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  • 1. Abbas, Sk Jahir
    et al.
    Ramacharyulu, P. V. R. K.
    Lo, Hsin-Hsi
    Ali, Sk Imran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Ke, Shyue-Chu
    A catalytic approach to synthesis of PLP analogs and other environmental protocols in a single handed CaO/TiO2 green nanoparticle2017In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, ISSN 0926-3373, E-ISSN 1873-3883, Vol. 210, p. 276-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As our precursory stage we have focus straight forward on clean catalytic approach for the production of C3 substituted pyridoxal-5 '-phosphate analogues of vitamin B6, and other environmental protocols like photocatalytic activity, green fossil fuels and c-c coupling using efficient biocompatible eggshell related unrivalled materials which show versatility of the catalytic effect on different inorganic support. The eggshell immobilized nanoparticles have encouraging relevance in creation of new molecules and can advantageously be studied by various spectroscopic, thermal and elemental analyses like powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The elucidate nature of nanoparticles offer: more active site acts as lewis acid, vacancies on the catalyst surface and good to better yield of C3 substituted deoxy and 2-nor deoxy coenzyme pyridoxine (PN), coupling products propargylamines (PA), photo degrading enhancement of MB and nucleophilic substituted fatty acid (BD). This enzyme cofactor explore molecular synthons to synthetic equivalent: 3-deoxy and 2-nor-3-deoxy pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxal oxime (P0), pyridoxamine (PM) and mono phosphate derivative of 3-deoxyPM, 3-deoxyPL respectively and chemistry of selective oxidation and schiff base mechanism was studied and complemented through combined experimental and theoretical molecular orbital calculation consequently. The heterogeneous catalyst has strong selective ability towards selective reducing pyridine diester, bioactive intermediates substances and holds vast potential towards separation for the photogenerated electron-hole pairs and renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable green fossil fuels. The catalyst including environmental concern is reapplicable and strong impressive that can unfold the space of worthy metal component widely and facilitate the scope to take a vital role in different fileds like catalysis, biochemistry, nanoscience, energy and materials science.

  • 2. Abel, Sebastian
    et al.
    Nybom, Inna
    Maenpaa, Kimmo
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Akkanen, Jarkko
    Mixing and capping techniques for activated carbon based sediment remediation Efficiency and adverse effects for Lumbriculus variegatus2017In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 114, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activated carbon (AC) has been proven to be highly effective for the in-situ remediation of sediments contaminated with a wide range of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). However, adverse biological effects, especially to benthic organisms, can accompany this promising remediation potential. In this study, we compare both the remediation potential and the biological effects of several AC materials for two application methods: mixing with sediment (MIX) at doses of 0.1 and 1.0% based on sediment dw and thin layer capping (TLC) with 0.6 and 1.2 kg AC/m(2). Significant dose dependent reductions in PCB bioaccumulation in Lumbriculus variegatus of 35-93% in MIX treatments were observed. Contaminant uptake in TLC treatments was reduced by up to 78% and differences between the two applied doses were small. Correspondingly, significant adverse effects were observed for L. variegatus whenever AC was present in the sediment. The lowest application dose of 0.1% AC in the MIX system reduced L variegatus growth, and 1.0% AC led to a net loss of organism biomass. All TLC treatments let to a loss of biomass in the test organism. Furthermore, mortality was observed with 1.2 kg ACim(2) doses of pure AC for the TLC treatment. The addition of clay (Kaolinite) to the TLC treatments prevented mortality, but did not decrease the loss in biomass. While TLC treatments pose a less laborious alternative for AC amendments in the field, the results of this study show that it has lower remediation potential and could be more harmful to the benthic fauna.

  • 3. Afzal, Muhammad
    et al.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Baoyuan
    Xia, Chen
    Zhang, Wei
    He, Yunjuan
    Jayasuriya, Jeevan
    Zhu, Bin
    Fabrication of novel electrolyte-layer free fuel cell with semi-ionic conductor (Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta- Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9) and Schottky barrier2016In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 328, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta (BSCF) is synthesized via a chemical co-precipitation technique for a low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) (300-600 degrees C) and electrolyte-layer free fuel cell (EFFC) in a comprehensive study. The EFFC with a homogeneous mixture of samarium doped ceria (SDC): BSCF (60%:40% by weight) which is rather similar to the cathode (SDC: BSCF in 50%:50% by weight) used for a three layer SOFC demonstrates peak power densities up to 655 mW/cm(2), while a three layer (anode/ electrolyte/cathode) SOFC has reached only 425 mW/cm(2) at 550 degrees C. Chemical phase, crystal structure and morphology of the as-prepared sample are characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical performances of 3-layer SOFC and EFFC are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). As-prepared BSCF has exhibited a maximum conductivity above 300 S/cm at 550 degrees C. High performance of the EFFC device corresponds to a balanced combination between ionic and electronic (holes) conduction characteristic. The Schottky barrier prevents the EFFC from the electronic short circuiting problem which also enhances power output. The results provide a new way to produce highly effective cathode materials for LTSOFC and semiconductor designs for EFFC functions using a semiconducting-ionic material.

  • 4.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

  • 5. Alves, Andreia
    et al.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Erratico, Claudio
    Lucattini, Luisa
    Haug, Line S.
    Jacobs, Griet
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Leonards, Pim E. G.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Magner, Jorgen
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Case Study on Screening Emerging Pollutants in Urine and Nails2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 4046-4053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative plasticizers and flame retardants (FRs) have been introduced as replacements for banned or restricted chemicals, but much is still unknown about their metabolism and occurrence in humans. We identified the metabolites formed in vitro for four alternative plasticizers (acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC), bis(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP), bis(2ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)), and one FR (2,2-bis (chloromethyl)-propane-1,3-diyltetrakis(2-chloroethyl) bisphosphate (V6)). Further, these compounds and their metabolites were investigated by LC/ESI-Orbitrap-MS in urine and finger nails collected from a Norwegian cohort. Primary and secondary ATBC metabolites had detection frequencies (% DF) in finger nails ranging from 46 to 95%. V6 was identified for the first time in finger nails, suggesting that this matrix may also indicate past exposure to FRs as well as alternative plasticizers. Two isomeric forms of DEHTP primary metabolite were highly detected in urine (97% DF) and identified in finger nails, while no DPHP metabolites were detected in vivo. Primary and secondary DEHA metabolites were identified in both matrices, and the relative proportion of the secondary metabolites was higher in urine than in finger nails; the opposite was observed for the primary metabolites. As many of the metabolites present in in vitro extracts were further identified in vivo in urine and finger nail samples, this suggests that in vitro assays can reliably mimic the in vivo processes. Finger nails may be a useful noninvasive matrix for human biomonitoring of specific organic contaminants, but further validation is needed.

