Change search
Refine search result
1 - 17 of 17
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Ahlberg, Mia
    et al.
    Ekéus, Cecilia
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Birth by vacuum extraction delivery and school performance at 16 years of age2013In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 210, no 4, p. 361.e1-361.e8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective 

    The aim of the present study was to investigate cognitive competence, as indicated by school performance, at 16 years of age, in children delivered by vacuum extraction.

    Study design 

    This was a register study of a national cohort of 126,032 16 year olds born as singletons, with a vertex presentation, at a gestational age of 34 weeks or older, with Swedish-born parents, delivered between 1990 and 1993 without major congenital malformations. Linear regression was used to analyze mode of delivery in relation to mean scores from national tests in mathematics (40.2; scale, 10-75; SD, 14.9) and mean average grades (223.8; scale, 10-320; SD, 52.3), with adjustment for perinatal and sociodemographic confounders.

    Results

    Children delivered by vacuum extraction (-0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.76 to 0.26) as well as by nonplanned cesarean section (-0.51; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.20) had slightly lower mean mathematics test scores than children born vaginally without instruments, after adjustment for major confounders. Mean average grades in children delivered by vacuum extraction were -1.05 (95% CI, -1.87 to -0.23) and -1.20 (95% CI,-2.24 to -0.16) in children delivered by nonplanned cesarean section compared with children born vaginally.

    Conclusion

    Children delivered by vacuum extraction had slightly lower grades at age 16 years compared with those born by noninstrumental vaginal delivery but very similar to those delivered by nonplanned cesarean. This suggests that vacuum extraction and nonplanned cesarean are equivalent alternatives for terminating deliveries with respect to cognitive outcomes.

  • 2.
    Alvarez, Francisco J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Ryman, Kicki
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hooijmaijers, Cornelis
    Bulone, Vincent
    Ljungdahl, Per O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Diverse Nitrogen Sources in Seminal Fluid Act in Synergy To Induce Filamentous Growth of Candida albicans2015In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 81, no 8, p. 2770-2780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the leading cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC represents a major quality- of-life issue for women during their reproductive years, a stage of life where the vaginal epithelium is subject to periodic hormonally induced changes associated with menstruation and concomitant exposure to serum as well as potential intermittent contact with seminal fluid. Seminal fluid potently triggers Candida albicans to switch from yeastlike to filamentous modes of growth, a developmental response tightly linked to virulence. Conversely, vaginal fluid inhibits filamentation. Here, we used artificial formulations of seminal and vaginal fluids that faithfully mimic genuine fluids to assess the contribution of individual components within these fluids to filamentation. The high levels of albumin, amino acids, and N-acetylglucosamine in seminal fluid act synergistically as potent inducers of filamentous growth, even at atmospheric levels of CO2 and reduced temperatures (30 degrees C). Using a simplified in vitro model that mimics the natural introduction of seminal fluid into the vulvovaginal environment, a pulse of artificial seminal fluid (ASF) was found to exert an enduring potential to overcome the inhibitory efficacy of artificial vaginal fluid (AVF) on filamentation. These findings suggest that a transient but substantial change in the nutrient levels within the vulvovaginal environment during unprotected coitus can induce resident C. albicans cells to engage developmental programs associated with virulent growth.

  • 3. Bråbäck, Lennart
    et al.
    Lowe, Adrian
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Elective cesarean section and childhood asthma2013In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 209, no 5, p. 496-496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Carlsson, L. Höglund
    et al.
    Saltvedt, S.
    Anderlid, B. -M.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Gillberg, C.
    Westgren, M.
    Fernell, E.
    Prenatal ultrasound and childhood autism: long-term follow-up after a randomized controlled trial of first- vs second-trimester ultrasound2016In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0960-7692, E-ISSN 1469-0705, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 285-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze whether the frequency of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a cohort of Swedish children differs between those exposed to ultrasound in the 12th week and those exposed to ultrasound in the 18th week of gestation.

    Methods: The study cohort consisted of approximately 30 000 children born between 1999 and 2003 to mothers who had been randomized to a prenatal ultrasound examination at either 12 or 18weeks' gestation as part of the framework for a study on nuchal translucency screening. The outcome measure in the present study was the rate of ASD diagnoses among the children. Information on ASD diagnoses was based on data from the Swedish social insurance agency concerning childcare allowance granted for ASD.

