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  • 1. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Coping Style as a Moderator of Perfectionism and Suicidal Ideation Among Undergraduate Students2017In: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0894-9085, E-ISSN 1573-6563, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 223-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a serious and growing public health problem and remains an unnecessary cause of death globally. In Iran, the highest prevalence of acute and chronic suicidal ideation is among young people aged 16-24. This study investigates the relationship between coping style, two types of perfectionism, and suicidal ideation among undergraduates, and examines coping style as a moderator of the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was employed to recruit 547 undergraduate students aged 19-24 years from the Islamic Azad University of Karaj. Structural Equation Modelling indicated that suicidal ideation was negatively associated with adaptive perfectionism and task-focused coping but positively associated with emotion-focused coping, avoidance coping, and maladaptive perfectionism. Coping style (including the three styles of task-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance coping) was found to moderate the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. The study advances understanding of the importance of coping style in this context and explains how perfectionism affects suicidal ideation.

  • 2.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Heimdahl, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Kvinnor dricker för att de mår dåligt - män dricker för att de är män: om könad diskurs i alkoholpolitiska propositioner och utredningar 1965 - 20112012In: Samhället, alkoholen och drogerna: politik, konstruktioner och dilemman / [ed] Jessica Storbjörk, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2012, p. 104-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Perceived neighbourhood insecurity and psychosomatic health complaints among adolescents in Stockholm: Exploring district-level and gendered inequalities2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The neighbourhood is an essential arena for adolescents’ health development and research suggests that perceived neighbourhood insecurity (PNI) is associated with socio-economic status and self-rated health. The present study explored the distribution of adolescents’ PNI and its association with psychosomatic health complaints across districts. It also examined gender differences and whether family socio-economic position, foreign background and previous exposure to crime could explain part of the association. Data came from classroom-surveys within Stockholm municipality’s 14 districts in 2010, 2012 and 2014 (n=10,291). Linear and logistic multilevel regression models were applied. Results showed that the average level of PNI varied considerably between districts and were strongly connected to its socio-demographic composition. However, individual characteristics in terms of family background and previous exposure to crime only explained a minor part of the variation in PNI across districts. Girls reported more insecurity than boys in all districts. Gender differences in PNI decreased in absolute numbers, but increased in relative numbers, as the overall ‘neighbourhood safety’ increased. Between-district differences in health were minor, but PNI was still a strong predictor of individual-level health, especially for boys. Furthermore, the predictive power of PNI on health was stronger in districts perceived as safer.

  • 4. Adams, John
    et al.
    Pike, Tim
    Corna, Laurie M.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Worts, Diana
    McDonough, Peggy
    Di Gessa, Giorgio
    Sacker, Amanda
    Glaser, Karen
    Price, Debora
    How do female lifecourses affect income in retirement?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Briefing Note examines the influence of various lifecourses on income in retirement. The primary focus of this note is to consider how women’s retirement income is affected by motherhood. This includes the impact of taking time out of work to care for children, as well as the implications of the Motherhood Penalty, which is the observation that mothers tend to have reduced incomes relative to women without children.

  • 5.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Granskaya, J
    Birath Scheffel, C
    Beijer, U
    Tsvetkova, L
    Personality characteristics and perceived health in Russian and Swedish female young adults with alcohol drinking habits2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, no Suppl., p. S64-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 7.
    Ahacic, Kozma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Improvements in the aging population 1968-1991: trends in mobility and dental status2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 8. Ahacic, Kozma
    et al.
    Kennison, Robert F.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Changes in sobriety in the Swedish population over three decades: age, period or cohort effects?2012In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 107, no 4, p. 748-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims  This study aimed to examine age, cohort and period trends in alcohol abstinence.

    Design  Two surveys, the Level of Living Survey collected in 1968, 1974, 1981, 1990 and 2000, and the Swedish Panel Study of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) collected in 1992 and 2002, were studied with graphical depictions of cross-sectional and longitudinal data presented over time and over age. Cross-sectional 10-year age group differences, time-lag differences between waves and within-cohort differences between waves for 10-year birth cohorts were examined. Logistic regression models were applied to confirm the observed patterns.

    Setting  The samples were representative of the Swedish population.

    Participants  Participants ranged in age from 18 to 75 (n = 5000 per wave), and 77+ at later waves (n = 500).

    Measurements  Alcohol abstinence was determined by asking ‘Do you ever drink wine, beer, or spirits?’, where a ‘no’ response indicated abstinence.

    Findings  Decreases in abstinence rates were observed from 1968 to 2000/02. While cross-sectional analysis indicated increased abstinence with advancing age, the longitudinal analysis suggested otherwise. Inspection of cohort differences revealed little change within cohorts and large differences between cohorts; abstinence rates declined in later-born cohorts up to the 1940s birth cohorts; stability was observed in cohorts born since the 1940s. Logistic regression models indicated that neither age nor period were significant (P > 0.05) predictors of abstinence when cohort (P < 0.001) was included.

    Conclusion  Decreasing proportions of total alcohol abstainers in Sweden from 1968 to 2000 appear to be attributable primarily to decreases in successive cohorts rather than drinkers becoming abstainers.