  • 6. Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Rowe, Owen
    Wikner, Johan
    Haglund, Peter
    Eilola, Kari
    Legrand, Catherine
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 7.
    Andersson, August
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Deng, Junjun
    Du, Ke
    Zheng, Mei
    Yan, Caiqing
    Sköld, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Regionally-Varying Combustion Sources of the January 2013 Severe Haze Events over Eastern China2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 2038-2043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thick haze plagued northeastern China in January 2013, strongly affecting both regional climate and human respiratory health. Here, we present dual carbon isotope constrained (Delta C-14 and delta C-13) source apportionment for combustion-derived black carbon aerosol (BC) for three key hotspot regions (megacities): North China Plain (NCP, Beijing), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, Shanghai), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD, Guangzhou) for January 2013. BC, here quantified as elemental carbon (EC), is one of the most health-detrimental components of PM2.5 and a strong climate warming agent. The results show that these severe haze events were equally affected (similar to 30%) by biomass combustion in all three regions, whereas the sources of the dominant fossil fuel component was dramatically different between north and south. In the NCP region, coal combustion accounted for 66% (46-74%, 95% C.I.) of the EC, whereas, in the YRD and PRD regions, liquid fossil fuel combustion (e.g., traffic) stood for 46% (18-66%) and 58% (38-68%), respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest the need for a regionally-specific description of BC sources in climate models and regionally-tailored mitigation to combat severe air pollution events in East Asia.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Estimating Phosphorus in rivers of Central Sweden using Landsat TM data2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus flowing via rivers into the Baltic Sea is a major source of nutrients, and in some cases the limiting factor for the growth of algae which causes the phenomenon known as eutrophication. Remote sensing of phosphorus, here using Landsat TM-data, can help to give a better understanding of the process of eutrophication. Since Landsat TM-data is used, this could form a basis for further spatio-temporal analysis in the Baltic Sea region. A method originally described and previously applied for a Chinese river is here transferred and applied to three different rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea. The results show that by measuring the proxy variables of Secchi Depth and Chloryphyll-a the remote sensing model is able to explain 41% of the variance in total- phosphorus for the rivers Dalälven, Norrström and Gavleån without any consideration taken to CDOM, turbidity or other local features.

  • 9. Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Annerstedt, Matilda
    Axelsson, Robert
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Garrido, Pablo
    Grahn, Patrik
    Jonsson, K. Ingemar
    Pedersen, Simen
    Schlyter, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Skärbäck, Erik
    Smith, Mike
    Stjernquist, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Solving Problems in Social-Ecological Systems: Definition, Practice and Barriers of Transdisciplinary Research2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 254-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  • 10. Arnot, Jon A.
    et al.
    Armitage, James M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McCarty, Lynn S.
    Wania, Frank
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Toose-Reid, Liisa
    Toward a Consistent Evaluative Framework for POP Risk Characterization2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of Annex E in the Stockholm Convention (SC) on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) is to assess whether a chemical is likely, as a result of its long-range environmental transport, to lead to significant adverse human health or environmental effects, such that global action is warranted. To date, risk profiles for nominated POPs have not consistently selected assessment endpoints or completed mandated risk characterizations. An assessment endpoint hierarchy is proposed to facilitate risk characterization for the implementation of the SC. The framework is illustrated for a nominated POP, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), using three risk estimation methods. Based on current monitoring and toxicity data, the screening-level results indicate that humans and ecological receptors in remote regions such as the Arctic are unlikely to experience significant adverse effects (i.e., low risk) due to long-range environmental transport of HBCD. The results for birds are more uncertain than the results for fish and mammals due to the paucity of avian toxicity data. Risk characterization results for HBCD and for some listed POPs are compared to illustrate how the proposed methods can further assist decision-making and chemical management.

  • 11. Avadi, Angel
    et al.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian
    Ziegler, Friederike
    Towards improved practices in Life Cycle Assessment of seafood and other aquatic products2018In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 979-981Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Azuara, Manuel
    et al.
    Baguer, Barbara
    Villacampa, Jose I.
    Hedin, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Manya, Joan J.
    Influence of pressure and temperature on key physicochemical properties of corn stover-derived biochar2016In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 186, p. 525-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on analyzing the effect of both the peak temperature and pressure on the properties of biochar produced through slow pyrolysis of corn stover, which is a common agricultural waste that currently has little or no value. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different peak temperatures (400, 525 and 650 degrees C) and absolute pressures (0.1, 0.85 and 1.6 MPa). The inert mass flow rate (at NTP conditions) was adjusted in each test to keep the gas residence time constant within the reactor. The as-received corn stover was pyrolyzed into a biochar without any physical pre-treatment as a way to reduce the operating costs. The properties of biochars showed that high peak temperature led to high fixed-carbon contents, high aromaticity and low molar H:C and O:C ratios; whereas a high pressure only resulted in a further decrease in the O:C ratio and a further increase in the fixed-carbon content. Increasing the operating pressure also resulted in a higher production of pyrolysis gas at the expense of water formation.

  • 13.
    Bacsik, Zoltan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Cheung, Ocean
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Vasiliev, Petr
    Hedin, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Selective separation of CO2 and CH4 for biogas upgrading on zeolite NaKA and SAPO-562016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 162, p. 613-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several commercial and potential adsorbents were investigated for the separation of CO2 from CH4, which is relevant for the upgrading of raw biogas. The main focus of the paper was on the working capacities and selectivities of the adsorbents for a generic vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) process. Zeolites 4A and 13X had good estimated CO2-over-CH4 selectivities and reasonably high working capacities for the removal of CO2. A variant of zeolite A - vertical bar Na12-Kx vertical bar-LTA (with 1.8 <= x <= 3.2), had at least the same working capacity as zeolite 4A but with a significantly improved selectivity. Hence, the environmentally important CH4 slip can be minimized with this vertical bar Na12-Kx vertical bar-LTA sorbent. If a high working capacity for CO2 removal is the most important characteristic for a VSA process, then silicoaluminum phosphate, specifically SAPO-56, appeared to be the best candidate among the studied sorbents. In addition, SAPO-56 had a substantially high estimated CO2-over-CH4 selectivity with a value between similar to 20 and 30.

  • 14.
    Bacsik, Zoltan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zhang, Peng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hedin, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Ammonium-Carbamate-Rich Organogels for the Preparation of Amorphous Calcium Carbonates2017In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 7, no 7, article id 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amine-CO2 chemistry is important for a range of different chemical processes, including carbon dioxide capture. Here, we studied how aspects of this chemistry could be used to prepare calcium carbonates. Chemically crosslinked organogels were first prepared by reacting hyperbranched polyethylene imine (PEI) dissolved in DMSO with carbon dioxide. The crosslinks of the organogel consisted of ammonium-carbamate ion pairs as was shown by IR spectroscopy. These carbamate-rich organogels were subsequently subjected to aqueous solutions of calcium acetate, and amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precipitated. The ACC did not crystalize during the mixing for up to 20 h, as was shown by a combination of IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. Some PEI had been included or adsorbed on the ACC particles. Traces of calcite were observed in one sample that had been subjected to water in a work-up procedure.

  • 15. Bajwa, Anjali
    et al.
    Moraga, Francisca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Balakrishnan, Malini
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Batra, Vidya S.
    Activated Carbon Monoliths by Pressureless Technique for Environmental Applications2015In: Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1944-7442, E-ISSN 1944-7450, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 1420-1426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon monoliths have been prepared through simple procedure by carbonization in inert atmosphere at 550 C from commercial activated carbon and from unburned carbon in it ykste bctgasse fly asb; US nig, In 0 different kin dS phenolic resin binders. The bagasse fly ash was collected ft on; sugar mills where bagasse is used as a biomass based fuel for cogeneration. Commercial actuated carbon based monoliths whet -e 5 and 10 wt % of the actuated carbon had been replaced by iron oxide (hematite) were dic0 prepared. Results indicate that BET sutfac:e area decreases upon carbonization and loading of hematite. Scanning electron microscopy studies shows that the iron oxide is well distributed over the monoliths and X-ray diffraction shows that it is reduced to magnetite during carbonization. Temperature programmed reduction eAperintents show that the iron oxides on the monoliths are redox active. The monoliths based on commercial activated carbon show 80% remotwl of phenol in dihtted phenol based water solutions whereas unburned carbon derived monoliths showed 5-/ % removal in similar solution.

