cases. Improved efficiency of the digital investigation process is needed, in terms of increasing the speed and reducing the human effort expended. This study aims at achieving this time and effort reduction, by advancing automation within the digital forensic investigation process.

    Using a Design Science research approach, artifacts are designed and developed to address these practical problems. Summarily, the requirements, and architecture of a system for automating digital investigations in highly networked environments are designed. The architecture initially focuses on automation of the identification and acquisition of digital evidence, while later versions focus on full automation and self-organization of devices for all phases of the digital investigation process. Part of the remote evidence acquisition capability of this system architecture is implemented as a proof of concept. The speed and reliability of capturing digital evidence from remote mobile devices over a client-server paradigm is evaluated. A method for the uniform representation and integration of multiple diverse evidence sources for enabling automated correlation, simple reasoning and querying is developed and tested. This method is aimed at automating the analysis phase of digital investigations. Machine Learning (ML)-based triage methods are developed and tested to evaluate the feasibility and performance of using such techniques to automate the identification of priority digital evidence fragments. Models from these ML methods are evaluated in identifying network protocols within DNS tunneled network traffic. A large dataset is also created for future research in ML-based triage for identifying suspicious processes for memory forensics.

    From an ex ante evaluation, the designed system architecture enables individual devices to participate in the entire digital investigation process, contributing their processing power towards alleviating the burden on the human analyst. Experiments show that remote evidence acquisition of mobile devices over networks is feasible, however a single-TCP-connection paradigm scales poorly. A proof of concept experiment demonstrates the viability of the automated integration, correlation and reasoning over multiple diverse evidence sources using semantic web technologies. Experimentation also shows that ML-based triage methods can enable prioritization of certain digital evidence sources, for acquisition or analysis, with up to 95% accuracy.

    The artifacts developed in this study provide concrete ways to enhance automation in the digital forensic investigation process to increase the investigation speed and reduce the amount of costly human intervention needed.

     

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    Advancing Automation in Digital Forensic Investigations
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  • 8.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    House, DavidHeldner, MattiasStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.Gustafson, JoakimStrömbergsson, SofiaWlodarczak, MarcinStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Interspeech 2017: Situated interaction: Book of abstracts2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 9. Min, Byungjoon
    et al.
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Study, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Makse, Hernan A.
    Finding Influential Spreaders from Human Activity beyond Network Location2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, article id e0136831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most centralities proposed for identifying influential spreaders on social networks to either spread a message or to stop an epidemic require the full topological information of the network on which spreading occurs. In practice, however, collecting all connections between agents in social networks can be hardly achieved. As a result, such metrics could be difficult to apply to real social networks. Consequently, a new approach for identifying influential people without the explicit network information is demanded in order to provide an efficient immunization or spreading strategy, in a practical sense. In this study, we seek a possible way for finding influential spreaders by using the social mechanisms of how social connections are formed in real networks. We find that a reliable immunization scheme can be achieved by asking people how they interact with each other. From these surveys we find that the probabilistic tendency to connect to a hub has the strongest predictive power for influential spreaders among tested social mechanisms. Our observation also suggests that people who connect different communities is more likely to be an influential spreader when a network has a strong modular structure. Our finding implies that not only the effect of network location but also the behavior of individuals is important to design optimal immunization or spreading schemes.

  • 10. Osborne, Matthew
    et al.
    Sundström, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ecological interdependencies and resource competition: The role of information and communication in promoting effective collaboration in complex management situations2019In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 12, article id e0225903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication between resource users has repeatedly been shown to be of significant importance in environmental management. The proposed causal mechanisms are numerous, ranging from the ability of users to share information to their ability to negotiate solutions to common problems and dilemmas. However, what is less known is under what conditions these potential causal mechanisms are important and if, in cases when different means other than communication were available, whether they would be more effective in accomplishing these objectives. An example of such an alternative could be that instead of (or in addition to) users being reliant on within-group communication to acquire useful information an intermediary—such as a public agency—could provide that for them. Furthermore, the different causal mechanisms making communication beneficial might not be independent, neither in respect to each other, nor in respect to other externally imposed means to facilitate better environmental management, and not in regards to different contextual factors. This study makes use of laboratory experiments in an innovative way to explore these questions and specifically test the relative importance of communication in managing complex social-ecological system characterized by common-pool resource dilemmas, ecological interdependencies, and asymmetric resource access–all characteristics being present simultaneously. We find that when resources users are confronted with such a complex challenge, the ability to communicate significantly increases individual and group performance. What is more surprising is the negative effect on overall outcomes that providing external information has on outcomes, when the users also have the ability to communicate. By analysing the content of the conversations we are able to suggest several possible explanations on how the combination of external information provisioning and user communications act to increase individual cognitive load and drives intra-group competition, leading to a significant reduction of individual and group outcomes. 

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