  • 9.
    Ahlbom, Anders
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lundström, Hans
    Statistics Sweden.
    Den åldrande befolkningen2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 48, p. 3048-3051Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 112, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

  • 11. Albert, Jan
    et al.
    Berglund, Torsten
    Gisslen, Magnus
    Groon, Peter
    Sonnerborg, Anders
    Tegnell, Anders
    Alexandersson, Anders
    Berggren, Ingela
    Blaxhult, Anders
    Brytting, Maria
    Carlander, Christina
    Carlson, Johan
    Flamholc, Leo
    Follin, Per
    Haggar, Axana
    Hansdotter, Frida
    Josephson, Filip
    Karlström, Olle
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Naver, Lars
    Pettersson, Karin
    Johansson, Veronica Svedhem
    Svennerholm, Bo
    Tunback, Petra
    Widgren, Katarina
    Risk of HIV transmission from patients on antiretroviral therapy: A position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 673-677Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern medical treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality in patients infected with this virus. ART has also been shown to reduce the transmission risk from individual patients as well as the spread of the infection at the population level. This position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy is based on a workshop organized in the fall of 2012. It summarizes the latest research and knowledge on the risk of HIV transmission from patients on ART, with a focus on the risk of sexual transmission. The risk of transmission via shared injection equipment among intravenous drug users is also examined, as is the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Based on current knowledge, the risk of transmission through vaginal or anal intercourse involving the use of a condom has been judged to be minimal, provided that the person infected with HIV fulfils the criteria for effective ART. This probably also applies to unprotected intercourse, provided that no other sexually transmitted infections are present, although it is not currently possible to fully support this conclusion with direct scientific evidence. ART is judged to markedly reduce the risk of blood-borne transmission between people who share injection equipment. Finally, the risk of transmission from mother to child is very low, provided that ART is started well in advance of delivery.

  • 12.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study2017In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 215, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial work factors can affect depressive moods, but research is inconclusive if flexibility to self-determine working hours (work-time control, WTC) is associated with depressive symptoms over time. We investigated if either sub-dimension of WTC, control over daily hours and control over time off, was related to depressive symptoms over time and examined causal, reversed-causal, and reciprocal pathways.

    METHODS: The study was based on four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health which is a follow-up of representative samples of the Swedish working population. WTC was measured using a 5-item index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a brief subscale of the Symptom Checklist. Latent growth curve models and cross-lagged panel models were tested.

    RESULTS: Best fit was found for a model with correlated intercepts (control over daily hours) and both correlated intercepts and slopes (control over time off) between WTC and depressive symptoms, with stronger associations for control over time off. Causal models estimating impacts from WTC to subsequent depressive symptoms were best fitting, with a standardised coefficient between -0.023 and -0.048.

    LIMITATIONS: Results were mainly based on self-report data and mean age in the study sample was relatively high.

    CONCLUSION: Higher WTC was related to fewer depressive symptoms over time albeit small effects. Giving workers control over working hours - especially over taking breaks and vacation - may improve working conditions and buffer against developing depression, potentially by enabling workers to recover more easily and promoting work-life balance.

  • 13. Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Early Health and School Outcomes for Children with Lesbian Parents: Evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was early to legalize same-sex partnership (1995), to allow same-sex couples to adopt children (2003), and to offer same-sex couples fertility treatment through the national health system (2005). Using population data, we identify children of lesbian parents as those whose biological mother was a registered same-sex partner no later than six months after the child's birth. The number of such children increased markedly from 1995 to 2010 with a total of 750 children for the whole period. We find that boys and girls with lesbian parents had 2.4 percent lower birth weight than other children, a difference that is statistically significant from zero at the 5 percent level. Girls, but not boys, also have a higher probability of having a low birth weight. We follow these children until age ten and observe diseases of the respiratory system. Boys with lesbian parents have a significantly lower probability of such diseases (-3.4 percentage points), and girls with lesbian parents an insignificantly higher probability (+2.4 percentage points). Our analysis of school outcomes at age ten uses a small sample so precision is low. The point estimates show that boys with lesbian parents outperform other children by around 10 percentiles higher test scores in Math and Swedish. These differences are barely significant, while estimates for girls are lower and not significant. For all outcomes, we find that children with lesbian parents benefit from their mother's socio-economic status, whereas they suffer in terms of birth weight from having been exposed to fertility treatment.

  • 14.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Future orientation climate in the school class: Relations to adolescent delinquency, heavy alcohol use, and internalizing problem2016In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 70, p. 324-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known, based on previous research, that adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their future are related to the risk of delinquency, alcohol use as well as health. However, other well-known facts are that adolescents' actions are substantially shaped in interaction with peers and that, during adolescence, individuals spend a considerable amount of the day at school, in interaction with classmates. Despite this, there is an almost complete lack of studies exploring to what extent the school climate, as measured by thoughts and feelings about the future, can influence individual adolescents. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether the future orientation (FO) climate, measured at the school class level, is related to delinquency, alcohol use and internalizing problems at the individual level, among a sample of Swedish students 14–15 years of age. The data used come from the Swedish part of the Youth in Europe (YES!) study, which is part of the larger project Children of Immigrants - Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). In the present paper, we use data from the first wave, collected among 8th grade students in 2010/11 (n = 4119–4364). The method used was multilevel modeling (linear probability models (LPM) and linear regression analysis). The results showed that, in school classes where a high proportion of students had a positive future orientation, the risk of heavy alcohol use at the individual level was lower, also after adjusting for individual FO and for individual- and class-level socioeconomic conditions. A similar, but not statistically significant, tendency was found for delinquency. In addition, having a high proportion of students with a positive FO in a school class was associated with fewer internalizing problems, also after controlling for individual FO and socioeconomic conditions at the individual and school class level. We conclude that the surrounding school class, in terms of its general future orientation climate, may play a role for individual outcomes in the form of problem behaviors and mental health.

  • 15.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The gendered mirror on the wall: Satisfaction with physical appearance and its relationship to global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints among adolescent boys and girls2017In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated gender differences in satisfaction with physical appearance as a domain-specific aspect of self-esteem, and its association with global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints. The data used was from the Stockholm School Survey, conducted among ninth grade students (15–16 years), with pooled information from six cross-sectional surveys in 2004–2014 (n = 32,117). Girls reported lower satisfaction with their appearance than boys. Satisfaction with appearance was more strongly associated with global self-esteem among girls, while the association with psychosomatic complaints was similar for both genders. There was a tendency towards a decline in satisfaction with appearance at the end of the study period for both genders, albeit more strong for girls. We conclude that satisfaction with appearance may contribute to our understanding of poor mental well-being among adolescent girls.