  • 16. Bannan, Thomas J.
    et al.
    Booth, A. Murray
    Jones, Benjamin T.
    O'Meara, Simon
    Barley, Mark H.
    Riipinen, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Percival, Carl J.
    Topping, David
    Measured Saturation Vapor Pressures of Phenolic and Nitro-aromatic Compounds2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 3922-3928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenolic and nitro-aromatic compounds are extremely toxic components of atmospheric aerosol that are currently not well understood. In this Article, solid and subcooled-liquid-state saturation vapor pressures of phenolic and nitro-aromatic compounds are measured using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) over a range of temperatures (298-318 K). Vapor pressure estimation methods, assessed in this study, do not replicate the observed dependency on the relative positions of functional groups. With a few exceptions, the estimates are biased toward predicting saturation vapor pressures that are too high, by 5-6 orders of magnitude in some cases. Basic partitioning theory comparisons indicate that overestimation of vapor pressures in such cases would cause us to expect these compounds to be present in the gas state, whereas measurements in this study suggest these phenolic and nitro-aromatic will partition into the condensed state for a wide range of ambient conditions if absorptive partitioning plays a dominant role. While these techniques might have both structural and parametric uncertainties, the new data presented here should support studies trying to ascertain the role of nitrogen containing organics on aerosol growth and human health impacts.

  • 17. Beltran, Angelica Mendoza
    et al.
    Prado, Valentina
    Vivanco, David Font
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Jalan Batu Maung, Malaysia.
    Guinee, Jeroen B.
    Heijungs, Reinout
    Quantified Uncertainties in Comparative Life Cycle Assessment: What Can Be Concluded?2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 2152-2161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interpretation of comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) results can be challenging in the presence of uncertainty. To aid in interpreting such results under the goal of any comparative LCA, we aim to provide guidance to practitioners by gaining insights into uncertainty-statistics methods (USMs). We review five USMs-discernibility analysis, impact category relevance, overlap area of probability distributions, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), and modified NHST- and provide a common notation, terminology, and calculation platform. We further cross-compare all USMs by applying them to a case study on electric cars. USMs belong to a confirmatory or an exploratory statistics' branch, each serving different purposes to practitioners. Results highlight that common uncertainties and the magnitude of differences per impact are key in offering reliable insights. Common uncertainties are particularly important as disregarding them can lead to incorrect recommendations. On the basis of these considerations, we recommend the modified NHST as a confirmatory USM. We also recommend discernibility analysis as an exploratory USM along with recommendations for its improvement, as it disregards the magnitude of the differences. While further research is necessary to support our conclusions, the results and supporting material provided can help LCA practitioners in delivering a more robust basis for decision-making.

  • 18.
    Bergqvist, Claes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Greger, Maria
    Phytostabilization of arsenic2015In: In-Situ Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Sites / [ed] Jochen Bundschuh, Hartmut M. Holländer, Lena Qiying Ma, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015, Vol. 6, p. 53-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19. Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Andersson, Agneta
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Haglund, Peter
    Hansson, Katarina
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Newton, Seth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Nygren, Olle
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Tysklind, Mats
    Wiberg, Karin
    Atmospheric pathways of chlorinated pesticides and natural bromoanisoles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 472-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-range atmospheric transport is a major pathway for delivering persistent organic pollutants to the oceans. Atmospheric deposition and volatilization of chlorinated pesticides and algae-produced bromoanisoles (BAs) were estimated for Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea, based on air and water concentrations measured in 2011-2012. Pesticide fluxes were estimated using monthly air and water temperatures and assuming 4 months ice cover when no exchange occurs. Fluxes were predicted to increase by about 50 % under a 2069-2099 prediction scenario of higher temperatures and no ice. Total atmospheric loadings to Bothnian Bay and its catchment were derived from air-sea gas exchange and bulk'' (precipitation ? dry particle) deposition, resulting in net gains of 53 and 46 kg year(-1) for endosulfans and hexachlorocyclohexanes, respectively, and net loss of 10 kg year(-1) for chlordanes. Volatilization of BAs releases bromine to the atmosphere and may limit their residence time in Bothnian Bay. This initial study provides baseline information for future investigations of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment.

  • 20.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Larsson, Per
    Andersson, Agneta
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Baltic Sea ecosystem-based management under climate change: Synthesis and future challenges2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 507-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as the generally agreed strategy for managing ecosystems, with humans as integral parts of the managed system. Human activities have substantial effects on marine ecosystems, through overfishing, eutrophication, toxic pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. It is important to advance the scientific knowledge of the cumulative, integrative, and interacting effects of these diverse activities, to support effective implementation of EBM. Based on contributions to this special issue of AMBIO, we synthesize the scientific findings into four components: pollution and legal frameworks, ecosystem processes, scale-dependent effects, and innovative tools and methods. We conclude with challenges for the future, and identify the next steps needed for successful implementation of EBM in general and specifically for the Baltic Sea.

  • 21. Bokhorst, Stef
    et al.
    Pedersen, Stine Hojlund
    Brucker, Ludovic
    Anisimov, Oleg
    Bjerke, Jarle W.
    Brown, Ross D.
    Ehrich, Dorothee
    Essery, Richard L. H.
    Heilig, Achim
    Ingvander, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Johansson, Margareta
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjorg Svala
    Inga, Niila
    Luojus, Kari
    Macelloni, Giovanni
    Mariash, Heather
    McLennan, Donald
    Rosqvist, Gunhild Ninis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Bergen, Norway.
    Sato, Atsushi
    Savela, Hannele
    Schneebeli, Martin
    Sokolov, Aleksandr
    Sokratov, Sergey A.
    Terzago, Silvia
    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun
    Williamson, Scott
    Qiu, Yubao
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Changing Arctic snow cover: A review of recent developments and assessment of future needs for observations, modelling, and impacts2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 516-537Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow is a critically important and rapidly changing feature of the Arctic. However, snow-cover and snowpack conditions change through time pose challenges for measuring and prediction of snow. Plausible scenarios of how Arctic snow cover will respond to changing Arctic climate are important for impact assessments and adaptation strategies. Although much progress has been made in understanding and predicting snow-cover changes and their multiple consequences, many uncertainties remain. In this paper, we review advances in snow monitoring and modelling, and the impact of snow changes on ecosystems and society in Arctic regions. Interdisciplinary activities are required to resolve the current limitations on measuring and modelling snow characteristics through the cold season and at different spatial scales to assure human well-being, economic stability, and improve the ability to predict manage and adapt to natural hazards in the Arctic region.