    Results: Between 1999 and 2003, a total of 14 726 children were born to women who underwent a 12-week ultrasound examination and 14 596 to women who underwent an 18-week ultrasound examination. Of these, 181 (1.2%) and 176 (1.2%) children, respectively, had been diagnosed with ASD. There was no difference in ASD frequency between the early and late ultrasound groups.

    Conclusions: Women subjected to at least one prenatal ultrasound examination at either 12 or 18weeks' gestation had children with similar rates of ASD. However, this result reflects routine care 10-15 years ago in Sweden. Today, higher intensity ultrasound scans are performed more frequently, at earlier stages during pregnancy and for non-medical purposes, implying longer exposure time for the fetus. This change in the use of ultrasound necessitates further follow-up study of the possible effects that high exposure to ultrasound during the gestational period has on the developing brain.

  • 5. Derakhshan, Arash
    et al.
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Broeren, Maarten A. C.
    de Poortere, Ralph A.
    Wikström, Sverre
    Peeters, Robin P.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Korevaar, Tim I. M.
    Reference Ranges and Determinants of Thyroid Function During Early Pregnancy: The SELMA Study2018In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 103, no 9, p. 3548-3556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Establishing reference ranges as well as identifying and quantifying the determinants of thyroid function during pregnancy is important for proper clinical interpretation and optimizing research efforts. However, such data are sparse, specifically for triiodothyronine measurements, and most studies do not take into account thyroid antibodies or human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Objective: To determine reference ranges and to identify/quantify determinants of TSH, free T4 (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total T4 (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3).

    Design, Setting, and Participants: This study included 2314 participants of the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy study, a population-based prospective pregnancy cohort of mother-child pairs. Reference ranges were calculated by 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles after excluding thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb)-positive and/or thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb)-positive women.

    Intervention: None.

    Main Outcome Measures: TSH, FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3 in prenatal serum.

    Results: After exclusion of TPOAb-positive women, reference ranges were as follows: TSH, 0.11 to 3.48 mU/L; FT4, 11.6 to 19.4 pmol/L; FT3, 3.72 to 5.92 pg/mL; TT4, 82.4 to 166.2 pmol/L; and TT3, 1.28 to 2.92 nmol/L. Additional exclusion of TgAb-positive women did not change the reference ranges substantially. Exposure to tobacco smoke, as assessed by questionnaires and serum cotinine, was associated with lower TSH and higher FT3 and TT3. Body mass index (BMI) and gestational age were the main determinants of TSH (only for BMI), FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3.

    Conclusions: We show that the exclusion of TgAb-positive women on top of excluding TPOAb-positive women hardly affects clinical reference ranges. We identified various relevant clinical determinants of TSH, FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3 that could reflect endocrine-disrupting effects and/or effects on thyroid hormone transport or deiodination.

  • 6. Derakhshan, Arash
    et al.
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Peeters, Robin P.
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Lindh, Christian H.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Korevaar, Tim I. M.
    Association of urinary bisphenols and triclosan with thyroid function during early pregnancy2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 133, article id 105123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bisphenols and triclosan are considered as potential thyroid disruptors. While mild alterations in maternal thyroid function can result in adverse pregnancy and child developmental outcomes, there is still uncertainty whether bisphenols or triclosan can interfere with thyroid function during pregnancy. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association of urinary bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and triclosan with early pregnancy thyroid function. Methods: This study was embedded in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy study (SELMA), a population-based prospective pregnancy cohort. In total, 1996 participants were included in the current study. Maternal urinary concentrations of three bisphenols and triclosan, collected at median (95% range) 10 (6-14) weeks of pregnancy as well as serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3) were measured. Results: Higher BPA levels were associated with lower TT4 concentrations (non-monotonic, P=0.03), a lower FT4/FT3 ratio (beta [SE] -0.02 [0.01], P=0.03) and a lower TT4/TT3 ratio (beta [SE] -0.73 [0.27], P=0.008). Higher BPF levels were associated with a higher FT3 (beta [SE] 0.01 [0.007], P=0.04). There were no associations between other bisphenols or triclosan and absolute TSH, (F)T4 or (F)T3 concentrations. The association of BPA with thyroid function differed with gestational age. The negative association of BPA with FT4/FT3 and TT4/TT3 ratios was only apparent in early but not late gestation (P for interaction: 0.003, 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: These human data during pregnancy substantiate experimental findings suggesting that BPA could potentially affect thyroid function and deiodinase activities in early gestation.