  • 16. Almond, Douglas
    et al.
    Edlund, Lena
    Joffe, Michael
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    An adaptive significance of morning sickness? Trivers-Willard and Hyperemesis Gravidarum2016In: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677X, E-ISSN 1873-6130, Vol. 21, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nausea during pregnancy, with or without vomiting, is a common early indication of pregnancy in humans. The severe form, Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG), can be fatal. The aetiology of HG is unknown. We propose that HG may be a proximate mechanism for the Trivers-Willard (T-W) evolutionary hypothesis that mothers in poor condition should favor daughters. Using Swedish linked registry data, 1987-2005, we analyze all pregnancies that resulted in an HG admission and/or a live birth, 1.65 million pregnancies in all. Consistent with the T-W hypothesis, we find that: (i) HG is associated with poor maternal condition as proxied by low education; (ii) HG in the first two months of pregnancy is associated with a 7% point increase in live girl births; and (iii) HG affected pregnancies have a 34-percent average rate of inferred pregnancy loss, higher among less educated women.

  • 17.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Högnäs, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Only the lonely? All-cause mortality among children without siblings and children without friends2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In childhood, relations with siblings and friends lie at the core of social interaction. Lacking either type of relationship may reflect lower levels of social support. While social support is known to be negatively associated with premature death, there are still no long-term follow-ups of mortality risks among children without siblings (‘only-children’) and children without friends (‘lonely-children’). The aim of the present study was therefore to examine and compare all-cause mortality in these two groups.

    Methods: Cox regression analysis was based on a Stockholm cohort born in 1953 (n = 15,117). Individuals were identified as only-children if there were no records of siblings before age 18. Derived from sociometric data collected at age 13, lonely-children were defined as not being nominated by classmates as one of three best friends. The follow-up of all-cause mortality covered ages 20-56.

    Results: Both only-children and lonely-children had increased risks of premature mortality. When adjusted for a wide range of family-related and individual factors, the risk ratio for only-children increased in strength whereas the risk ratio for lonely-children was reduced. The former finding may be explained by suppressor effects: for example, both only-children and those whose parents had alcohol problems had higher mortality risks but only-children were less likely to have parents with alcohol problems. The latter finding was primarily due to adjustment for scholastic ability.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that while only-children and lonely-children have similar risks of all-cause mortality, the processes leading up to premature death appear to be rather different. Yet, interventions targeted at improving social learning experiences may be beneficial for both groups.

    Key messages:

    • Only-children have higher risks of premature mortality but the mechanisms remain unclear.

    • Lonely-children are at risk of premature mortality primarily due to poorer scholastic ability.

  • 18.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Hammarström, Anne
    Associations between social support and depressive symptoms: social causation or social selection – or both?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between social support and health, almost regardless of how social support and health have been conceptualised or measured. Even so, the issue of causality has not yet been sufficiently addressed. This issue is particularly challenging for mental health problems such as depressive symptoms. The aim of the present study is to longitudinally assess structural and functional aspects of social support in relation to depressive symptoms in men and women, through a series of competing causal models that, in contrast to many other statistical methods, allow for bi-directional effects. Methods: Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 1001) were utilised for the years 1995 (age 30) and 2007 (age 42). Associations were analysed by means of gender-specific structural equation modelling, with structural and functional support modelled separately. Results: Both structural and functional support were associated with depressive symptoms at ages 30 and 42, for men and women alike. A higher level of support, particularly functional support, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms over time among men. Among women, there were bi-directional effects of social support and depressive symptoms over time. Conclusion: Concerning social support and health, the social causation hypothesis seems relevant for men whereas, for women, the associations appear to be more complex. We conclude that preventive and health promoting work may need to consider that the presence of depressive symptoms in itself impedes on women’s capability to increase their levels of social support.

  • 19.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hälsosamt samspel i skolan - långsiktiga effekter2014In: På väg in : ungdomars liv och försörjning: Rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 15–16 januari 2014, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2014, , p. 73-82p. 73-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hälsosamt samspel i skolan2012In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 3, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Skolan som social arena och elevers psykiska ohälsa2012In: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Mikael Rostila, Susanna Toivanen, Stockholm: Liber, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Childhood friendships and the clustering of adverse circumstances in adulthood - a longitudinal study of a Stockholm cohort2013In: Longitudinal and life course studies, ISSN 1124-9064, E-ISSN 1757-9597, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 180-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friendships constitute a central feature of childhood, yet little is known about the developmental significance extending beyond childhood and adolescence. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the association between childhood friendships and adult outcomes. Since many outcomes in adulthood go hand in hand, the outcome pattern as a whole was targeted. Based on a longitudinal data material consisting of more than 14,000 individuals born in Stockholm in 1953, a cluster analysis of adult circumstances (1992-2007) was first conducted. Second, the association between three indicators of childhood friendships (1966) and the outcome profiles was analysed by means of multinomial regression analysis. The results indicated that children who lacked leisure time friends and a best friend in the school class had increased risks of ending up in the more adverse clusters as adults, whereas the opposite association was found for those who reported being solitary. The effect of childhood friendships was rather consistent across both single and multiple problems, suggesting that the disadvantages of being without friends in childhood do not accumulate over the life course to any large extent. Generally, the results were the same for males and females. It is concluded that childhood friendships are important for adverse circumstances in adulthood, for both genders. As far as the long-lasting effects of children's friendships involve varying access to social support, school-based interventions should compensate for the scarcity of support following the lack of childhood friends.