  • 22.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sandström, Annica
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Developing an analytical framework for assessing progress toward ecosystem-based management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 357-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has become a key instrument of contemporary environmental policy and practice. Given the increasingly important role of EBM, there is an urgent need for improved analytical approaches to assess if and to what extent EBM has been accomplished in any given case. Drawing on the vast literature on EBM, we identify five key ecosystem aspects for assessment. By linking these aspects to four phases of management, we develop an interdisciplinary, analytical framework that enables a high-resolution and systematic assessment of the degree of specificity and integration of ecosystem aspects in an EBM. We then apply the framework to evaluate five coastal EBM initiatives in Sweden, four on the Baltic coast and one on the west coast. Our results demonstrate our framework's usefulness for in-depth and continuous assessments of processes aiming for EBM, and also provide an empirical basis for inferences about the key challenges for successful EBM.

  • 23.
    Bosch, Carme
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kruså, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bandh, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hovorkova, Ivana
    Klanova, Jana
    Knowles, Timothy D. J.
    Pancost, Richard D.
    Evershed, Richard P.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Central European Soils with Compound-Specific Triple Isotopes (delta C-13, Delta C-14, and delta H-2)2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 13, p. 7657-7665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the first study applying a triple-isotope approach for source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The C-13/C-12, and H-2/H-1 isotope ratios of PAHs were determined in forest soils from mountainous areas of the Czech Republic, European Union. Statistical modeling applying a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework to the environmental triple isotope PAR data and an end-member PAR isotope database allowed comprehensive accounting of uncertainties and quantitative constraints on the PAR sources among biomass combustion, liquid fossil fuel combustion, and coal combustion at low and high temperatures. The results suggest that PAHs in this central European region had a clear predominance of coal combustion sources (75 +/- 6%; uncertainties represent 1 SD), mainly coal pyrolysis at low temperature (similar to 650 degrees C; 61 +/- 8%). Combustion of liquid fossil fuels and biomass represented 16 +/- 3 and 9 + 3% of the total PAR burden (Sigma PAH(14)), respectively. Although some soils were located close to potential PAR point sources, the source distribution was within a narrow range throughout the region. These observation-based top-down constraints on sources of environmental PARS provide a reference for both improved bottom-up emission inventories and guidance for efforts to mitigate PAR emissions.

  • 24.
    Boström, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Forests of probability estimation trees2012In: International journal of pattern recognition and artificial intelligence, ISSN 0218-0014, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 1251001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Probability estimation trees (PETs) generalize classification trees in that they assign class probability distributions instead of class labels to examples that are to be classified. This property has been demonstrated to allow PETs to outperform classification trees with respect to ranking performance, as measured by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). It has further been shown that the use of probability correction improves the performance of PETs. This has lead to the use of probability correction also in forests of PETs. However, it was recently observed that probability correction may in fact deteriorate performance of forests of PETs. A more detailed study of the phenomenon is presented and the reasons behind this observation are analyzed. An empirical investigation is presented, comparing forests of classification trees to forests of both corrected and uncorrected PETS on 34 data sets from the UCI repository. The experiment shows that a small forest (10 trees) of probability corrected PETs gives a higher AUC than a similar-sized forest of classification trees, hence providing evidence in favor of using forests of probability corrected PETs. However, the picture changes when increasing the forest size, as the AUC is no longer improved by probability correction. For accuracy and squared error of predicted class probabilities (Brier score), probability correction even leads to a negative effect. An analysis of the mean squared error of the trees in the forests and their variance, shows that although probability correction results in trees that are more correct on average, the variance is reduced at the same time, leading to an overall loss of performance for larger forests. The main conclusions are that probability correction should only be employed in small forests of PETs, and that for larger forests, classification trees and PETs are equally good alternatives.

  • 25. Bring, Arvid
    et al.
    Rogberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Variability in climate change simulations affects needed long-term riverine nutrient reductions for the Baltic Sea2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 381-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes to runoff due to climate change may influence management of nutrient loading to the sea. Assuming unchanged river nutrient concentrations, we evaluate the effects of changing runoff on commitments to nutrient reductions under the Baltic Sea Action Plan. For several countries, climate projections point to large variability in load changes in relation to reduction targets. These changes either increase loads, making the target more difficult to reach, or decrease them, leading instead to a full achievement of the target. The impact of variability in climate projections varies with the size of the reduction target and is larger for countries with more limited commitments. In the end, a number of focused actions are needed to manage the effects of climate change on nutrient loads: reducing uncertainty in climate projections, deciding on frameworks to identify best performing models with respect to land surface hydrology, and increasing efforts at sustained monitoring of water flow changes.

  • 26. Calvo-Ugarteburu, Gurutze
    et al.
    Raemaekers, Serge
    Halling, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Rehabilitating mussel beds in Coffee Bay, South Africa: Towards fostering cooperative small-scale fisheries governance and enabling community upliftment2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 214-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Along the coast of South Africa, marine resources play a significant role in supporting livelihoods and contributing to food security in impoverished rural communities. Post-apartheid fisheries laws and policies have begun to address traditional fishing rights and development needs, and new management arrangements are being implemented. One such initiative has been the Mussel Rehabilitation Project in Coffee Bay, which piloted a resource rehabilitation technique at several overexploited fishing sites. Mussel stocks in these exploited areas had dropped to under 1 % mussel cover, and during the project period, stocks increased to[ 80 % cover, supporting a sustainable harvest well above national daily bag limits. This stock enhancement was achieved only after the project had started to address social challenges such as the lack of local management institutions and the need to enhance food security. The project embarked on training and institution-building; it formed a robust community mussel management committee; and developed a local resource management plan, facilitating increased community participation in the day-to-day management of the resource. The project also saw the initiation of various ancillary projects aimed at improving food security and stimulating the local economy and hence alleviating pressure on the marine resources. Here we review this 10-yearproject's outcomes, and present lessons for smallscale fisheries governance in South Africa and internationally. We show, through empirical experience, that balancing stock rebuilding needs in a context of widespread poverty and dependency on natural resources by a local fisher community can only be addressed through an integrated approach to development. Participation of resource users and a thorough understanding of the local context are imperative to negotiating appropriate smallscale fisheries governance approaches. We recommend that the implementation of South Africa's newly minted SmallScale Fisheries Policy should begin with bottom-up, demonstrative resource management measures such as mussel rehabilitation. This type of initiative can deliver short-term food security benefits and foster social learning towards sustainable and cooperative fisheries governance.

  • 27.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Eriksson, E. Anders
    Dreborg, Karl Henrik
    Johansson, Bengt
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Systematic exploration of scenario spaces2016In: Foresight, ISSN 1463-6689, E-ISSN 1465-9832, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Scenarios have become a vital methodological approach in business as well as in public policy. When scenarios are used to guide analysis and decision-making, the aim is typically robustness and in this context we argue that two main problems at scenario set level is conservatism, i.e. all scenarios are close to a perceived business-as-usual trajectory and lack of balance in the sense of arbitrarily mixing some conservative and some extreme scenarios. The purpose of this paper is to address these shortcomings by proposing a methodology for generating sets of scenarios which are in a mathematical sense maximally diverse. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper, we develop a systematic methodology, Scenario Diversity Analysis (SDA), which addresses the problems of broad span vs conservatism and imbalance. From a given set of variables with associated states, SDA generates scenario sets where the scenarios are in a quantifiable sense maximally different and therefore best span the whole set of feasible scenarios. Findings - The usefulness of the methodology is exemplified by applying it to sets of storylines of the emissions scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This ex-post analysis shows that the storylines were not maximally diverse and given the challenges ahead with regard to emissions reduction and adaptation planning, we argue that it is important to strive for diversity when developing scenario sets for climate change research. Originality/value - The proposed methodology adds significant novel features to the field of systematic scenario generation, especially with regard to scenario diversity. The methodology also enables the combination of systematics with the distinct future logics of good intuitive logics scenarios.

