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  • 1. Ait Benhamou, Anass
    et al.
    Boukind, Soumia
    Khalili, Houssine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry.
    Moubarik, Amine
    El Achaby, Mounir
    Kassab, Zineb
    Sehaqui, Houssine
    Strong and Flame-Resistant Nanocellulose Sheets Derived from Agrowastes via a Papermaking-Assisted Process2024In: acs applied polymer materials, ISSN 2637-6105, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 2763-2776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the production of nanocellulose has gained significant attention. Nanocellulose-based film materials have found widespread applications in various high-end sectors owing to their remarkable characteristics. Nevertheless, the limitation of certain functional properties, such as resistance to water and fire, has posed challenges to their broader utilization. In this study, we conducted a comparative investigation on the impact of two distinct chemical modifications, namely, TEMPO-mediated oxidation and phosphorylation, on the production of nanocellulose sheets via a papermaking-assisted process. This approach explores the synergistic effects of these modifications in enhancing the properties of cellulose nanofibers for nanopaper production. To achieve this, we proposed utilizing Henna stems as an alternative source of cellulosic material, aiming to harness untapped agricultural residues as a sustainable alternative to conventional sources such as wood and cotton. The phosphorylated Henna nanopaper exhibited substantial enhancements in terms of mechanical properties, wettability, fire resistance, and water vapor permeability when compared to the TEMPO-modified Henna nanopaper. In conclusion, our findings underscore the potential of Henna stems as an environmentally sustainable source of cellulose for nanofiber production, positioning it as a promising alternative to wood and other lignocellulosic sources for advanced applications.

  • 2.
    Apostolopoulou Kalkavoura, Varvara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Fijoł, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Lombardo, Salvatore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Ruiz-Caldas, Maria-Ximena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    In Situ Functionalisation and Upcycling of Post-Consumer Textile Blends into 3D Printable Nanocomposite Filaments2024In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The linear lifecycle of the textile industry contributes to the enormous waste generation of post-consumer garments. Recycling or repurposing of post-consumer garments typically requires separation of the individual components. This study describes a novel and facile chemo-thermo-mechanical method for producing extrudable pellets, involving one-pot, 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation of post-consumer polycotton textiles, followed by mild mechanical treatment, all without isolating the constituents of the polycotton blend. The oxidized blend with high cellulose and carboxylate content of 1221 ± 82 mmol COO− per kg of cotton, is pelletised into a masterbatch and further in situ extruded into nanocomposite filaments for 3D printing. The carboxyl groups introduced on the polycotton-based filters enable cotton fibrillation into nanoscaled fibers during mechanical treatment and extrusion resulting to a variety of functional and high surface-finish quality models, including filters and fashion accessories. The electrostatic interactions with positively charged species, such as methylene blue (MB), facilitate their adsorption from water while exhibiting promising adsorption capacities. The adsorption of MB follows the Freundlich model and depends on the printed porosity of the filter. A “trash to treasure” concept for textile waste is further corroborated through the use of the developed 3D printing filament into commodity products.

  • 3. Argyropoulos, Dimitris D. S.
    et al.
    Crestini, Claudia
    Dahlstrand, Christian
    Furusjö, Erik
    Gioia, Claudio
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lawoko, Martin
    Pierrou, Clara
    Samec, Joseph S. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Ren Fuel K2B AB, Sweden; RenFuel Materials AB, Sweden; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
    Subbotina, Elena
    Wallmo, Henrik
    Wimby, Martin
    Kraft Lignin: A Valuable, Sustainable Resource, Opportunities and Challenges2023In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 16, no 23, article id e202300492Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin, a by-product from the production of pulp, is currently incinerated in the recovery boiler during the chemical recovery cycle, generating valuable bioenergy and recycling inorganic chemicals to the pulping process operation. Removing lignin from the black liquor or its gasification lowers the recovery boiler load enabling increased pulp production. During the past ten years, lignin separation technologies have emerged and the interest of the research community to valorize this underutilized resource has been invigorated. The aim of this Review is to give (1) a dedicated overview of the kraft process with a focus on the lignin, (2) an overview of applications that are being developed, and (3) a techno-economic and life cycle asseeements of value chains from black liquor to different products. Overall, it is anticipated that this effort will inspire further work for developing and using kraft lignin as a commodity raw material for new applications undeniably promoting pivotal global sustainability concerns.