  • 23.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Landstedt, E.
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hammarström, A.
    Growing through asphalt: What counteracts the long-term negative health impact of youth adversity?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Adversity in the family of origin tends to translate into poor health development. Yet, the fact that this is not the always the case has been seen an indicator of resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status.

    Methods

    The study was based on the Northern Swedish Cohort born in 1965 (n = 1,001). Measures of social and material adversity, health, and protective factors related to school, peers, and spare time, were derived from questionnaires distributed to the cohort members and their teachers at age 16. Self-rated health was measured at age 43. The main associations were examined by means of ordinal regression analysis, with the role of the protective factors being assessed through interaction analysis.

    Results

    Social and material adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among males and females alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time – particularly in terms of being seen as having good educational and work prospects, as well as a high-quality spare time – appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health.

    Conclusions

    There are several factors outside the context of the family that seemingly have the potential to buffer against the negative health consequences stemming from having experienced a disadvantaged upbringing. Initiatives targeted at increasing academic motivation and commitment as well as social capital and relationships in youth, may here be of particular relevance.

    Key messages:

    • While the experience of disadvantageous living conditions in adolescence tends to translate into poor health development across the life course, this is not always the case.

    • Advantages related to school, peers, and spare time have the potential of counteracting the negative health impact of an adverse family context.

  • 24. Anchang-Kimbi, Judith K.
    et al.
    Achidi, Eric Akum
    Nkegoum, Blaise
    Mendimi, Joseph-Marie N.
    Sverremark-Ekström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    IgG isotypic antibodies to crude Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigen associated with placental malaria infection in parturient Cameroonian women2016In: African Health Sciences, ISSN 1680-6905, E-ISSN 1729-0503, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 1007-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few studies have reported an association between placental malaria (PM) infection and levels of isotypic antibodies against non-pregnancy associated antigens. Objective: To determine and evaluate IgG isotypic antibody levels to crude P. falciparum blood stage in women with and without PM infection. Methods: Levels of IgG (IgG1-IgG4) and IgM to crude P. falciparum blood stage antigen were measured by ELISA in 271 parturient women. Placental malaria infection was determined by placental blood microscopy and placental histology. Age, parity and intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) usage were considered during analysis. Results: P. falciparum-specific IgG1 (96.5%) and IgG3 (96.7%) antibodies were predominant compared with IgG2 (64.6%) and IgG4 (49.1%). Active PM infection was associated with significant increased levels of IgG1, IgG4 and IgM while lower levels of these antibodies were associated with uptake of two or more IPTp-SP doses. PM infection was the only independent factor associated with IgG4 levels. Mean IgG1 + IgG3/IgG2 + IgG4 and IgG1 + IgG2 + IgG3/IgG4 ratios were higher among the PM-uninfected group while IgG4/IgG2 ratio prevailed in the infected group. Conclusion: PM infection and IPTp-SP dosage influenced P. falciparum-specific isotypic antibody responses to blood stage antigens. An increase in IgG4 levels in response to PM infection is of particular interest.

  • 25. Andel, Ross
    et al.
    Crowe, Michael
    Hahn, Elizabeth A.
    Mortimer, James
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Johansson, Boo
    Gatz, Margaret
    Work-Related Stress May Increase the Risk of Vascular Dementia2012In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 60-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine job control, job demands, social support at work, and job strain (ratio of demands to control) in relation to risk of any dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD). DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: The population-based Study of Dementia in Swedish Twins. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-seven people with dementia (167 AD, 46 VaD) and 9,849 without. MEASUREMENTS: Dementia diagnoses were based on telephone screening for cognitive impairment followed by in-person clinical examination. An established job exposure matrix was matched to main occupation categories to measure work characteristics. RESULTS: In generalized estimating equations (adjusted for the inclusion of complete twin pairs), lower job control was associated with greater risk of any dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.31) and VaD specifically (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.07-1.81). Lower social support at work was associated with greater risk of dementia (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.03-1.28), AD (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.00-1.31), and VaD (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02-1.60). Greater job strain was associated with greater risk of VaD only (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02-1.60), especially in combination with low social support (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.11-1.64). Age, sex, and education were controlled for. Work complexity, manual work, and vascular disease did not explain the results. No differences in work-related stress scores were observed in the 54 twin pairs discordant for dementia, although only two pairs included a twin with VaD. CONCLUSION: Work-related stress, including low job control and low social support at work, may increase the risk of dementia, particularly VaD. Modification to work environment, including attention to social context and provision of meaningful roles for employees, may contribute to efforts to promote cognitive health.

  • 26. Andersen, Zorana J.
    et al.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Pedersen, Marie
    Galassi, Claudia
    Jørgensen, Jeanette T.
    Oudin, Anna
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Olsson, David
    Oftedal, Bente
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Aamodt, Geir
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Göran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Eriksen, Kirsten T.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Plusquin, Michelle
    Key, Timothy J.
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Lang, Alois
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Fournier, Agnes
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Baglietto, Laura
    Grioni, Sara
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Migliore, Enrica
    Tamayo-Uria, Ibon
    Amiano, Pilar
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    Keuken, Menno
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project2017In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 125, no 10, article id UNSP 107005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-usc regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts - Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Mattcr (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) <= 2.5 mu m, <= 10 mu m, and 2.5-10 mu m in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 [hazard ratio (FIR) = 1.08 [95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 mu g/m(3)}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 mu g/m(3)], PMcoarse [1.20 (95% Cl: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 mu g/m(3)], and NO2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 mu g/m(3)], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 mu g/m(3), p = 0.04]. CONCLUSIONS: We-found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.