  • 28.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Stockholm University.
    Consumption Patterns and Global Climate Change: Consequences of eating and travelling in Sweden1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 29. Carrizo, Daniel
    et al.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Salvadó, Joan A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Spatial Distributions of DDTs in the Water Masses of the Arctic Ocean2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 14, p. 7913-7919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a scarcity of data on the amount and distribution of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in intermediate and deep ocean water masses. Here, the distribution and inventories of DDTs in water of the Arctic shelf seas and the interior basin are presented. The occurrence of Sigma 6DDT (0.10-66 pg L-1) in the surface water was dominated by 4,4'-DDE. In the Central Arctic Ocean increasing concentrations of DDE with depth were observed in the Makarov and Amundsen basins. The increasing concentrations down to 2500 m depth is in accordance with previous findings for PCBs and PBDEs. Similar concentrations of DDT and DDEs were found in the surface water, while the relative contribution of DDEs increased with depth, demonstrating a transformation over time and depth. Higher concentrations of DDTs were found in the European part of the Arctic Ocean; these distributions likely reflect a combination of different usage patterns, transport, and fate of these compounds. For instance, the elevated concentrations of DDTs in the Barents and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean indicate the northbound Atlantic current as a significant conveyor of DDTs. This study contributes to the very rare data on OCPs in the vast deep-water compartments and combined with surface water distribution across the Arctic Ocean helps to improve our understanding of the large-scale fate of DDTs in the Arctic.

  • 30.
    Chen, Chang-Er L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. South China Normal University, China.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Deriving in Vivo Bioconcentration Factors of a Mixture of Fragrance Ingredients Using a Single Dietary Exposure and Internal Benchmarking2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 5227-5235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals in mixtures that are hydrophobic with Log K-OW > 4 are potentially bioaccumulative. Here, we evaluate an abbreviated and benchmarked in vivo BCF measurement methodology by exposing rainbow trout to a mixture of eight test chemicals found in fragrance substances and three benchmark chemicals (musk xylene (MX), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB52) via a single contaminated feeding event followed by a 28-day depuration period. Concentrations of HCB and PCB52 in fish did not decline significantly (their apparent depuration rate constants, k(T), were close to zero), whereas k(T) for MX was 0.022 d(-1). The test chemicals were eliminated much more rapidly than the benchmark chemicals (k(T) > 0.117 d(-1)). The bioconcentration factors (BCFA) for the test chemicals were in the range of 273 L kg(-1) (8-cyclohexadecen-1-one (globanone)) to 1183 L kg(-1) (alpha-pinene); the benchmarked BCFs (BCFG) calculated relative to HCB ranged from 238 L kg(-1) (globanone) to 1147 L kg(-1) (alpha-pinene). BCFG were not significantly different from BCFA but had smaller standard errors. BCFs derived here agreed well with values previously measured using the OECD 305 test protocol. We conclude that it will be feasible to derive BCFs of chemicals in mixtures using a single dietary exposure and chemical benchmarking.

  • 31.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    An urban ecology critique on the Smart City model2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 164, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this letter is to raise some critical concerns and gaps in the booming literature on Smart Cities; concerns that we think deserve greater attention from scientists, policy makers and urban planners. Using an urban ecology lens, we provide some reflections that need to forgo any wider-scale implementation of the Smart City-model with the goal to enhance urban sustainability. We discuss that the Smart City literature must better include analysis around social sustainability issues for city dwellers. Focus here should start on health issues and more critical analysis about whom the Smart City is for. Also, the literature must address issues of resilience and cyber security, including how Smart City solutions may affect the autonomy of urban governance, personal integrity and how it may affect the resilience of infrastructures that provide inhabitants with basic needs, such as food, energy and water security. A third major gap in this literature is how smart city developments may change human-nature relations. Focus here should start on how Smart City technologies may hinder or support children's learning towards a stronger psychological connection with nature. Discussions are also needed on how the Smart City model may affect pro-environmental behavior more broadly.

  • 32.
    Corell, Hanna
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Difference in Particle Transport Between Two Coastal Areas in the Baltic Sea Investigated with High-Resolution Trajectory Modeling2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 4, p. SI 455-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A particle-tracking model based on high-resolution ocean flow data was used to investigate particle residence times and spatial distribution of settling sediment for two geo-morphologically different Swedish coastal areas. The study was a part of a safety assessment for the location of a future nuclear-waste repository, and information about the particle-transport patterns can contribute to predictions of the fate of a possible leakage. It is also, to our knowledge, the first time particle-transport differences between two coastal areas have been quantified in this manner. In Forsmark, a funnel-shaped bay shielded by a number of islands, the average residence time for clay particles was 5 times longer than in the modeled part of Simpevarp, which is open to the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, < 10 % of the released particles left the domain compared to 60-80 % in Simpevarp. These site-specific differences will increase over time with the differences in land uplift between the areas.

  • 33. Dawson, Samantha K.
    et al.
    Fisher, Adrian
    Lucas, Richard
    Hutchinson, David K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Berney, Peter
    Keith, David
    Catford, Jane A.
    Kingsford, Richard T.
    Remote Sensing Measures Restoration Successes, but Canopy Heights Lag in Restoring Floodplain Vegetation2016In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands worldwide are becoming increasingly degraded, and this has motivated many attempts to manage and restore wetland ecosystems. Restoration actions require a large resource investment, so it is critical to measure the outcomes of these management actions. We evaluated the restoration of floodplain wetland vegetation across a chronosequence of land uses, using remote sensing analyses. We compared the Landsat-based fractional cover of restoration areas with river red gum and lignum reference communities, which functioned as a fixed target for restoration, over three time periods: (i) before agricultural land use (1987-1997); (ii) during the peak of agricultural development (2004-2007); and (iii) post-restoration of flooding (2010-2015). We also developed LiDAR-derived canopy height models (CHMs) for comparison over the second and third time periods. Inundation was crucial for restoration, with many fields showing little sign of similarity to target vegetation until after inundation, even if agricultural land uses had ceased. Fields cleared or cultivated for only one year had greater restoration success compared to areas cultivated for three or more years. Canopy height increased most in the fields that were cleared and cultivated for a short duration, in contrast to those cultivated for >12 years, which showed few signs of recovery. Restoration was most successful in fields with a short development duration after the intervention, but resulting dense monotypic stands of river cooba require future monitoring and possibly intervention to prevent sustained dominance. Fields with intensive land use histories may need to be managed as alternative, drier flood-dependent vegetation communities, such as black box (Eucalyptus largiflorens) grasslands. Remotely-sensed data provided a powerful measurement technique for tracking restoration success over a large floodplain.