  • 4.
    Hadi, Seyed Ehsan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Colloidal Processing and Alignment of Wood-Based Dispersions and Hybrid Functional Foams2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents novel methods and approaches for designing, preparing/fabricating, and characterizing wood-based nanomaterials. It investigates how modifications in structure, process variables, and composition can enhance functional properties. It employs advanced characterization techniques to analyze process-structure-property relationships and utilizes innovative colloidal processing approaches such as controlled nanoparticle incorporation, Layer-by-Layer self-assembly, and unidirectional ice-templating to improve the functional properties of wood-based nanomaterials.

    A novel approach has been developed to fabricate lightweight, highly porous hybrid foams using iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNF). The addition of tannic acid (TA) and the application of a magnetic field-enhanced unidirectional ice-templating technique (MFUIT) enhanced processability, mechanical, and magnetic characteristics of the foams. The hybrid foam containing 87% IONPs exhibited a saturation magnetization of 83.2 emu g–1, which is equivalent to 95% of the magnetization value observed in bulk magnetite.

    Hybrid, anisotropic foams have been prepared by incorporation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) onto the macropore-walls of anisotropic TOCNF foams using a liquid-phase Layer-by-Layer self-assembly method. These hierarchical rGO-TOCNF foams exhibit lower radial thermal conductivity (λr) across a wide range of relative humidity compared to control TOCNF foams.

    The shear-induced orientations and relaxations of multi-component dispersions containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and montmorillonite nanoplatelets (MNT) have been studied by rheological small-angle X-ray scattering (Rheo-SAXS). The addition of MNT resulted in gelation and changes in flow behavior, shear responses, and relaxation dynamics. Rheo-SAXS measurements showed that CNC and MNT aligned under shear, creating aligned structures that relaxed upon shear removal. Gaining insights into shear-induced orientations and relaxation dynamics can aid in the development of advanced wood-based nanocomposite materials.

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was employed to characterize lignin oleate nanoparticles (OLNPs) derived from abundant lignin waste. TEM analysis revealed that the OLNPs had a spherical shape and a core-shell structure. Upon drying, the particles tended to agglomerate due to the loss of electrostatic repulsion forces. This agglomeration behavior indirectly supports the hypothesis that oleate chains act as a hydration barrier, preventing water permeation into the particles. 

    Finally, a comprehensive study showed that TEMPO-oxidized lignocellulose nanofibers (TOLCNF)-based foams made from unbleached pulp can be used to prepare anisotropic, light-weight ice-templated foams with high mechanical strength. TOLCNF foams utilize lignin and hemicellulose to enhance properties while require less energy for production compared to TOCNF-based foams. This study emphasizes the potential for developing sustainable wood-based nanomaterials using TOLCNF.

    The results presented in this thesis offer valuable insights for further advancements of wood-based nanomaterials. 