  • 27.
    Andersson, T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), Sweden.
    Bjelkmar, P.
    Hulth, A.
    Lindh, J.
    Stenmark, S.
    Widerström, M.
    Syndromic surveillance for local outbreak detection and awareness: evaluating outbreak signals of acute gastroenteritis in telephone triage, web-based queries and over-the-counter pharmacy sales2014In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 303-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purpose of developing a national system for outbreak surveillance, local outbreak signals were compared in three sources of syndromic data-telephone triage of acute gastroenteritis, web queries about symptoms of gastrointestinal illness, and over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy sales of antidiarrhoeal medication. The data sources were compared against nine known waterborne and foodborne outbreaks in Sweden in 2007-2011. Outbreak signals were identified for the four largest outbreaks in the telephone triage data and the two largest outbreaks in the data on OTC sales of antidiarrhoeal medication. No signals could be identified in the data on web queries. The signal magnitude for the fourth largest outbreak indicated a tenfold larger outbreak than officially reported, supporting the use of telephone triage data for situational awareness. For the two largest outbreaks, telephone triage data on adult diarrhoea provided outbreak signals at an early stage, weeks and months in advance, respectively, potentially serving the purpose of early event detection. In conclusion, telephone triage data provided the most promising source for surveillance of point-source outbreaks.

  • 28.
    Andreasson, Anna N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wicksell, B.
    Karshikoff, B.
    Lodin, K.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Olgart Höglund, C.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Development and preliminary validation of the Sickness Questionnaire (SicknessQ)2013In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 32, article id e14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of questionnaires to measure subjective feelings of being sick made us develope the Sickness Questionnaire (SicknessQ) for assessment of sickness behavior in people. The objective of the present investigation was to test its internal consistency, criteria validity, and sensitivity to capture the sickness response in an experimental setting. An initial pool of items was developed based on previous research. The statistical properties of SicknessQ was assessed in 172 men and women primary care patients with acute complaints and involved three steps: (1) principal component analyses to reduce the number of items and to identify latent factor structures, (2) tests of internal consistencies of subscales, and (3) hierarchical regression analyses to test criteria validity of the subscales. Subsequently, sensitivity to change was tested in a placebo controlled experiment in which 31 blinded healthy men and women were injected with endotoxin (LPS) to provoke sickness behavior. Principal components analysis suggested a 3-factor solution with a total of 11 items measuring fatigue (5 items), pain (4 items) and emotion (2 items). The total scale as well as each of the three separate factors were significantly changed 90 min after endotoxin injection as compared to baseline (p’s < .01). In all, the new 11-item SicknessQ is highly sensitive to a mild systemic inflammation. Further studies are planned to test its usefulness and prognostic value in clinical settings.

  • 29.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schiller, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Brief report: Contemplate your symptoms and re-evaluate your health. A study on working adults.2017In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, article id 1359105317715090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether self-ratings of health are affected by a symptom rating. A diary including a one-item self-rating of health ("pre-self-rated health"; 1 = excellent, 7 = very poor), a subsequent 26-item rating of symptoms, and thereafter a second (identical) health rating ("post-self-rated health") was completed by 820 persons 21 times. Self-rated health worsened significantly ( p < .0001) after the symptom rating, from 2.72 pre-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.70-2.74) to 2.77 post-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.75-2.79) and more so in persons who reported more symptoms ( b = .058, p < .05). The results support the notion that subjective health perception is influenced by attending to symptoms, especially so in persons with a high symptom burden.

  • 30. Andreeva, Elena
    et al.
    Brenner, M. Harvey
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Risk of psychological ill health and methods of organisational downsizing: a cross-sectional survey in four European countries2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can make a substantial difference as to whether the exposed workers will suffer from psychological ill health. Surprisingly, little research has directly investigated this issue. We examined the likelihood of psychological ill health associated with strategic and reactive downsizing. Methods: A cross-sectional survey included 1456 respondents from France, Sweden, Hungary and the United Kingdom: 681 employees in stable workplaces (reference group) and 775 workers from downsized companies. Reactive downsizing was exemplified by the exposures to compulsory redundancies of medium to large scale resulting in job loss or surviving a layoff while staying employed in downsized organizations. The workforce exposed to strategic downsizing was represented by surplus employees who were internally redeployed and supported through their career change process within a policy context of no compulsory redundancy. Symptoms of anxiety, depression and emotional exhaustion were assessed in telephone interviews with brief subscales from Hospital Anxiety Scale (HADS-A), Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-CD6) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS). Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results: We observed no increased risk of psychological ill health in the case of strategic downsizing. The number of significant associations with psychological ill health was the largest for the large-scale reactive downsizing: surviving a layoff was consistently associated with all three outcome measures; returning to work after the job loss experience was related to anxiety and depression, while persons still unemployed at interview had elevated odds of anxiety. After reactive medium-scale downsizing, unemployment at interview was the only exposure associated with anxiety and depression. Conclusions: The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can be important for the psychological wellbeing of workers. If downsizing is unavoidable, it should be achieved strategically. Greater attention is needed to employment and health policies supporting the workers after reactive downsizing.

  • 31. Andres Gimeno-Feliu, Luis
    et al.
    Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Miguel Servet University Hospital, Spain; Carlos III Health Institute, Spain.
    Diaz, Esperanza
    Laguna-Berna, Clara
    Poblador-Plou, Beatriz
    Coscollar, Carlos
    Prados-Torres, Alexandra
    Multimorbidity and immigrant status: associations with area of origin and length of residence in host country2017In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, E-ISSN 1460-2229, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 662-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. Multimorbidity is a growing phenomenon in primary care, and knowledge of the influence of social determinants on its evolution is vital. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between multimorbidity and immigration, taking into account length of residence in the host country and area of origin of the immigrant population. Methods. Cross-sectional retrospective study of all adult patients registered within the public health service of Aragon, Spain (N = 1 092 279; 144 238 were foreign-born), based on data from the EpiChron Cohort. Age-standardized prevalence rates of multimorbidity were calculated. Different models of binary logistic regressions were conducted to study the association between multimorbidity, immigrant status and length of residence in the host country. Results. The risk of multimorbidity in foreign-borns was lower than that of native-borns [odds ratio (OR): 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.55]. The probability of experiencing multimorbidity was lowest for Asians (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.31-0.37) and Eastern Europeans (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.40-0.43), and highest for Latin Americans (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.68-0.72). Foreign-born immigrants residing in Aragon for >= 5 years had a higher multimorbidity risk than those residing for < 5 years (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 2.2-2.4). Conclusion. Prevalence of multimorbidity is lower among foreign-borns as compared with native-borns, but increases rapidly with length of residence in the host country. However, the progressive development of multimorbidity among immigrants varies widely depending on area of origin. These findings provide important insight into the health care needs of specific population groups and may help minimize the negative impact of multimorbidity among the most vulnerable groups.