  • 7. Elvander, Charlotte
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Mode of delivery and the probability of subsequent childbearing: a population-based register study2015In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 122, no 12, p. 1593-1600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between mode of first delivery and probability of subsequent childbearing.

    Design: Population-based study.

    Setting: Nationwide study in Sweden.

    Population: A cohort of 771 690 women who delivered their first singleton infant in Sweden between 1992 and 2010.

    Methods: Using Cox's proportional-hazards regression models, risks of subsequent childbearing were compared across four modes of delivery. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

    Main outcome measures: Probability of having a second and third child; interpregnancy interval.

    Results: Compared with women who had a spontaneous vaginal first delivery, women who delivered by vacuum extraction were less likely to have a second pregnancy (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95–0.97), and the probabilities of a second childbirth were substantially lower among women with a previous emergency caesarean section (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.84–0.86) or an elective caesarean section (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.80–0.83). There were no clinically important differences in the median time between first and second pregnancy by mode of first delivery. Compared with women younger than 30 years of age, older women were more negatively affected by a vacuum extraction with respect to the probability of having a second child. A primary vacuum extraction decreased the probability of having a third child by 4%, but having two consecutive vacuum extraction deliveries did not further alter the probability.

    Conclusions: A first delivery by vacuum extraction does not reduce the probability of subsequent childbearing to the same extent as a first delivery by emergency or elective caesarean section.

  • 8. Gutzkow, K. B.
    et al.
    Duale, N.
    Danielsen, T.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Shahzadi, S.
    Instanes, C.
    Olsen, A. -K.
    Steffensen, I. -L.
    Hofer, T.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Brunborg, G.
    Lindeman, B.
    Enhanced susceptibility of obese mice to glycidamide-induced sperm chromatin damage without increased oxidative stress2016In: Andrology, ISSN 2047-2919, E-ISSN 2047-2927, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 1092-1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diet-induced obesity is known to impair male reproduction and may aggravate the male reproductive toxicity of the food contaminant acrylamide. Exposure of male mice to acrylamide induces paternally mediated pre- and post-implantation losses because of spermatozoal toxicity and these effects are potentiated in mice fed a high-fat diet. Glycidamide - an acrylamide metabolite - is the primary mediator of reproductive effects in males. The mechanisms causing the interaction between diet and acrylamide are not clear. However, diet-induced obesity is associated with oxidative stress in male reproductive tissues which might contribute to increased germ cell susceptibility. In this study, we investigated whether a moderate diet-induced obesity regimen could interfere with glycidamide-induced spermatozoal toxicity and increase oxidative stress. For this purpose, sperm chromatin integrity, oxidised DNA and protein levels, transcript levels of oxidative stress responsive genes and glycidamide-induced DNA and haemoglobin adducts were analysed in samples from male mice exposed to a high-fat diet for 6 weeks in combination with a single glycidamide exposure 7 days prior to sacrifice. We found that glycidamide-induced sperm DNA fragmentation was markedly higher in obese than in lean mice. However, the levels of oxidised DNA and/or protein in blood, liver and testicular tissue was lower in obese than in lean mice. Accompanying the reduced level of oxidised macromolecules, the transcript levels of several oxidative stress-related genes were altered in the liver and testis from obese mice suggesting induction of an antioxidant response in these animals. The haemoglobin-glycidamide adduct levels were higher in obese than in lean animals, whereas obesity did not seem to increase the level of glycidamide-induced DNA adducts. These findings show that a moderate diet-induced obesity regimen may potentiate glycidamide-induced sperm cells toxicity and suggest that the increase in glycidamide-induced sperm toxicity observed in obese mice does not depend on overt oxidative stress.