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  • 5.
    Hadi, Seyed Ehsan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Davoodi, Saeed
    Oliaei, Erfan
    Morsali, Mohammad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Åhl, Agnes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nocerino, Elisabetta
    Wang, Fengyang
    Andersson, Matilda
    Lühder, Malwine
    Conceição, André L. C
    Sipponen, Mika H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    Comparing the production energy, structure and properties of TEMPO-Oxidized Lignocellulose and Cellulose Nanofibers FoamsManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6. Jiang, Pan
    et al.
    Pang, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Li, Gaiyun
    Han, Yanming
    Chu, Fuxiang
    Toward well-defined colloidal particles: Efficient fractionation of lignin by a multi-solvent strategy2024In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 254, no 3, article id 127948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colloidal lignin particles (CLPs) have sparked various intriguing insights toward bio-polymeric materials and triggered many lignin-featured innovative applications. Here, we report a multi-solvent sequential fractionation methodology integrating green solvents of acetone, 1-butanol, and ethanol to fractionate industrial lignin for CLPs fabrication. Through a rationally designed fractionation strategy, multigrade lignin fractions with variable hydroxyl group contents, molecular weights, and high purity were obtained without altering their original chemical structures. CLPs with well-defined morphology, narrow size distribution, excellent thermal stability, and long-term colloidal stability can be obtained by rational selection of lignin fractions. We further elucidated that trace elements (S, N) were reorganized onto the near-surface area of CLPs from lignin fractions during the formation process in the form of -SO42− and -NH2. This work provides a sustainable and efficient strategy for refining industrial lignin into high-quality fractions and an in-depth insight into the CLPs formation process, holding great promise for enriching the existing libraries of colloidal materials.

  • 7. Lawoko, Martin
    et al.
    Samec, Joseph S. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kraft lignin valorization: Biofuels and thermoset materials in focus2023In: Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, E-ISSN 2452-2236 , Vol. 40, article id 100738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft pulping is more than one hundred years old. The kraft lignin recovery has however been implemented commercially in the last ten years. The lignin is a bio-based by-product and is thus considered a sustainable material with a great potential. These aspects have sparked intense research and development efforts to valorize kraft lignin. This Opinion provides a snapshot of the current state of affairs in the field, highlighting recent examples that either manipulate the kraft lignin to thermoset materials or depolymerize the lignin to obtain biofuels.

  • 8.
    Lebedeva, Daria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Samec, Joseph S. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hydrocarbons from kraft pulp pre-hydrolysis liquors in two steps using heterogeneous catalysis2023In: Sustainable Energy & Fuels, E-ISSN 2398-4902, Vol. 7, no 15, p. 3637-3643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Valorizing industrial side-streams that are burnt to a low value are important to make biorefining more sustainable. In this work, hemicellulose obtained as a pre-hydrolysis liquor from kraft pulping was converted to furfural in a 19 wt% yield based on hemicellulose content in raw biomass using a beta zeolite as a catalyst. Furfural was then directly hydro-processed to yield pentane and higher hydrocarbons in 60%. It was found that a combination of Pd/C and ZSM-5 gave full hydrodeoxygenation. Depending on reaction conditions, aromatic or aliphatic compounds could be generated. By using pentane as a carrier liquid, a 100% renewable hydrocarbon stream is possible. Off gases, comprising <C5 hydrocarbons (23% yield), could be reformed to green hydrogen to yield renewable hydrocarbon products. This way, the pulp mill is de-bottlenecked and thus can increase the production of pulp, and at the same time, another valuable product stream is generated.

  • 9. Li, Huisi
    et al.
    Chen, Bin
    Kulachenko, Artem
    Jurkjane, Vilhelmine
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    A comparative study of lignin-containing microfibrillated cellulose fibers produced from softwood and hardwood pulps2024In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 907-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expanding field of lignin-containing nanocellulose offers a sustainable alternative to fossil-based substances in applications such as packaging, coatings, and composites. This has underscored the importance to explore the impact of raw materials due to the complexities of lignin structures and different raw fiber characteristics, which plays a significant role in determining the properties of the resultant lignin-rich cellulose materials. This study presents a detailed investigation and comparison on the production and structure-property relationships of lignin-containing microfibrillated cellulose (LMFC) fibers prepared from unbleached softwood and hardwood kraft pulps. The microfibrillation process was analyzed for both softwood and hardwood pulps, comparing the results across various stages of fibrillation. Distinguishing features of lignin structures in softwood and hardwood pulps were identified through Py-GC/MS analysis. Additionally, Digital Image Correlation was employed to investigate the varying failure patterns in LMFC films derived from different wood species. Softwood-derived LMFC films demonstrate less strain-concentrated regions and strain variation, attributed to the formation of more physical crosslinking joints by the elongated fibers. Consequently, softwood-origin LMFC films displayed superior load-sharing and enhanced tensile strength (287 MPa) compared to those derived from hardwood. Additionally, the denser lignin structures in unbleached softwood pulp further boosted the stiffness of resultant softwood-derived films. Upon recycling, LMFC films exhibited superior recovery of mechanical properties following drying, suggesting their significant potential for widespread commercial use.