  • 32. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Fors, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day.

    Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers.

    Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness.

    Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  • 33.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Grape, Tom
    Hammarström, Anne
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Skoog, Ingmar
    Träskman-Bendz, Lil
    Hall, Charlotte
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and burnout symptoms2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies - original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms.

    METHODS: A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990-2013. 2) Prospective or comparable case control design. 3) Assessments of exposure (work) and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1-5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used.

    RESULTS: Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3) was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout.

    CONCLUSION: While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job insecurity increased the risk for developing exhaustion. Our approach with a wide range of work exposure factors analysed in relation to the separate dimensions of burnout expanded the knowledge of associations, evidence as well as research needs. The potential of organizational interventions is illustrated by the findings that burnout symptoms are strongly influenced by structural factors such as job demands, support and the possibility to exert control.

  • 34.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Health differences between employees in human service professions and other professions: The impact of psychosocial and organizational work environment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While recent publications indicate that employees in human service professions have higher risk of sickness absence and mental ill-health, little is known about the association with other health outcomes and possible mechanisms behind the differential risk. This study investigates differences in burnout, self-rated health and sickness absence between those in human service professions and other professions and examines whether differences in psychosocial and organizational work environment can explain possible variations. Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population (n=4486). Results from binary logistic regressions suggested that those in human service professions had higher odds of burnout and sickness absence those in other professions. Differences in burnout were explained by background variables while differences in sickness absence were explained by psychosocial and organizational work factors. Employees in human service professions had lower odds of suboptimal self-rated health than others in the fully adjusted model. Women were at higher risk of burnout, sickness absence, and all adverse psychosocial and organizational work environment factors except social support. Future studies should investigate the most crucial psychosocial and organizational work factors in human service professions with the objective to improve employee health.  

  • 35.
    Atti, Anna Rita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Forlani, Claudia
    de Ronchi, Diana
    Palmer, Katie
    Casadio, Paola
    Dalmonte, Edoardo
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Cognitive Impairment after Age 60: clinical and Social Correlates in the "Faenza Project"2010In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 1325-1334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 7,389 dementia-free elderly (60–102 years old) enrolled in the "Faenza Project" (Northern Italy) were clinically evaluated by nurses and physicians with the aim of detecting the independent and combined association of medical and social factors with cognitive status. Cognitive Impairment No Dementia (CIND) was defined for MMSE scores ⩽ 2 standard deviations than the age- and education-corrected mean score obtained by the non-demented persons of the Faenza cohort. Logistic Regression analysis was used to estimate Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals (OR, 95%CI) for CIND. The diagnostic procedure identified 402 (5.4%) CIND cases. Diabetes (OR, 95%CI=1.6, 1.2–2.2), stroke (OR, 95%CI=1.9, 1.4–2.6), and depressive symptoms (OR, 95%CI=1.9, 1.4–2.7) emerged as the most relevant medical comorbidities of CIND. Low education (OR, 95%CI=1.8, 1.1–2.9), low Socio Economic Status (SES) (OR, 95%CI=1.5, 1.1–2.1), and unmarried status (OR, 95%CI=1.7, 1.2–2.5) were associated with CIND. Medical and social factors were independently related to CIND occurrence. In comparison to subjects without any of the above mentioned conditions, subjects with one medical and one social factor had an OR, 95%CI for CIND equal to 6.0, 2.9–12.4. The strength of the association increased when more of those conditions occurred in combination, suggesting a synergistic effect. Despite some methodological limitations, data from this cross-sectional population-based Italian study show that low education, low SES, unmarried status together with diabetes, stroke, and depressive symptoms are related to cognitive impairment in the general population. The interaction of medical and social factors further increases the probability of CIND.

  • 36. Auguer, Nathalie
    et al.
    Le Serbon, Emelie
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Leaving Sweden behind: gains in life expectancy in Canada2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 340-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. Methods: We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. Results: During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. Conclusions: In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden.

  • 37.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sleep, appearance and social interactions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sömn och fysisk aktivitet2016In: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Stockholm: Läkartidningen förlag AB , 2016, 3, p. 171-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lasselin, Julie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Man flu is related to health communication rather than symptoms and suffering2018In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 360, article id k450Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Karshikoff, Bianca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hedman, E.
    Is health anxiety related to disease avoidance?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Axelsson, Charlotte
    Lasselin, Julie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Identification of acutely sick people and facial cues of sickness2018In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 285, no 1870, article id 20172430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection and avoidance of sick individuals have been proposed as essential components in a behavioural defence against disease, limiting the risk of contamination. However, almost no knowledge exists on whether humans can detect sick individuals, and if so by what cues. Here, we demonstrate that untrained people can identify sick individuals above chance level by looking at facial photos taken 2 h after injection with a bacterial stimulus inducing an immune response (2.0 ng kg-1 lipopolysaccharide) or placebo, the global sensitivity index being d' = 0.405. Signal detection analysis (receiver operating characteristic curve area) showed an area of 0.62 (95% confidence intervals 0.60-0.63). Acutely sick people were rated by naive observers as having paler lips and skin, a more swollen face, droopier corners of the mouth, more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, and less glossy and patchy skin, as well as appearing more tired. Our findings suggest that facial cues associated with the skin, mouth and eyes can aid in the detection of acutely sick and potentially contagious people.