  • 9. Jones, Sarah
    et al.
    Lukanowska, Monika
    Suhorutsenko, Julia
    Oxenham, Senga
    Barratt, Christopher
    Publicover, Steven
    Copolovici, Dana Maria
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Howl, John
    Intracellular translocation and differential accumulation of cell-penetrating peptides in bovine spermatozoa: evaluation of efficient delivery vectors that do not compromise human sperm motility2013In: Human Reproduction, ISSN 0268-1161, E-ISSN 1460-2350, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1874-1889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) translocate into spermatozoa and, if so, could they be utilized to deliver a much larger protein cargo? Chemically diverse polycationic CPPs rapidly and efficiently translocate into spermatozoa. They exhibit differential accumulation within intracellular compartments without detrimental influences upon cellular viability or motility but they are relatively ineffective in transporting larger proteins. Endocytosis, the prevalent route of protein internalization into eukaryotic cells, is severely compromised in mature spermatozoa. Thus, the translocation of many bioactive agents into sperm is relatively inefficient. However, the delivery of bioactive moieties into mature spermatozoa could be significantly improved by the identification and utility of an efficient and inert vectorial delivery technology. CPP translocation efficacies, their subsequent differential intracellular distribution and the influence of peptides upon viability were determined in bovine spermatozoa. Temporal analyses of sperm motility in the presence of exogenously CPPs utilized normozoospermic human donor samples. CPPs were prepared by manual, automated and microwave-enhanced solid phase synthesis. Confocal fluorescence microscopy determined the intracellular distribution of rhodamine-conjugated CPPs in spermatozoa. Quantitative uptake and kinetic analyses compared the translocation efficacies of chemically diverse CPPs and conjugates of biotinylated CPPs and avidin. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) conversion assays were employed to analyse the influence of CPPs upon sperm cell viability and sperm class assays determined the impact of CPPs on motility in capacitated and non-capacitated human samples. Chemically heterogeneous CPPs readily translocated into sperm to accumulate within discrete intracellular compartments. Mitoparan (INLKKLAKL(Aib)KKIL), for example, specifically accumulated within the mitochondria located in the sperm midpiece. The unique plasma membrane composition of sperm is a critical factor that directly influences the uptake efficacy of structurally diverse CPPs. No correlations in efficacies were observed when comparing CPP uptake into sperm with either uptake into fibroblasts or direct translocation across a phosphatidylcholine membrane. These comparative investigations identified C105Y (CSIPPEVKFNKPFVYLI) as a most efficient pharmacokinetic modifier for general applications in sperm biology. Significantly, CPP uptake induced no detrimental influence upon either bovine sperm viability or the motility of human sperm. As a consequence of the lack of endocytotic machinery, the CPP-mediated delivery of much larger protein complexes into sperm is relatively inefficient when compared with the similar process in fibroblasts. It is possible that some CPPs could directly influence aspects of sperm biology and physiology that were not analysed in this study. CPP technologies have significant potential to deliver selected bioactive moieties and so could modulate the biology and physiology of human sperm biology both prior- and post-fertilization. We are pleased to acknowledge financial support from the following sources: the Wellcome Trust, TENOVUS (Scotland), University of Dundee, Medical Research Council, NHS Tayside and Scottish Enterprise and the Research Institute in Healthcare Science, University of Wolverhampton. No conflicts of interest are reported by the authors.

  • 10. Levie, Deborah
    et al.
    Derakhshan, Arash
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Broeren, Maarten A. C.
    de Poortere, Ralph A.
    Peeters, Robin P.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Demeneix, Barbara
    Korevaar, Tim I. M.
    The Association of Maternal Iodine Status in Early Pregnancy with Thyroid Function in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and Child, Asthma and Allergy Study2019In: Thyroid, ISSN 1050-7256, E-ISSN 1557-9077, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 1660-1668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Severe maternal iodine deficiency can impact fetal brain development through effects on maternal and/or fetal thyroid hormone availability. The effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency on thyroid function are less clear. The aim was to investigate the association of maternal urinary iodine concentration corrected for creatinine (UI/Creat) with thyroid function and autoantibodies in a mild-to-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant population.

    Methods: This study was embedded within the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy (SELMA) study. Clinical reference ranges were determined by the 2.5th and 97.5th population-based percentile cutoffs. The associations of UI/Creat with thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total T4 (TT4), and total T3 (TT3) were studied using multivariable linear regression in thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb)-negative women. The association of UI/Creat with TPOAb and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) positivity was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression.