  • 10. Li, Huisi
    et al.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Stoltz, Raquel Bohn
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    Enhancing the Strength and Flexibility of Microfibrillated Cellulose Films from Lignin-Rich Kraft Pulp2023In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 11, no 47, p. 16793-16805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent progress in nanocellulose production favors lignin-rich raw fibers due to their cost effectiveness, higher yield of unbleached pulp, and added benefits from residual lignin, positioning them as ideal substitutes for fossil-based materials in composites and packaging. Nonetheless, their application has been impeded due to their inferior mechanical properties. This study introduces a simplified method to enhance the strength of lignin-containing microfibrillated cellulose (LMFC) films using water as a plasticizer during drying. Both LMFC from unbleached pulps and lignin-free microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) from fully bleached industrial kraft pulp were prepared through an environmentally friendly and scalable method. Given the charged carboxylic groups from hemicellulose and residual lignin, the LMFC gel demonstrated greater colloidal stability compared to MFC. Moreover, lignin-rich films displayed heightened hydrophobicity and exceptional thermal stability (Tmax > 345 °C). A significant improvement in tensile strength and Young’s modulus of LMFC films was achieved with an elevated drying temperature from 40 °C to above 90 °C, increasing tensile strength from 248 to 283 MPa and Young’s modulus by 84%. These improvements are attributed to the thermoplastic nature of lignin and the plasticizing effect of water at elevated temperatures. The longer fibers in microfibrillated films also improved the resistance to cracking in a folded state. The study highlights that enhancement of the properties of lignin-rich films can occur during the film making step itself, hinting at a sustainable, innovative method for creating robust and scalable materials for flexible devices, biocomposites, and packaging.

  • 11. Qi, Yungeng
    et al.
    Guo, Yanzhu
    Liza, Afroza Akter
    Yang, Guihua
    Sipponen, Mika H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Guo, Jiaqi
    Li, Haiming
    Nanocellulose: a review on preparation routes and applications in functional materials2023In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 4115-4147Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocellulose has a wide range of applications in the field of functional materials, and it has piqued the interest of researchers for some time. This is because nanocellulose inherits the advantages of environmental friendliness and easy availability of plant cell walls in nature, as well as the unique morphology of nanostructures. This review presents four types of nanocellulose including cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), regenerated nanocellulose (RNC) and bacterial cellulose (BC), introduces the different preparation routes and their mechanisms, analyzes the advantages and drawbacks between these approaches, and summarizes the potential applications in the field of functional materials such as reinforced composite materials, biomedical materials, soft templates, and optical materials. Finally, future development directions are proposed including further enrichment of nanocellulose raw materials, improvement of preparation methods to adapt to more diversified raw materials, and classification of products according to their morphology and properties to improve the use efficiency.