  • 42.
    Axelsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    HR-medarbetares upplevelser kring spelprevention och policyimplementering på arbetsplatsen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The complex concept regarding harmful use of different nature, could be related to the use of alcohol, drugs or gambling. Such activities could affect the efficiency and productivity of an employee in a workplace environment in a negative way. At the request of the Public Health Agency of Sweden, a group of scientist was given the task to evaluate a project regarding education concerning problematic gambling. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate a project regarding education concerning gambling and gambling prevention, and was carried out by the organization Alna. Thematic analysis was used and collection of data was done with semi structured interviews, with ten HR-employees whose five organisations was included in the project Gambling and gambling preventive efforts directed towards the labour market. The results show that the methods and tools used by Alna is perceived as efficient and valuable by the participants. Some obstacles which works against efficient implementation of updated policies and guidelines were identified and these could consist of time constraints, under staffing or subordinated priority of the gambling issue per se. Furthermore it seems that the education project regarding gambling prevention performed by Alna has contributed to the development of policies and guidelines regarding harmful use of different kinds with focus on the gambling issue.  

  • 43. Babor, Thomas
    et al.
    Stenius, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Health services: Treatment of substance use disorders within health services2010In: ATLAS on substance use (2010): Resources for the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders / [ed] Wolrd Health Organization, WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data , 2010, p. 23-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/treatment/en/index.html

  • 44. Barghadouch, Amina
    et al.
    Kristiansen, Maria
    Smith Jervelund, Signe
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Montgomery, Edith
    Norredam, Marie
    Refugee children have fewer contacts to psychiatric healthcare services: an analysis of a subset of refugee children compared to Danish-born peers2016In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 1125-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show a high level of mental health problems among refugee children. This study examined whether a subset of refugee children living in Denmark accessed psychiatric healthcare services more than those born in the country. This study compared 24,427 refugee children from Asia, The Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa and former Yugoslavia, who obtained residency in Denmark between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010 with 146,562 Danish-born children, matched 1:6 on age and sex. The study looked at contacts with psychiatric hospitals as well as psychologists and psychiatrists in private practice. Between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 2012, 3.5 % of the refugee children accessed psychiatric healthcare services compared to 7.7 % of the Danish-born children. The rate ratio of having any first-time psychiatric contact was 0.42 (95 % CI 0.40-0.45) among refugee boys and 0.35 (95 % CI 0.33-0.37) among refugee girls, compared to Danish-born children. Figures were similar for those accessing private psychologists or psychiatrists, emergency room, inpatient and outpatient services. Refugee children used fewer psychiatric healthcare services than Danish-born children. This may indicate that refugee children experience barriers in accessing psychiatric healthcare systems and do not receive adequate assessment of their mental health and subsequent referral to specialist services.

  • 45.
    Barrett, Damon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. University of Essex, UK.
    The Child's Right to Protection from Drugs: Understanding History to Move Forward2017In: Health and Human Rights: An International Journal, ISSN 1079-0969, E-ISSN 2150-4113, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 263-268Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Bartonek, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The role of self-esteem for the relation between school performance and psychosomatic health in adolescence: Sex differences and gender theoretical interpretations2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While socioeconomic inequalities in health seem to level out during adolescence, circumstances related to school appears to have increased in importance. Such circumstances include, for example, school performance. The primary aim of this study is to examine the relationship between school performance and psychosomatic health. The moderating role of self-esteem and the presence of any sex differences will additionally be investigated. Data from the Stockholm School Survey in 2004, covering a total sample of 5 135 adolescents in 9th grade, were used. Based on linear regression, a significant association between school marks and psychosomatic health was found where higher school performance was linked to better health. Moreover, lower self-esteem was linked to more health complaints. Self-esteem moderated the association between school marks and psychosomatic health but only among boys, for whom the effect of having both high marks and high self-esteem was not as beneficial for health as expected. While differences by sex were found in the distribution of school marks, self-esteem and psychosomatic health, none were found in the associations between self-esteem and school performance and psychosomatic health (the only exception being the moderating role of self-esteem among boys).

  • 47. Beccaria, Franca
    et al.
    Rolando, Sara
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Scavarda, Alice
    From housekeeper to status-oriented consumer and hyper-sexual imagery: images of alcohol targeted to Italian women from the 1960s to the 2000s2017In: Feminist Media Studies, ISSN 1468-0777, E-ISSN 1471-5902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advertisements not only mirror ideals of masculinity and femininity that prevail in a specific place and time, but also contribute to influencing them. This article analyses alcohol-related advertisements published in women’s magazines from 1967 to 2008 in Italy. The main aim is to understand cultural processes that underlie gender differences in drinking and more generally in Italian society. The sample consists of 376 direct and indirect advertisements collected from well-established women’s magazines. The study identifies continuities and changes in women’s subject positions in alcohol-related advertisements. Italian advertisements of the 1960s and 1970s still reflect a female condition that entails no recognition of women’s own desires and tastes. Advertisements from the 1980s and 1990s reflect a more complex representation of female consumers, associating them with their own desires and pleasures. In the 2000s, the focus on women’s physical appearance and social image has become the prevailing feature. In conclusion, the study shows that changes in female representations in advertisements in the last 50 years do not represent a shift toward a more balanced gender representation. The insistence on women’s appearance, with a correlated predominance of bodily pleasures and attractiveness, reproduces old stereotypes about drinking women.