    Results: Urinary iodine and thyroid function were measured at a median (95% range) gestational age of 10 (6-14) weeks in 2009 women. The median (95% range) UI/Creat was 85 mu g/g (36-386) and the UI/Creat was below 150 mu g/g in 80.1% of women. Reference ranges did not differ substantially by UI/Creat. A lower UI/Creat was associated with a lower TSH (p = 0.027), a higher TT4 (p = 0.032), and with a corresponding trend toward slightly higher fT4 (p = 0.081), fT3 (p = 0.079), and TT3 (p = 0.10). UI/Creat was not associated with the fT4/fT3 (p = 0.94) or TT4/TT3 ratios (p = 0.63). Women with a UI/Creat of 150-249 mu g/g had the lowest prevalence of TPOAb positivity (6.1%), while women with a UI/Creat of <150 mu g/g had a higher prevalence (11.0%, odds ratio [OR] confidence interval [95% CI] 1.84 [1.07-3.20], p = 0.029). Women with a UI/Creat >= 500 mu g/g showed the highest prevalence and a higher risk of TPOAb positivity, however, only a small proportion of women had such a UI/Creat (12.5%, OR, [95% CI] 2.36 [0.54-10.43], p = 0.26).

    Conclusions: We could not identify any meaningful differences in thyroid function reference ranges. Lower iodine availability was associated with a slightly lower TSH and a higher TT4. Women with adequate iodine intake had the lowest risk of TPOAb positivity.

  • 11. Nehme, P. A.
    et al.
    Amaral, F.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Skene, D. J.
    Cipolla-Neto, J.
    Moreno, Claudia R. C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Reduced melatonin synthesis in pregnant night workers: Metabolic implications for offspring2019In: Medical Hypotheses, ISSN 0306-9877, E-ISSN 1532-2777, Vol. 132, article id 109353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several novel animal studies have shown that intrauterine metabolic programming can be modified in the event of reduced melatonin synthesis during pregnancy, leading to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in the offspring. It is therefore postulated that female night workers when pregnant may expose the offspring to unwanted health threats. This may be explained by the fact that melatonin is essential for regulating energy metabolism and can influence reproductive activity. Moreover, the circadian misalignment caused by shift work affects fertility and the fetus, increasing the risk of miscarriage, premature birth and low birth weight, phenomena observed in night workers. Thus, we hypothesize that light-induced melatonin suppression as a result of night work may alter intrauterine metabolic programming in pregnant women, potentially leading to metabolic disorders in their offspring.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, Comparative Religion and Gender Studies. Centrum för genusstudier.
    Det heta könet: Gynekologin i Sverige kring förra sekelskiftet2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    När gynekologin etablerades på 1860-talet uppfattades kvinnan som radikalt annorlunda än mannen. Hon var den som avvek från normen och ansågs därför behöva en egen medicinsk specialitet. Hon blev patienten och Objektet, mannen läkaren och Subjektet. Idéhistorikern Ulrika Nilsson visar i sin bok Det heta könet hur gynekologin i Sverige växte fram runt förra sekelskiftet. Med belysande exempel från både kulturområdet och vetenskap visar hon hur gynekologin har fortsatt att upprätthålla och förstärka ett biologiskt skillnadstänkande i vårt samhälle.