  • 12. Rafi, Abdolrahim A.
    et al.
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    Avella, Angelica
    Mõistlik, Tanel
    Jűrisoo, Martin
    Kaaver, Andreas
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lo Re, Giada
    Cordova, Armando
    A facile route for concurrent fabrication and surface selective functionalization of cellulose nanofibers by lactic acid mediated catalysis2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, article id 14730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Celulose nanofibers are lightweight, recycable, biodegradable, and renewable. Hence, there is a great interest of using them instead of fossil-based components in new materials and biocomposites. In this study, we disclose an environmentally benign (green) one-step reaction approach to fabricate lactic acid ester functionalized cellulose nanofibrils from wood-derived pulp fibers in high yields. This was accomplished by converting wood-derived pulp fibers to nanofibrillated “cellulose lactate” under mild conditions using lactic acid as both the reaction media and catalyst. Thus, in parallel to the cellulose nanofibril production, concurrent lactic acid-catalyzed esterification of lactic acid to the cellulose nanofibers surface occured. The direct lactic acid esterification, which is a surface selective functionalization and reversible (de-attaching the ester groups by cleavage of the ester bonds), of the cellulose nanofibrils was confirmed by low numbers of degree of substitution, and FT-IR analyses. Thus, autocatalytic esterification and cellulose hydrolysis occurred without the need of metal based or a harsh mineral acid catalysts, which has disadvantages such as acid corrosiveness and high recovery cost of acid. Moreover, adding a mineral acid as a co-catalyst significantly decreased the yield of the nanocellulose. The lactic acid media is successfully recycled in multiple reaction cycles producing the corresponding nanocellulose fibers in high yields. The disclosed green cellulose nanofibril production route is industrial relevant and gives direct access to nanocellulose for use in variety of applications such as sustainable filaments, composites, packaging and strengthening of recycled fibers.

  • 13.
    Thalakkale Veettil, Unnimaya
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Moreno, Adrian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Huertas-Alonso, Alberto José
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Morsali, Mohammad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Pylypchuk, Ievgen V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Liu, Li-Yang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Sipponen, Mika H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Mechanically recyclable melt-spun fibers from lignin esters and iron oxide nanoparticles: towards circular lignin materials2023In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 25, no 24, p. 10424-10435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inferior thermoplastic properties have limited production of melt-spun fibers from lignin. Here we report on the controlled esterification of softwood kraft lignin (SKL) to enable scalable, solvent-free melt spinning of microfibers using a cotton candy machine. We found that it is crucial to control the esterification process as melt-spun fibers could be produced from lignin oleate and lignin stearate precursors with degrees of esterification (DE) ranging from 20-50%, but not outside this range. To fabricate a functional hybrid material, we incorporated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) into the lignin oleate fibers by melt blending and subsequent melt spinning. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that increasing the weight fraction of MNPs led to improved thermal stability of the fibers. Finally, we demonstrated adsorption of organic dyes, magnetic recovery, and recycling via melt spinning of the regular and magnetic fibers with 95% and 83% retention of the respective adsorption capacities over three adsorption cycles. The mechanical recyclability of the microfibers represents a new paradigm in lignin-based circular materials.

  • 14.
    Witthayolankowit, Kuntawit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ramazanova, Lala
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Baddigam, Kiran Reddy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Marson, Alessandro
    Apostolopoulou-Kalkavoura, Varvara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lebedeva, Daria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Muangmeesri, Suthawan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wide, Maria Ivarsson
    Kubička, David
    Håkansson, Helena
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Manzardo, Alessandro
    Samec, Joseph S. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Valorization of Tops and Branches to Textile Fibers and Biofuel: Value Chain Explored Experimentally; Environmental Sustainability Evaluated by Life Cycle Assessment2023In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 526-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To make biorefining more environmentally sustainable, preferably residues from forestry should be used and more than one fraction should be upgraded. A third of raw materials from forestry & horbar;tops and branches (T & B)― are either left in the forests or collected and incinerated to a low value. Herein, we apply a fast fractionation to valorize two of the fractions of this forestry residue. The cellulose is converted to textile fibers and all the lignin to hydrocarbons. The environmental sustainability of the novel value chain was studied by life cycle assessment (LCA), and benefits were found in four out of five impact categories. These are important steps to increase fiber production without affecting environmental impact, making biorefining competitive.

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