  • 48.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Duke University, North Carolina.
    Caspi, Avshalom
    Broadbent, Jonathan
    Harrington, Honalee
    Houts, Renate M.
    Poulton, Richie
    Ramrakha, Sandhya
    Reuben, Aaron
    Moffitt, Terrie E.
    Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Criminal Offending2018In: JAMA pediatrics, ISSN 2168-6203, E-ISSN 2168-6211, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance  Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending.

    Objective  To test the hypothesis that a higher childhood blood lead level (BLL) is associated with greater risk of criminal conviction, recidivism (repeat conviction), conviction for violent offenses, and variety of self-reported criminal offending in a setting where BLL was not associated with low socioeconomic status.

    Design, Setting, and Participants  A total of 553 individuals participated in a prospective study based on a population-representative cohort born between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973, from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (December 2012). Statistical analysis was performed from November 10, 2016, to September 5, 2017.

    Exposures  Blood lead level measured at age 11 years.

    Main Outcomes and Measures  Official criminal conviction cumulative to age 38 years (data collected in 2013), single conviction or recidivism, conviction for nonviolent or violent crime, and self-reported variety of crime types at ages 15, 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 years.

    Results  Participants included 553 individuals (255 female and 298 male participants) who had their blood tested for lead at age 11 years. The mean (SD) BLL at age 11 years was 11.01 (4.62) μg/dL. A total of 154 participants (27.8%) had a criminal conviction, 86 (15.6%) had recidivated, and 53 (9.6%) had a violent offense conviction. Variety scores for self-reported offending ranged from 0 to 10 offense types at each assessment; higher numbers indicated greater crime involvement. Self-reported offending followed the well-established age-crime curve (ie, the mean [SD] variety of self-reported offending increased from 1.99 [2.82] at age 15 years to its peak of 4.24 [3.15] at age 18 years and 4.22 [3.02] at age 21 years and declined thereafter to 1.10 [1.59] at age 38 years). Blood lead level was a poor discriminator between no conviction and conviction (area under the curve, 0.58). Overall, associations between BLL and conviction outcomes were weak. The estimated effect of BLL was lower for recidivism than for single convictions and lower for violent offending than for nonviolent offending. Sex-adjusted associations between BLL reached statistical significance for only 1 of the 6 self-reported offending outcomes at age 15 years (r = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.18; P = .02).

    Conclusions and Relevance  This study overcomes past limitations of studies of BLL and crime by studying the association in a place and time where the correlation was not confounded by childhood socioeconomic status. Findings failed to support a dose-response association between BLL and consequential criminal offending.

  • 49.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
    Lundholm, Lena
    Långström, Niklas
    Frisell, Thomas
    Association of height and violent criminality: results from a Swedish total population study2014In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 835-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Violent criminality is at least moderately heritable, but the mechanisms behind this remain largely unexplained. Height, a highly heritable trait, may be involved but no study has estimated the effect of height on crime while simultaneously accounting for important demographic, biological and other heritable confounders. Methods: We linked nationwide, longitudinal registers for 760 000 men who underwent mandatory military conscription from 1980 through 1992 in Sweden, to assess the association between height and being convicted of a violent crime. We used Cox proportional hazard modelling and controlled for three types of potential confounders: physical characteristics, childhood demographics and general cognitive ability (intelligence). Results: In unadjusted analyses, height had a moderate negative relationship to violent crime; the shortest of men were twice as likely to be convicted of a violent crime as the tallest. However, when simultaneously controlling for all measured confounders, height was weakly and positively related to violent crime. Intelligence had the individually strongest mitigating effect on the height-crime relationship. Conclusions: Although shorter stature was associated with increased risk of violent offending, our analyses strongly suggested that this relationship was explained by intelligence and other confounding factors. Hence, it is unlikely that height, a highly heritable physical characteristic, accounts for much of the unexplained heritability of violent criminality.

  • 50. Beer, Netta
    et al.
    Ali, Abdullah S.
    Eskilsson, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Abdul-Kadir, Faiza M.
    Rotllant-Estelrich, Guida
    Abass, Ali K.
    Wabwire-Mangen, Fred
    Björkman, Anders
    Kallander, Karin
    A qualitative study on caretakers' perceived need of bed-nets after reduced malaria transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, p. 606-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The elimination of malaria in Zanzibar is highly dependent on sustained effective coverage of bed-nets to avoid malaria resurgence. The Health Belief Model (HBM) framework was used to explore the perceptions of malaria and bed-net use after a noticeable reduction in malaria incidence. Methods: Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with female and male caretakers of children under five in North A district, Zanzibar. Deductive content analysis was used to identify meaning units that were condensed, coded and assigned to pre-determined elements of the HBM. Results: Awareness of malaria among caretakers was high but the illness was now seen as easily curable and uncommon. In addition to the perceived advantage of providing protection against malaria, bed-nets were also thought to be useful for avoiding mosquito nuisance, especially during the rainy season when the malaria and mosquito burden is high. The discomfort of sleeping under a net during the hot season was the main barrier that interrupted consistent bed-net usage. The main cue to using a bed-net was high mosquito density, and children were prioritized when it came to bed-net usage. Caretakers had high perceived self-efficacy and did not find it difficult to use bed-nets. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), which was recognized as an additional means of mosquito prevention, was not identified as an alternative for bed-nets. A barrier to net ownership was the increasingly high cost of bed-nets. Conclusions: Despite the reduction in malaria incidence and the resulting low malaria risk perceptions among caretakers, the benefit of bed-nets as the most proficient protection against mosquito bites upholds their use. This, in combination with the perceived high self-efficacy of caretakers, supports bed-net usage, while seasonality interrupts consistent use. High effective coverage of bed-nets could be further improved by reinforcing the benefits of bed-nets, addressing the seasonal heat barrier by using nets with larger mesh sizes and ensuring high bed-net ownership rates through sustainable and affordable delivery mechanisms.

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