  • 13. Reardon, Anthony J. F.
    et al.
    Moez, Elham Khodayari
    Dinu, Irina
    Goruk, Susan
    Field, Catherine J.
    Kinniburgh, David W.
    MacDonald, Amy M.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Alberta, Canada.
    Longitudinal analysis reveals early-pregnancy associations between perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and thyroid hormone status in a Canadian prospective birth cohort2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 129, p. 389-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serum perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been linked to disruption of maternal thyroid hormone homeostasis, but results have varied between studies which we hypothesized was due to timing of the thyroid hormone measurements, variability in PFAA isomer patterns, or presence of other stressors. In a longitudinal study design, we investigated the time-dependency of associations between PFAA isomers and thyroid hormones during pregnancy and post-partum while considering thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status and mercury (Hg) co-exposure. In participants of a prospective Canadian birth cohort (n = 494), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and TPOAb were quantified in maternal plasma collected in each trimester and 3-months postpartum, and 25 PFAAs (15 linear and 10 branched) and Hg were quantified in samples collected during the second trimester. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and total branched isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were positively associated with TSH in mixed-effect models, with strongest associations early in gestation. Throughout pregnancy and post-partum, PFHxS was inversely associated with FT4, consistent with elevated TSH, while Hg was inversely associated with FT3. In TPOAb-positive women, negative associations were found between PFUnA and FT4, and 1m-PFOS and TSH, supporting previous studies that thyroid disorder could increase susceptibility to PFAA-mediated hormone dysregulation. Hg did not confound associations but was a significant interaction term, revealing further positive associations between PFOS isomers (Sigma 3m + 4m-PFOS) and TSH. Higher perfluoroalkyl sulfonate exposures were associated with higher TSH and/or lower FT4, strongly suggestive that PFHxS and branched PFOS isomers are risk factors for subclinical maternal hypothyroidism. Isomer-specific analysis is important in future studies, as crude measures of 'totalPFOS' masked the associations of branched isomers. A concerning result was for PFHxS which had consistent negative associations with FT4 at all time points and a positive association with TSH in early pregnancy when fetal development is most sensitive to disruption.

  • 14. Ryding, Elsa Lena
    et al.
    Blom, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Validation of the Swedish Version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder2015In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 341-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionThe Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) has been validated for use in many countries. It has been used for clinical and research purposes in Sweden, but the reliability and validity of the Swedish version have never been tested. AimThe aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the FSFI. MethodsAfter informed consent, 50 women with a diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and 58 age-matched healthy volunteers completed the questionnaires. Main Outcome MeasuresReliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha and test-retest by Pearson's correlation, convergent validity by correlation of the FSFI and the Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ), divergent validity by correlation of FSFI and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and discriminant validity by Student's t-test and chi-square test to assess differences between women with and without HSDD. ResultsCronbach's alpha was 0.90-0.96 and test-retest reliability was good (r=0.86-0.93) for all domains in the whole sample; reliability was low for lubrication and pain in the control group. Correlations between all corresponding domains of the FSFI and the SFQ were high for the whole sample (r=0.74-0.87) and moderate to high for both the clinical and the control group. There was no correlation between most FSFI domains and the SCL-90-R. Discriminant validity was very good for each of the FSFI domains (P=0.001, t=7.05-15.58), although the controls reported relatively low scores on the desire domain. The total FSFI score was 31.37 (standard deviation [SD] 2.66) for the clinical group and 17.47 (SD 5.33) for the controls (P=0.001, t=15.99). ConclusionThe Swedish version of the FSFI can be used as a validated and reliable instrument for assessing sexual function in women with HSDD. Ryding EL and Blom C. Validation of the Swedish version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

  • 15. Schmiegelow, Christentze
    et al.
    Minja, Daniel
    Oesterholt, Mayke
    Pehrson, Caroline
    Suhrs, Hannah Elena
    Boström, Stephanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Lemnge, Martha
    Magistrado, Pamela
    Rasch, Vibeke
    Lusingu, John
    Theander, Thor G.
    Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun
    Factors associated with and causes of perinatal mortality in northeastern Tanzania2012In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 91, no 9, p. 1061-1068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To identify factors associated with perinatal mortality in northeastern Tanzania. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Northeastern Tanzania. Population. 872 mothers and their newborns. Methods. Pregnant women were screened for factors possibly associated with perinatal mortality, including preeclampsia, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, anemia, and health-seeking behavior. Fetal growth was monitored using ultrasound. Finally, the specific causes of the perinatal deaths were evaluated. Main outcome measure. Perinatal mortality. Results. Forty-six deaths occurred. Key factors associated with perinatal mortality were preterm delivery (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 14.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2364.86, p < 0.001), small-for-gestational age (adjusted OR 3.54, 95%CI 1.1810.61, p = 0.02), and maternal anemia (adjusted OR 10.34, 95%CI 1.8956.52, p = 0.007). Adherence to the antenatal care program (adjusted OR 0.027, 95%CI 0.0030.26, p = 0.002) protected against perinatal mortality. The cause of death in 43% of cases was attributed to complications related to labor and specifically to intrapartum asphyxia (30%) and neonatal infection (13%). Among the remaining deaths, 27% (7/26) were attributed to preeclampsia and 23% (6/26) to small-for-gestational age. Of these, 54% (14/26) were preterm. Conclusions. Preeclampsia, small-for-gestational age and preterm delivery were key risk factors and causes of perinatal mortality in this area of Tanzania. Maternal anemia was also strongly associated with perinatal mortality. Furthermore, asphyxia accounted for a large proportion of the perinatal deaths. Interventions should target the prevention and handling of these conditions in order to reduce perinatal mortality.