  • 34.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Risk, klimat och osäkerheter vid hydrologisk föroreningsspridning2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35. Di Paolo, Carolina
    et al.
    Ottermanns, Richard
    Keiter, Steffen
    Ait-Aissa, Selim
    Bluhm, Kerstin
    Brack, Werner
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Buchinger, Sebastian
    Carere, Mario
    Chalon, Carole
    Cousin, Xavier
    Dulio, Valeria
    Escher, Beate I.
    Hamers, Timo
    Hilscherova, Klara
    Jarque, Sergio
    Jonas, Adam
    Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle
    Marneffe, Yves
    Mai, Thao
    Pandard, Pascal
    Schifferli, Andrea
    Schulze, Tobias
    Seidensticker, Sven
    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin
    Tang, Janet
    van der Oost, Ron
    Vermeirssen, Etienne
    Zounkova, Radka
    Zwart, Nick
    Hollert, Henner
    Bioassay battery interlaboratory investigation of emerging contaminants in spiked water extracts - Towards the implementation of bioanalytical monitoring tools in water quality assessment and monitoring2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 104, p. 473-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioassays are particularly useful tools to link the chemical and ecological assessments in water quality monitoring. Different methods cover a broad range of toxicity mechanisms in diverse organisms, and account for risks posed by non-target compounds and mixtures. Many tests are already applied in chemical and waste assessments, and stakeholders from the science-police interface have recommended their integration in regulatory water quality monitoring. Still, there is a need to address bioassay suitability to evaluate water samples containing emerging pollutants, which are a current priority in water quality monitoring. The presented interlaboratory study (ILS) verified whether a battery of miniaturized bioassays, conducted in 11 different laboratories following their own protocols, would produce comparable results when applied to evaluate blinded samples consisting of a pristine water extract spiked with four emerging pollutants as single chemicals or mixtures, i.e. triclosan, acridine, 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). Assays evaluated effects on aquatic organisms from three different trophic levels (algae, daphnids, zebrafish embryos) and mechanism-specific effects using in vitro estrogenicity (ER-Luc, YES) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation) assays. The test battery presented complementary sensitivity and specificity to evaluate the different blinded water extract spikes. Aquatic organisms differed in terms of sensitivity to triclosan (algae > daphnids > fish) and acridine (fish > daphnids > algae) spikes, confirming the complementary role of the three taxa for water quality assessment. Estrogenicity and mutagenicity assays identified with high precision the respective mechanism-specific effects of spikes even when non-specific toxicity occurred in mixture. For estrogenicity, although differences were observed between assays and models, EE2 spike relative induction EC50 values were comparable to the literature, and E2/EE2 equivalency factors reliably reflected the sample content. In the Ames, strong revertant induction occurred following 3-NBA spike incubation with the TA98 strain, which was of lower magnitude after metabolic transformation and when compared to TA100. Differences in experimental protocols, model organisms, and data analysis can be sources of variation, indicating that respective harmonized standard procedures should be followed when implementing bioassays in water monitoring. Together with other ongoing activities for the validation of a basic bioassay battery, the present study is an important step towards the implementation of bioanalytical monitoring tools in water quality assessment and monitoring.

  • 36. Dile, Yihun Taddele
    et al.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Srinivasan, Raghavan
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    INVESTIGATION OF THE CURVE NUMBER METHOD FOR SURFACE RUNOFF ESTIMATION IN TROPICAL REGIONS2016In: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, ISSN 1093-474X, E-ISSN 1752-1688, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 1155-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests the applicability of the curve number (CN) method within the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to estimate surface runoff at the watershed scale in tropical regions. To do this, surface runoff simulated using the CN method was compared with observed runoff in numerous rainfall-runoff events in three small tropical watersheds located in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The CN method generally performed well in simulating surface runoff in the studied watersheds (Nash-Sutcliff efficiency [NSE] > 0.7; percent bias [PBIAS] < 32%). Moreover, there was no difference in the performance of the CN method in simulating surface runoff under low and high antecedent rainfall (PBIAS for both antecedent conditions: similar to 30%; modified NSE: similar to 0.4). It was also found that the method accurately estimated surface runoff at high rainfall intensity (e.g., PBIAS < 15%); however, at low rainfall intensity, the CN method repeatedly underestimated surface runoff (e.g., PBIAS > 60%). This was possibly due to low infiltrability and valley bottom saturated areas typical of many tropical soils, indicating that there is scope for further improvements in the parameterization/representation of tropical soils in the CN method for runoff estimation, to capture low rainfall-intensity events. In this study the retention parameter was linked to the soil moisture content, which seems to be an appropriate approach to account for antecedent wetness conditions in the tropics.

  • 37.
    Dile, Yihun Taddele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Suitability of Water Harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: A First Step towards a Meso-scale Hydrological Modeling Framework2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38. Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Singh, Navinder J.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Bignert, Anders
    Helander, Björn
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bröjer, Caroline
    Holm, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lanzone, Michael
    Miller, Tricia
    Nordström, Åke
    Räikkönen, Jannikke
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Ågren, Erik
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Sublethal Lead Exposure Alters Movement Behavior in Free-Ranging Golden Eagles2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 10, p. 5729-5736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead poisoning of animals due to ingestion of fragments from lead-based ammunition in carcasses and offal of shot wildlife is acknowledged globally and raises great concerns about potential behavioral effects leading to increased mortality risks. Lead levels in blood were correlated with progress of the moose hunting season. Based on analyses of tracking data, we found that even sublethal lead concentrations in blood (25 ppb, wet weight), can likely negatively affect movement behavior (flight height and movement rate) of free ranging scavenging Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Lead levels in liver of recovered post-mortem analyzed eagles suggested that sublethal exposure increases the risk of mortality in eagles. Such adverse effects on animals are probably common worldwide and across species, where game hunting with lead-based ammunition is widespread. Our study highlights lead exposure as a considerably more serious threat to wildlife conservation than previously realized and suggests implementation of bans of lead ammunition for hunting.

  • 39.
    Ek, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gerdes, Zandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Garbaras, Andrius
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Growth Retardation and Altered Isotope Composition As Delayed Effects of PCB Exposure in Daphnia magna2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 15, p. 8296-8304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trophic magnification factor (TMF) analysis employs stable isotope signatures to derive biomagnification potential for environmental contaminants. This approach relies on species delta N-15 values aligning with their trophic position (TP). This, however, may not always be true, because toxic exposure can alter growth and isotope allocation patterns. Here, effects of PCB exposure (mixture of PCB18, PCB40, PCB128, and PCB209) on delta N-15 and delta C-13 as well as processes driving these effects were explored using the cladoceran Daphnia magna. A two-part experiment assessed effects of toxic exposure during and after exposure; juvenile daphnids were exposed during 3 days (accumulation phase) and then allowed to depurate for 4 days (depuration phase). No effects on survival, growth, carbon and nitrogen content, and stable isotope composition were observed after the accumulation phase, whereas significant changes were detected in adults after the depuration phase. In particular, a significantly lower nitrogen content and a growth inhibition were observed, with a concomitant increase in delta N-15 (+0.1 parts per thousand) and decrease in delta C-13 (-0.1 parts per thousand). Although of low magnitude, these changes followed the predicted direction indicating that sublethal effects of contaminant exposure can lead to overestimation of TP and hence underestimated TMF.

  • 40.
    Ek, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Karlson, Agnes M. L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hansson, Sture
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Garbaras, Andrius
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Stable Isotope Composition in Daphnia Is Modulated by Growth, Temperature, and Toxic Exposure: Implications for Trophic Magnification Factor Assessment2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 11, p. 6934-6942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for using stable isotope analysis in risk assessment of environmental contaminants is crucially dependent on the predictability of the trophic transfer of isotopes in food webs. The relationship between contaminant levels and trophic position of consumers is widely used to assess biomagnification properties of various pollutants by establishing trophic magnification factors (TMF). However, contaminant-induced variability of the isotopic composition in biota is poorly understood. Here, we investigated effects of toxic exposure on delta N-15 and delta C-13 values in a consumer, with a main hypothesis that these effects would be largely mediated via growth rate and metabolic turnover of the test animals. The cladoceran Daphnia magna was used in two experiments that were conducted to manipulate growth and body condition (assayed as C:N ratio) by food availability and temperature (Experiment 1) and by toxic exposure to the pesticide lindane (Experiment 2). We found a significant negative effect of growth rate and a positive effect of temperature on the consumer-diet discrimination factor for delta N-15 and delta C-13, with no effects on the C:N ratio (Experiment 1). In lindane-exposed daphnids, a significant growth inhibition was observed, with concomitant increase in metabolic costs and significantly elevated size-specific delta N-15 and delta C-13 values. Moreover, a significantly higher incorporation of carbon relative to nitrogen, yet a concomitant decrease in C:N ratio was observed in the exposed animals. Together, these results have methodological implications for determining trophic positions and TMF in polluted environments, where elevated delta N-15 values would translate into overestimated trophic positions and underestimated TMF. Furthermore, altered delta C-13 values may lead to erroneous food-chain assignment of the consumer in question.

  • 41. Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Hansson, Julia
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Peck, Philip
    Developing Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment methodology by applying values-based sustainability weighting - Tested on biomass based and fossil transportation fuels2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 181, p. 337-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and use of transportation fuels can lead to sustainability impacts. Assessing them simultaneously in a holistic way is a challenge. This paper examines methodology for assessing the sustainability performance of products in a more integrated way, including a broad range of social impacts. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) methodology is applied for this assessment. LSCA often constitutes of the integration of results from social LCA (S-LCA), environmental life cycle assessment (E-LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). In this study, an S-LCA from an earlier project is extended with a positive social aspect, as well as refined and detailed. E-LCA and LCC results are built from LCA database and literature. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology is applied to integrate the results from the three different assessments into an LCSA. The weighting of key sustainability dimensions in the MCDA is performed in different ways, where the sustainability dimensions are prioritized differently priority based on the assumed values of different stakeholder profiles (Egalitarian, Hierarchist, and Individualist). The developed methodology is tested on selected biomass based and fossil transportation fuels - ethanol produced from Brazilian sugarcane and US corn/maize, and petrol produced from Russian and Nigerian crude oils, where it delineates differences in sustainability performance between products assessed. The outcome in terms of relative ranking of the transportation fuel chains based on sustain ability performance differs when applying different decision-maker profiles. This result highlights and supports views that there is no one single answer regarding which of the alternatives that is most sustainable. Rather, it depends strongly upon the worldview and values held by the decision maker. A key conclusion is that sustainability assessments should pay more attention to potential differences in underlying values held by key stakeholders in relevant societal contexts. The LCSA methodology still faces challenges regarding results integration but MCDA in combination with stakeholder profiles appears to be a useful approach to build on further.

  • 42. Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    Kraus, Andrea
    Futter, Martyn
    Schelker, Jakob
    Meili, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Boyer, Elizabeth W.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Parsimonious Model for Simulating Total Mercury and Methylmercury in Boreal Streams Based on Riparian Flow Paths and Seasonality2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 13, p. 7851-7859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry has made it difficult to model surface water concentrations of both total Hg (THg) and especially methylmercury (MeHg), the species of Hg having the highest potential for bioaccumulation. To simulate THg and MeHg variation in low-order streams, we have adapted a conceptual modeling framework where a continuum of lateral flows through riparian soils determines streamflow concentrations. The model was applied to seven forest catchments located in two boreal regions in Sweden spanning a range of climatic, soil, and forest management conditions. Discharge, and simulated riparian soil water concentrations profiles, represented by two calibrated parameters, were able to explain much of the variability of THg and MeHg concentrations in the streams issuing from the catchments (Nash Sutcliffe (NS) up to 0.54 for THg and 0.58 for MeHg). Model performance for all catchments was improved (NS up to 0.76 for THg and 0.85 for MeHg) by adding two to four parameters to represent seasonality in riparian soil water THg and MeHg concentrations profiles. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that riparian flow-pathways and seasonality in riparian soil concentrations are the major controls on temporal variation of THg and MeHg concentrations in low-order streams.

  • 43. Elbakidze, Marine
    et al.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Angelstam, Per
    Axelsson, Robert
    Legal Framework for Biosphere Reserves as Learning Sites for Sustainable Development: A Comparative Analysis of Ukraine and Sweden2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 174-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) concept aims at encouraging sustainable development (SD) towards sustainability on the ground by promoting three core functions: conservation, development, and logistic support. Sweden and Ukraine exemplify the diverse governance contexts that BRs need to cope with. We assessed how the BR concept and its core functions are captured in national legislations. The results show that the core functions are in different ways reflected in legal documents in both countries. While in Ukraine the BR concept is incorporated into legislation, in Sweden the concept is used as a soft law. In Ukraine managers desired stronger legal enforcement, while in Sweden managers avoided emphasis on legislation when collaborating with local stakeholders. Hence, BR implementation have adapted to different political cultures by development of diverse approaches. We conclude that a stronger legal support might not be needed for BRs, rather SD needs to be recognized as an integrated place-based process at multiple levels.

  • 44. Enell, Anja
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    Wik, Ola
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Combining Leaching and Passive Sampling To Measure the Mobility and Distribution between Porewater, DOC, and Colloids of Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soil2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 21, p. 11797-11805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different methods to quantify soil porewater concentrations of contaminants will provide different types of information. Passive sampling measurements give freely dissolved porewater concentrations (C-pw,C-free), while leaching tests provide information on the mobile concentration (C-pw,C-leach), including contaminants associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles/colloids in the porewater. This study presents a novel combination of these two measurements, to study the sorption and mobility of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) in 10 historically contaminated soils. The PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs, and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs. Observed C-pw,C-leach was up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than C-pw,C-free; implying large biases when C-pw,C-leach is used to assess bioavailability or soil partitioning. Sorption of PACs to DOC and POC was important for the mobility of compounds with log K-OW > 4. Average DOC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-DOC) correlated well with KOW (log K-DOC = 0.89 x log K-OW +1.03 (r(2) = 0.89)). This relationship is likely more accurate for historically contaminated soils than previously published data, which suffer from artifacts caused by problems in measuring C-pw,C-free correctly or not using historically contaminated soils. POC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-POC) were orders of magnitude larger than corresponding K-DOC, suggesting sorption to mobile particles/colloids is the dominant mechanism for PAC mobility.

  • 45.
    Ericsdotter Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Howells, Mark
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Bhatt, Vatsal
    Bazilian, Morgan
    Rogner, Hans-Holger
    Connecting the resource nexus to basic urban service provision – with a focus on water-energy interactions in New York City2017In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 31, p. 83-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban water and energy systems are crucial for sustainably meeting basic service demands in cities. This paper proposes and applies a technology-independent “reference resource-to-service system” framework for concurrent evaluation of urban water and energy system interventions and their ‘nexus’ or ‘interlinkages’. In a concrete application, data that approximate New York City conditions are used to evaluate a limited set of interventions in the residential sector, spanning from low-flow toilet shifts to extensive green roof installations. Results indicate that interventions motivated primarily by water management goals can considerably reduce energy use and contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Similarly, energy efficiency interventions can considerably reduce water use in addition to lowering emissions. However, interventions yielding the greatest reductions in energy use and emissions are not necessarily the most water conserving ones, and vice versa. Useful further research, expanding the present analysis should consider a broader set of resource interactions, towards a full climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) nexus approach. Overall, assessing the impacts, trade-offs and co-benefits from interventions in one urban resource system on others also holds promise as support for increased resource efficiency through integrated decision making.

  • 46. Farhadi-Khouzani, Masoud
    et al.
    Schütz, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Durak, Grażyna M.
    Fornell, Jordina
    Sort, Jordi
    Salazar-Alvarez, German
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Gebauer, Denis
    A CaCO3/nanocellulose-based bioinspired nacre-like material2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 31, p. 16128-16133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nacre continues to be an inspiration for the fabrication of strong and tough materials from renewable and earth-abundant raw materials. Herein, we showed how a nacre-like hybrid material based on nanocellulose (NC) and CaCO3 can be prepared via the sequential infiltration of polymer-stabilised CaCO3 liquid precursors into layers of predeposited NC films. Layer-by-layer assembly of the NC films followed by controlled spreading and infiltration with liquid CaCO3 precursors generated a lamellar material with an architecture and iridescent appearance similar to those of nacre. The wettability of the NC films towards the liquid CaCO3 precursors was controlled by hydroxyl and carboxyl functionalization of the NC fibrils and the addition of magnesium ions. The combination of a high stiffness and plasticity of the nacre-like NC/CaCO3 hybrid materials show that excellent mechanical properties can be obtained employing a fibrillar organic constituent that is relatively hard. The fabrication of a nacrelike hybrid material via an aqueous route of assembly and infiltration processing demonstrates how a sustainable composite material with outstanding properties can be produced using the most abundant biopolymer and biomineral on earth.

  • 47. Faxneld, Suzanne
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ, Germany.
    Helander, Björn
    Danielsson, Sara
    Miller, Aroha
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Persson, Jan-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Bignertt, Anders
    Temporal Trends and Geographical Differences of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Baltic Sea Herring and White-Tailed Sea Eagle Eggs in Sweden2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 23, p. 13070-13079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal and spatial trends of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated in Baltic Sea herring liver (Clupea harengus) from three sites, and white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eggs (Haliaeetus albicilla) from two freshwater and two marine areas in Sweden. Trends of most quantifiable PFAAs increased over the monitored period (1980-2014 in herring, 1960s/1980s-2010 in WTSE). No significant decreasing trends were observed for the most recent ten years for any substances, except perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonic acids (PFOS) in herring showed a distinct decreasing spatial trend moving from the more southern site toward the more northern site, indicating main input of PFOS into the southern Baltic Sea. For WTSE, PFOS concentration was higher in the marine compared to the freshwater environment, explained by the cumulative historic contamination of the Baltic Sea. Similarly, concentrations in WTSE were lower in the northern part of the Baltic Sea compared to further south. Concentrations of PFUnDA, representing long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), showed a more homogeneous spatial distribution compared to PFOS for both herring and WTSE, indicating that atmospheric inputs (via precursors) of the long-chain PFCAs are important contributors in the study areas.

  • 48. Feng, Dawei
    et al.
    Lei, Ting
    Lukatskaya, Maria R.
    Park, Jihye
    Huang, Zhehao
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lee, Minah
    Shaw, Leo
    Chen, Shucheng
    Yakovenko, Andrey A.
    Kulkarni, Ambarish
    Xiao, Jianping
    Fredrickson, Kurt
    Tok, Jeffrey B.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Cui, Yi
    Bao, Zhenan
    Robust and conductive two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks with exceptionally high volumetric and areal capacitance2018In: Nature Energy, ISSN 2058-7546, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For miniaturized capacitive energy storage, volumetric and areal capacitances are more important metrics than gravimetric ones because of the constraints imposed by device volume and chip area. Typically used in commercial supercapacitors, porous carbons, although they provide a stable and reliable performance, lack volumetric performance because of their inherently low density and moderate capacitances. Here we report a high-performing electrode based on conductive hexaaminobenzene (HAB)-derived two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In addition to possessing a high packing density and hierarchical porous structure, these MOFs also exhibit excellent chemical stability in both acidic and basic aqueous solutions, which is in sharp contrast to conventional MOFs. Submillimetre-thick pellets of HAB MOFs showed high volumetric capacitances up to 760 F cm(-3) and high areal capacitances over 20 F cm(-2). Furthermore, the HAB MOF electrodes exhibited highly reversible redox behaviours and good cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 90% after 12,000 cycles. These promising results demonstrate the potential of using redox-active conductive MOFs in energy-storage applications.

  • 49.
    Filipovic, Marko
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ, Germany.
    Mass Balance of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in a Pristine Boreal Catchment2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 20, p. 12127-12135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass balances of ten individual perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in two nested pristine catchments in Northern Sweden with different sizes and hydrological functions were assembled for 2011-2012. Concentrations of PFAAs in rain and snowmelt, as well as in streamwater at the outlet of the two watersheds were measured and used to calculate PFAA atmospheric inputs to and riverine outputs from the catchments. The results generally showed a great excess of PFAA inputs for both catchments over the whole study year. However, during the spring flood period, the inputs and outputs were within a factor of 2 for several PFAAs and the streamwater showed PFAA patterns resembling the patterns in rain (as opposed to snowmelt), suggesting that snowmelt water infiltrating the ground had displaced water from the previous summer. Comparison of PFAA mass balances between the two catchments further suggested that atmospheric inputs of short-chain (replacement) perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids had increased in the years before sampling, while inputs of the legacy perfluorooctane sulfonic acid had decreased. Overall, the mass balances indicate that a considerable portion of the PFAAs deposited from the atmosphere are stored in soil and may be released to surface and marine water environments in the future.

  • 50.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Stockholm University.
    On the possibilities of life-cycle assessment: development of methodology and review of case studies1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies the environmental aspects and potential impacts throughout a product's life from raw material acquisition, through production, use and disposal.

    Different aspects and limitations of LCA methodology are discussed. New methods for describing landfilling and incineration of solid waste in LCAs are suggested. A new method for characterising resource depletion is developed based on exergy consumption. Exergies of several metal ores and other natural resources are calculated. Life-cycle inventory data from different databases are compared in order to evaluate the uncertainties involved in typical LCAs and rules of thumb are suggested. Values involved in the valuation element of an LCA are discussed.

    Existing case studies are evaluated and results are compared, with the aim of evaluating and determining the type of information current LCAs can and can not produce. LCAs on recycling and incineration with energy recovery of paper packaging materials are used as an example. It is shown that some results are consistent in all studies. Other apparently conflicting results turn out to be consistent if consideration is given to some key assumptions made. In a smaller study, some recent LCAs on flooring materials are also reviewed.

    Results of LCAs can have direct policy implications and be useful in identifying areas for improvement. None of the case studies can however show the overall environmental preference for any of the alternatives compared, and it is suggested that this is typical. It is argued that even in situations where one product actually is environmentally preferable to another, this will normally not be possible to show by any method. This has some policy implications. For example, if policy changes require that it must be shown that one product is more (or less) environmentally preferable to another before any action can be taken, then it is likely that no action will ever take place. It must therefore be possible to take decisions on a less rigid basis.

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