  • 16. Zylbersztejn, Ania
    et al.
    Gilbert, Ruth
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hardelid, Pia
    How can we make international comparisons of infant mortality in high income countries based on aggregate data more relevant to policy?2017In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 17, article id 430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Infant mortality rates are commonly used to compare the health of populations. Observed differences are often attributed to variation in child health care quality. However, any differences are at least partly explained by variation in the prevalence of risk factors at birth, such as low birth weight. This distinction is important for designing interventions to reduce infant mortality. We suggest a simple method for decomposing inter-country differences in crude infant mortality rates into two metrics representing risk factors operating before and after birth.

    Methods

    We used data from 7 European countries participating in the EURO-PERISTAT project in 2010. We calculated crude and birth weight-standardised stillbirth and infant mortality rates using Norway as the standard population. We decomposed between-country differences in crude stillbirth and infant mortality rates into the within-country difference in crude and birth weight-standardised stillbirth and infant mortality rates (metric 1), reflecting prenatal risk factors, and the between-country difference in birth weight-standardised stillbirth and infant mortality rates (metric 2), reflecting risk factors operating after birth. We also calculated birth weight-specific mortality.

    Results

    Using our metrics, we showed that for England, Wales and Scotland risk factors before and after birth contributed equally to the differences in crude stillbirth and infant mortality rates relative to Norway. In Austria, Czech Republic and Switzerland the differences were driven primarily by metric 1, reflecting high rate of low birth weight. The highest values of metric 2 observed in Poland partially reflected high rates of congenital anomalies.

    Conclusions

    Our suggested metrics can be used to guide policy decisions on preventing infant deaths through reducing risk factors at birth or improving the care of babies after birth. Aggregate data tabulated by birth weight/gestational age should be routinely collected and published in high-income countries where birth weight is reported on birth certificates.

  • 17. Zylbersztejn, Ania
    et al.
    Gilbert, Ruth
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wijlaars, Linda
    Hardelid, Pia
    Child mortality in England compared with Sweden: a birth cohort study2018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 391, no 10134, p. 2008-2018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Child mortality is almost twice as high in England compared with Sweden. We aimed to establish the extent to which adverse birth characteristics and socioeconomic factors explain this difference.

    Methods

    We developed nationally representative cohorts of singleton livebirths between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2012, using the Hospital Episode Statistics in England, and the Swedish Medical Birth Register in Sweden, with longitudinal follow-up from linked hospital admissions and mortality records. We analysed mortality as the outcome, based on deaths from any cause at age 2-27 days, 28-364 days, and 1-4 years. We fitted Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for England compared with Sweden in all three age groups. The models were adjusted for birth characteristics (gestational age, birthweight, sex, and congenital anomalies), and for socioeconomic factors (maternal age and socioeconomic status).

    Findings

    The English cohort comprised 3932886 births and 11392 deaths and the Swedish cohort comprised 1013360 births and 1927 deaths. The unadjusted HRs for England compared with Sweden were 1.66 (95% Cl 1.53-1.81) at 2-27 days, 1.59 (1.47-1.71) at 28-364 days, and 1.27 (1.15-1.40) at 1-4 years. At 2-27 days, 77% of the excess risk of death in England was explained by birth characteristics and a further 3% by socioeconomic factors. At 28-364 days, 68% of the excess risk of death in England was explained by birth characteristics and a further 11% by socioeconomic factors. At 1-4 years, the adjusted HR did not indicate a significant difference between countries.

    Interpretation

    Excess child mortality in England compared with Sweden was largely explained by the unfavourable distribution of birth characteristics in England. Socioeconomic factors contributed to these differences through associations with adverse birth characteristics and increased mortality after 1 month of age. Policies to reduce child mortality in England could have most impact by reducing adverse birth characteristics through improving the health of women before and during pregnancy and reducing socioeconomic disadvantage.

1 - 17 of 17
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf