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  • 1. Aarseth, Espen
    et al.
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Helmersson Bergmark, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    van Rooij, Antonius J.
    Scholars’ open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal2017Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 267-270Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal, and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Second, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Third, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as a part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Abu Talib, Mansor
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Harvey, Richard
    Yaacob, Siti Nor
    Ismail, Zanariah
    Problem-solving skills and perceived stress among undergraduate students: The moderating role of hardiness2018Inngår i: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 23, nr 10, s. 1321-1331Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was designed to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hardiness, and perceived stress and to test the moderating role of hardiness in the relationship between problem-solving skills and perceived stress among 500 undergraduates from Malaysian public universities. The analyses showed that undergraduates with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and approach-avoidance style were more likely to report perceived stress. Hardiness moderated the relationships between problem-solving skills and perceived stress. These findings reinforce the importance of moderating role of hardiness as an influencing factor that explains how problem-solving skills affect perceived stress among undergraduates.

  • 3. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Coping Style as a Moderator of Perfectionism and Suicidal Ideation Among Undergraduate Students2017Inngår i: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0894-9085, E-ISSN 1573-6563, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 223-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a serious and growing public health problem and remains an unnecessary cause of death globally. In Iran, the highest prevalence of acute and chronic suicidal ideation is among young people aged 16-24. This study investigates the relationship between coping style, two types of perfectionism, and suicidal ideation among undergraduates, and examines coping style as a moderator of the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was employed to recruit 547 undergraduate students aged 19-24 years from the Islamic Azad University of Karaj. Structural Equation Modelling indicated that suicidal ideation was negatively associated with adaptive perfectionism and task-focused coping but positively associated with emotion-focused coping, avoidance coping, and maladaptive perfectionism. Coping style (including the three styles of task-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance coping) was found to moderate the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. The study advances understanding of the importance of coping style in this context and explains how perfectionism affects suicidal ideation.

  • 4.
    Abougazar, Eman Silmy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
      Barriers to equal access to eHealth in Stockholm  : A qualitative study2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim behind this study was to observe and understand barriers to access the eHealth system equally. The study was conducted in Stockholm based on qualitative data in which semi- structured interviews were conducted among 15 interviewees from different localities of Stockholm. The findings from the collected data revealed that language barriers, lack of knowledge about digital literacy, unawareness of Swedish healthcare services, psychological and social barriers, safety and privacy concerns, and the lack of an e-identification are all major barriers to accessing the eHealth system. From the data, it has also been observed that the main causes of the aforementioned hurdles are based on varied socioeconomic levels, literacy conditions of an individual, cultural background, and age. Another important observation shows that highly qualified people with limited language abilities have a difficult time using eHealth services. 

    Keywords 

    Ehealth, Covid-19, nudge approach, digital literacy, linguistic skills, Bank ID, 1177.se, Alltid öppet. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Abougazar, Eman Silmy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Barriers to equal access to eHealth in Stockholm: A qualitative study2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim behind this study was to observe and understand barriers to access the eHealth system equally. The study was conducted in Stockholm based on qualitative data in which semi- structured interviews were conducted among 15 interviewees from different localities of Stockholm. The findings from the collected data revealed that language barriers, lack of knowledge about digital literacy, unawareness of Swedish healthcare services, psychological and social barriers, safety and privacy concerns, and the lack of an e-identification are all major barriers to accessing the eHealth system. From the data, it has also been observed that the main causes of the aforementioned hurdles are based on varied socioeconomic levels, literacy conditions of an individual, cultural background, and age. Another important observation shows that highly qualified people with limited language abilities have a difficult time using eHealth services. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Heimdahl, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Kvinnor dricker för att de mår dåligt - män dricker för att de är män: om könad diskurs i alkoholpolitiska propositioner och utredningar 1965 - 20112012Inngår i: Samhället, alkoholen och drogerna: politik, konstruktioner och dilemman / [ed] Jessica Storbjörk, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2012, s. 104-129Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Perceived neighbourhood insecurity and psychosomatic health complaints among adolescents in Stockholm: Exploring district-level and gendered inequalities2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The neighbourhood is an essential arena for adolescents’ health development and research suggests that perceived neighbourhood insecurity (PNI) is associated with socio-economic status and self-rated health. The present study explored the distribution of adolescents’ PNI and its association with psychosomatic health complaints across districts. It also examined gender differences and whether family socio-economic position, foreign background and previous exposure to crime could explain part of the association. Data came from classroom-surveys within Stockholm municipality’s 14 districts in 2010, 2012 and 2014 (n=10,291). Linear and logistic multilevel regression models were applied. Results showed that the average level of PNI varied considerably between districts and were strongly connected to its socio-demographic composition. However, individual characteristics in terms of family background and previous exposure to crime only explained a minor part of the variation in PNI across districts. Girls reported more insecurity than boys in all districts. Gender differences in PNI decreased in absolute numbers, but increased in relative numbers, as the overall ‘neighbourhood safety’ increased. Between-district differences in health were minor, but PNI was still a strong predictor of individual-level health, especially for boys. Furthermore, the predictive power of PNI on health was stronger in districts perceived as safer.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Abrahamsson (2016)
  • 8.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Housing plans of the oldest: ageing in semi-rural areas in Sweden2020Inngår i: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, ISSN 1566-4910, E-ISSN 1573-7772, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 27-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of smaller municipalities have decreasing population rates. Generally, the young move out, increasing the proportion of older people. To increase our understanding of the living conditions of an ageing population in small municipalities, a postal survey was conducted in three small, semi-rural municipalities in southern Sweden. In the survey the respondents answered questions about their living situation and their housing plans. The aim of this study was to investigate the housing situation and housing plans of the very old in semi-rural areas and research questions analysed for this study concerned the current housing situation and plans for future housing. A total of 1386 surveys were sent out in March 2014, to all inhabitants aged 80 years or more, residing in the ordinary housing market in the three municipalities, the response rate was 60%. The results show that most of the respondents were firmly rooted in the area as most of them had lived in the municipality for more than 20 years and 60% had lived in their current dwelling for more than 20 years. Ageing in place was the dominating plan, although one quarter of the respondents answered that they did not know what would happen in the future. Those who planned to move wanted to move to housing that required less maintenance and to a more central location. Residential mobility is at play also in old age as 27% of the respondents had moved at some point during the last 10 years, i.e., after the age of 70.

  • 9. Adams, Jimi
    et al.
    Lawrence, Elizabeth M.
    Goode, Joshua A.
    Schaefer, David R.
    Möllborn, Stefanie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. University of Colorado Boulder, USA.
    Peer Network Processes in Adolescents' Health Lifestyles2022Inngår i: Journal of health and social behavior, ISSN 0022-1465, E-ISSN 2150-6000, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 125-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining theories of health lifestyles-interrelated health behaviors arising from group-based identities-with those of network and behavior change, we investigated network characteristics of health lifestyles and the role of influence and selection processes underlying these characteristics. We examined these questions in two high schools using longitudinal, complete friendship network data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Latent class analyses characterized each school's predominant health lifestyles using several health behavior domains. School-specific stochastic actor-based models evaluated the bidirectional relationship between friendship networks and health lifestyles. Predominant lifestyles remained stable within schools over time, even as individuals transitioned between lifestyles. Friends displayed greater similarity in health lifestyles than nonfriend dyads. Similarities resulted primarily from teens' selection of friends with similar lifestyles but also from teens influencing their peers' lifestyles. This study demonstrates the salience of health lifestyles for adolescent development and friendship networks.

  • 10. Adams, John
    et al.
    Pike, Tim
    Corna, Laurie M.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Worts, Diana
    McDonough, Peggy
    Di Gessa, Giorgio
    Sacker, Amanda
    Glaser, Karen
    Price, Debora
    How do female lifecourses affect income in retirement?2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Briefing Note examines the influence of various lifecourses on income in retirement. The primary focus of this note is to consider how women’s retirement income is affected by motherhood. This includes the impact of taking time out of work to care for children, as well as the implications of the Motherhood Penalty, which is the observation that mothers tend to have reduced incomes relative to women without children.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11. Adedeji, Dickson O.
    et al.
    Holleman, Jasper
    Juster, Robert-Paul
    Udeh-Momoh, Chinedu T.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hagman, Göran
    Aspö, Malin
    Adagunodo, Sofia
    Håkansson, Krister
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Solomon, Alina
    Sindi, Shireen
    Longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers, allostatic load, and cognition among memory clinic patients2023Inngår i: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Health, E-ISSN 2666-3546, Vol. 28, artikkel-id 100592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Allostatic load (AL) is defined as the cumulative dysregulation of neuroendocrine, immunological, metabolic, and cardiovascular systems that increases the susceptibility to stress-related health problems. Several dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors have been identified, yet little is known about the role of AL and its associations with AD biomarkers (e.g., beta-amyloid (Aβ) or tau) and cognitive function among memory clinic patients. Hence, this study aims to assess the association between AL and AD biomarkers, cognitive performance, and cognitive decline after 3-years of follow-up.

    Methods: Data from 188 memory clinic patients were derived from the Cortisol and Stress in AD (Co-STAR) study in Sweden. Participants underwent baseline assessments including blood tests for AL measures (including cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone, cobalamin, homocysteine, leukocytes, glycated hemoglobin, albumin, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and creatinine), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling for AD biomarkers and neuropsychological tests including five cognitive domains. Linear regressions were conducted, adjusting for age, sex, and education.

    Results: Higher AL was associated with lower CSF Aβ1-42 levels (β = −0.175, p = 0.025), reflecting higher brain levels of Aβ1-42. Stratified analyses suggested a significant association among women but not men, although the AL-sex interaction was not statistically significant. AL was not significantly associated with T-tau level (β = −0.030, p = 0.682) and P-tau level (β = 0.091, p = 0.980). There were no significant associations between AL and cognition or cognitive decline after 3 years.

    Conclusion: This study showed that higher AL was associated with increased brain amyloid accumulation. This suggests that AL may play a role in AD/dementia pathophysiology. Potential sex-related differences should be assessed in further larger studies.

  • 12. Adjei, Nicholas Kofi
    et al.
    Jonsson, Kenisha Russell
    Schultz Straatmann, Viviane
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Melis, Gabriella
    McGovern, Ruth
    Kaner, Eileen
    Wolfe, Ingrid
    Taylor-Robinson, David C.
    Impact of poverty and adversity on perceived family support in adolescence: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study2024Inngår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional support from family members may have an important effect on adolescent health outcomes, and has been identified as a target for policy to protect against the impacts of poverty and other early life adversities. However, few studies have assessed the extent to which poverty and adversity themselves influence the nature of emotional support that parents can provide to adolescents. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the impact of trajectories of income poverty and family adversities, including parental mental ill health, alcohol misuse and domestic violence across childhood developmental stages on young people’s relationships with their families and perceived emotional support received. We analysed longitudinal data on 10,976 children from the nationally representative UK Millennium Cohort study. Exposure trajectories of poverty and family adversities were characterised using group-based multi-trajectory models (age 9 months–14 years). The outcomes were perceived emotional support and quality of family relationships, measured by the three-item Short Social Provisions Scale (SPS-3) and levels of parent–adolescent closeness and conflict, measured at age 14. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. At age 14, the overall prevalence of low perceived emotional support was 13% (95% CI: 12, 14). Children of mothers with lower socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely to report low emotional support, with a clear social gradient (education—degree plus: 10.3% vs. no qualifications: 15.4%). Compared with children exposed to low levels of poverty and adversity, children in the persistent adversity trajectory groups experienced higher odds of low emotional support and low-quality parent–adolescent relationship; those exposed to both persistent poverty and poor parental mental health were particularly at increased risk of experiencing poor family relationships and low perceived emotional support (adjusted odds ratio 2·2; 95% CI 1·7–2·9). Low perceived emotional support and poor family relationships in adolescence are more prevalent among socially disadvantaged children and adolescents and those experiencing social adversity. Policies to improve levels of family support for UK adolescents should focus on improving modifiable determinants such as child poverty and family mental health. 

  • 13. Adjei, Nicholas Kofi
    et al.
    Schlüter, Daniela K.
    Melis, Gabriella
    Schultz Straatmann, Viviane
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Fleming, Kate M.
    Wickham, Sophie
    Munford, Luke
    McGovern, Ruth
    Howard, Louise M.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Wolfe, Ingrid
    Taylor-Robinson, David C.
    Impact of Parental Mental Health and Poverty on the Health of the Next Generation: A Multi-Trajectory Analysis Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study2024Inngår i: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 74, nr 1, s. 60-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Exposure to parental mental ill-health and poverty in childhood impact health across the lifecourse. Both maternal and paternal mental health may be important influences, but few studies have unpicked the complex interrelationships between these exposures and family poverty for later health.

    Methods: We used longitudinal data on 10,500 children from the nationally representative UK millennium cohort study. Trajectories of poverty, maternal mental health, and secondary caregiver mental health were constructed from child age of 9 months through to 14 years. We assessed the associations of these trajectories with mental health outcomes at the age of 17 years. Population-attributable fractions were calculated to quantify the contribution of caregivers' mental health problems and poverty to adverse outcomes at the country level.

    Results: We identified five distinct trajectories. Compared with children with low poverty and good parental mental health, those who experienced poverty and poor primary or secondary caregiver mental health (53%) had worse outcomes. Children exposed to both persistent poverty and poor caregiver mental health were at markedly increased risk of socioemotional behavioural problems (aOR 4.2; 95% CI 2.7–6.7), mental health problems (aOR 2.5; CI 1.6–3.9), and cognitive disability (aOR 1.7; CI 1.1–2.5). We estimate that 40% of socioemotional behavioural problems at the age of 17 were attributable to persistent parental caregivers' mental health problems and poverty.

    Discussion: More than half of children growing up in the UK are persistently exposed to either one or both of poor caregiver mental health and family poverty. The combination of these exposures is strongly associated with adverse health outcomes in the next generation.

  • 14. Adjei, Nicholas Kofi
    et al.
    Schlüter, Daniela K.
    S. Straatmann, Viviane
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Melis, Gabriella
    Fleming, Kate M.
    McGovern, Ruth
    Howard, Louise M.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Wolfe, Ingrid
    Taylor-Robinson, David C.
    Impact of poverty and family adversity on adolescent health: a multi-trajectory analysis using the UK Millennium Cohort Study2022Inngår i: The Lancet Regional Health: Europe, E-ISSN 2666-7762, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 100279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Children exposed to poverty and family adversities including domestic violence, parental mental ill health and parental alcohol misuse may experience poor outcomes across the life course. However, the complex interrelationships between these exposures in childhood are unclear. We therefore assessed the clustering of trajectories of household poverty and family adversities and their impacts on adolescent health outcomes.

    Methods We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort study on 11564 children followed to age 14 years. Family adversities included parent reported domestic violence and abuse, poor mental health and frequent alcohol use. We used a group-based multi-trajectory cluster model to identify trajectories of poverty and family adversity for children. We assessed associations of these trajectories with child physical, mental and behavioural outcomes at age 14 years using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for confounders.

    Findings Six trajectories were identified: low poverty and family adversity (43·2%), persistent parental alcohol use (7·7%), persistent domestic violence and abuse (3·4%), persistent poor parental mental health (11·9%), persistent poverty (22·6%) and persistent poverty and poor parental mental health (11·1%). Compared with children exposed to low poverty and adversity, children in the persistent adversity trajectory groups experienced worse outcomes; those exposed to persistent poor parental mental health and poverty were particularly at increased risk of socioemotional behavioural problems (adjusted odds ratio 6·4; 95% CI 5·0 – 8·3), cognitive disability (aOR 2·1; CI 1·5 – 2·8), drug experimentation (aOR 2·8; CI 1·8 – 4·2) and obesity (aOR 1·8; CI 1·3 – 2·5).

    Interpretation In a contemporary UK cohort, persistent poverty and/or persistent poor parental mental health affects over four in ten children. The combination of both affects one in ten children and is strongly associated with adverse child outcomes, particularly poor child mental health.

  • 15.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Granskaya, J
    Birath Scheffel, C
    Beijer, U
    Tsvetkova, L
    Personality characteristics and perceived health in Russian and Swedish female young adults with alcohol drinking habits2014Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, nr Suppl., s. S64-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, s. 71-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 17.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Kelfve, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hassing, Linda B.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Alcohol Consumption Over the Retirement Transition in Sweden: Different Trajectories Based on Education2022Inngår i: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 74-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Retirement is a major life transition that involves changes to everyday routines, roles, and habits. Previous studies suggest that retirement may influence drinking habits. Many natural inhibitors of alcohol consumption disappear with the removal of work constraints. The potential impact depends on both individual and contextual factors. Women in the cohorts undergoing retirement now have been more active on the labor market, including the occupation of higher status jobs, which indicates more financial resources as well as a larger role loss after retirement. Also, the current cohorts who retire have had more liberal drinking habits throughout their lives compared to previous cohorts. We therefore examined changes in alcohol consumption surrounding retirement in different education groups among women and men undergoing retirement using annual data from the Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study, a longitudinal national study of 60- to 66-year-olds (n = 5,913), from 2015 to 2018. Latent growth curve models were used to estimate trajectories of alcohol consumption. Results showed that those who retired during the follow-up increased their usual weekly alcohol consumption while those who worked or were retired throughout the period had stable drinking habits. Those who were retired reported the highest alcohol consumption. The increase surrounding retirement was driven by people with higher education. Women with tertiary education and men with intermediate or tertiary education increased their weekly alcohol intake after retirement, while those with low education had unchanged drinking habits. Mechanisms and motivations that may fuel increased alcohol intake among people with higher education should be further investigated.

  • 18.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Morin, Lucas
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Pentti, Jaana
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Stenholm, Sari
    Heavy alcohol consumption before and after negative life events in late mid-life: longitudinal latent trajectory analyses2022Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 76, nr 4, s. 360-366Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background People who experience negative life events report more heavy alcohol consumption compared with people without these experiences, but little is known about patterns of change within this group. This study aims to identify trajectories of heavy alcohol consumption before and after experiencing either divorce, or severe illness or death in the family. Furthermore, the aim is to examine characteristics of individuals belonging to each trajectory.

    Methods Longitudinal study of public sector employees from the Finnish Retirement and Aging Study with up to 5 years of annual follow-ups (n=6783; eligible sample n=1393). Divorce and severe illness or death in the family represented negative life events. Heavy alcohol consumption was categorised as >14 units/week.

    Results Based on latent trajectory analysis, three trajectories of heavy drinking were identified both for divorce and for severe illness or death in the family: ‘No heavy drinking’ (82% illness/death, 75% divorce), ‘Constant heavy drinking’ (10% illness/death, 13% divorce) and ‘Decreasing heavy drinking’ (7% illness/death, 12% divorce). Constant heavy drinkers surrounding illness or death in the family were more likely to be men, report depression and anxiety and to smoke than those with no heavy drinking. Constant heavy drinkers surrounding divorce were also more likely to be men and to report depression compared with those with no heavy drinking.

    Conclusions Most older workers who experience divorce or severe illness or death in the family have stable drinking patterns regarding heavy alcohol consumption, that is, most do not initiate or stop heavy drinking.

  • 19. Agardh, Emilie E.
    et al.
    Allebeck, Peter
    Flodin, Pär
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Knudsen, Ann Kristin
    Øverland, Simon
    Kinge, Jonas Minet
    Tollånes, Mette C.
    Eikemo, Terje A.
    Skogen, Jens Christoffer
    Mäkelä, Pia
    Gissler, Mika
    Juel, Knud
    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim
    McGrath, John J.
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    Alcohol-attributed disease burden in four Nordic countries between 2000 and 2017: Are the gender gaps narrowing? A comparison using the Global Burden of Disease, Injury and Risk Factor 2017 study2021Inngår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 431-442Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. The gender difference in alcohol use seems to have narrowed in the Nordic countries, but it is not clear to what extent this may have affected differences in levels of harm. We compared gender differences in all-cause and cause-specific alcohol-attributed disease burden, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years (DALY), in four Nordic countries in 2000-2017, to find out if gender gaps in DALYs had narrowed. Design and Methods. Alcohol-attributed disease burden by DALYs per 100 000 population with 95% uncertainty intervals were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease database. Results. In 2017, all-cause DALYs in males varied between 2531 in Finland and 976 in Norway, and in females between 620 in Denmark and 270 in Norway. Finland had the largest gender differences and Norway the smallest, closely followed by Sweden. During 2000-2017, absolute gender differences in all-cause DALYs declined by 31% in Denmark, 26% in Finland, 19% in Sweden and 18% in Norway. In Finland, this was driven by a larger relative decline in males than females; in Norway, it was due to increased burden in females. In Denmark, the burden in females declined slightly more than in males, in relative terms, while in Sweden the relative decline was similar in males and females. Discussion and Conclusions. The gender gaps in harm narrowed to a different extent in the Nordic countries, with the differences driven by different conditions. Findings are informative about how inequality, policy and sociocultural differences affect levels of harm by gender.

  • 20. Agardh, Emilie E.
    et al.
    Lundin, Andreas
    Lager, Anton
    Allebeck, Peter
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Sven
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    Alcohol and type 2 diabetes: The role of socioeconomic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 408-416Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: We investigate (a) alcohol consumption in association with type 2 diabetes, taking heavy episodic drinking (HED), socioeconomic, health and lifestyle, and psychosocial factors into account, and (b) whether a seemingly protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on type 2 diabetes persists when stratified by occupational position.

    METHODS: This population-based longitudinal cohort study comprises 16,223 Swedes aged 18-84 years who answered questionnaires about lifestyle, including alcohol consumption in 2002, and who were followed-up for self-reported or register-based diabetes in 2003-2011. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in a multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model for all participants and stratified by high and low occupational position. We adjusted for HED, socioeconomic (occupational position, cohabiting status and unemployment), health and lifestyle (body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, smoking, physical inactivity, poor general health, anxiety/depression and psychosocial (low job control and poor social support) characteristics one by one, and the sets of these factors.

    RESULTS: Moderate consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes after controlling for health and lifestyle (OR=0.47; 95% CI: 0.29-0.79) and psychosocial factors (OR=0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.79) when compared to non-drinkers. When adjusting for socioeconomic factors, there was still an inverse but non-significant association (OR=0.59; 95% CI: 0.35-1.00). In those with high occupational position, there was no significant association between moderate consumption and type 2 diabetes after adjusting for socioeconomic (OR=0.67; 95% CI: 0.3-1.52), health and lifestyle (OR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.32-1.5), and psychosocial factors (OR=0.75; 95% CI: 0.23-2.46). On the contrary, in those with low occupational position, ORs decreased from 0.55 (95% CI: 0.28-1.1) to 0.35 (95% CI: 0.15-0.82) when adjusting for psychosocial factors, a decrease that was solely due to low job control. HED did not influence any of these associations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, after adjusting for HED, health and lifestyle, and psychosocial characteristics. The association was inverse but non-significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. When stratified by occupational position, there was an inverse association only in those with low occupational position and after adjusting for low job control.

  • 21.
    Ahacic, Kozma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Improvements in the aging population 1968-1991: trends in mobility and dental status2002Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22. Ahacic, Kozma
    et al.
    Kennison, Robert F.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Changes in sobriety in the Swedish population over three decades: age, period or cohort effects?2012Inngår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 107, nr 4, s. 748-755Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims  This study aimed to examine age, cohort and period trends in alcohol abstinence.

    Design  Two surveys, the Level of Living Survey collected in 1968, 1974, 1981, 1990 and 2000, and the Swedish Panel Study of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) collected in 1992 and 2002, were studied with graphical depictions of cross-sectional and longitudinal data presented over time and over age. Cross-sectional 10-year age group differences, time-lag differences between waves and within-cohort differences between waves for 10-year birth cohorts were examined. Logistic regression models were applied to confirm the observed patterns.

    Setting  The samples were representative of the Swedish population.

    Participants  Participants ranged in age from 18 to 75 (n = 5000 per wave), and 77+ at later waves (n = 500).

    Measurements  Alcohol abstinence was determined by asking ‘Do you ever drink wine, beer, or spirits?’, where a ‘no’ response indicated abstinence.

    Findings  Decreases in abstinence rates were observed from 1968 to 2000/02. While cross-sectional analysis indicated increased abstinence with advancing age, the longitudinal analysis suggested otherwise. Inspection of cohort differences revealed little change within cohorts and large differences between cohorts; abstinence rates declined in later-born cohorts up to the 1940s birth cohorts; stability was observed in cohorts born since the 1940s. Logistic regression models indicated that neither age nor period were significant (P > 0.05) predictors of abstinence when cohort (P < 0.001) was included.

    Conclusion  Decreasing proportions of total alcohol abstainers in Sweden from 1968 to 2000 appear to be attributable primarily to decreases in successive cohorts rather than drinkers becoming abstainers.

  • 23. Ahacic, Kozma
    et al.
    Trygged, Sven
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Income and Education as Predictors of Stroke Mortality after the Survival of a First Stroke2012Inngår i: Stroke Research and Treatment, ISSN 2090-8105, E-ISSN 2042-0056, Vol. 2012, artikkel-id 983145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. It is well known that socioeconomic indicators, such as income and education, predict both stroke incidence and stroke mortality. This means that persons in lower socioeconomic positions are less likely to survive their stroke, and there will be a selective survival in the group discharged from hospital after their first stroke. Question. Does socioeconomic position continue to predict mortality, stroke specific, or from other causes, among patients surviving their first stroke in spite of this selective survival? Methods. All persons in Sweden aged 40–59 years who were discharged after a first hospitalization for stroke in 1996–2000 were included (n = 10,487), then followed up until the end of the fourth calendar year after discharge. Data were analysed with Cox regressions controlling for age, sex, and stroke type. Results. Persons with high socioeconomic position, measured by education and income, have lower mortality than those of low position. Education was not significant when adjusted for income, however. The risk of dying was similar for stroke-specific mortality and all-cause mortality, for those with cerebral infarction as well as for all patients. Conclusions. Socioeconomic position predicted stroke-specific mortality also in the selective group of persons who survived their first stroke.

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  • 24.
    Ahlbom, Anders
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Lundström, Hans
    Statistics Sweden.
    Den åldrande befolkningen2010Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, nr 48, s. 3048-3051Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers2018Inngår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 112, s. 127-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

  • 26. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Solis-Marcos, Ignacio
    Nilsson, Emma
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The impact of driver sleepiness on fixation-related brain potentials2020Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 29, nr 5, artikkel-id e12962Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of driver sleepiness are often quantified as deteriorated driving performance, increased blink durations and high levels of subjective sleepiness. Driver sleepiness has also been associated with increasing levels of electroencephalogram (EEG) power, especially in the alpha range. The present exploratory study investigated a new measure of driver sleepiness, the EEG fixation-related lambda response. Thirty young male drivers (23.6 +/- 1.7 years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment in which they drove on rural and suburban roads in simulated daylight versus darkness during both the daytime (full sleep) and night-time (sleep deprived). The results show lower lambda responses during night driving and with longer time on task, indicating that sleep deprivation and time on task cause a general decrement in cortical responsiveness to incoming visual stimuli. Levels of subjective sleepiness and line crossings were higher under the same conditions. Furthermore, results of a linear mixed-effects model showed that low lambda responses are associated with high subjective sleepiness and more line crossings. We suggest that the fixation-related lambda response can be used to investigate driving impairment induced by sleep deprivation while driving and that, after further refinement, it may be useful as an objective measure of driver sleepiness.

  • 27.
    Ahmadinia, Hamed
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Eriksson-Backa, Kristina
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Nikou, Shahrokh
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Health-seeking behaviours of immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees in Europe: a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles2022Inngår i: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 78, nr 7, s. 18-41Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees living in Europe face a number of challenges in accessing or using health information and healthcare services available in their host countries. To resolve these issues and deliver the necessary services, providers must take a comprehensive approach to better understand the types of health information and healthcare services that these individuals need, seek and use. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop that comprehensive approach.

    Design/methodology/approach - In this paper, a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed publications was performed, with 3.013 articles collected from various databases. A total of 57 qualifying papers on studies conducted in Europe were included in the review after applying the predefined inclusion and exclusion requirements, screening processes and eliminating duplicates. The information seeking and communication model (ISCM) was used in the analysis.

    Findings - The findings revealed that while many health information and healthcare services are accessible in Europe for immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees, many of these individuals are unaware of their existence or how to access them. While our findings do not specify what health-related information these groups need, use or seek, they do suggest the importance and value of providing mental health, sexual health and HIV, as well as pregnancy and childbirth information and services. Furthermore, according to our results, health information services should be fact-based, easy to understand and raise awareness about healthcare structure and services available in Europe for this vulnerable population.

    Practical implications - This study has a range of practical implications, including (1) highlighting the need for mental health and behavioural health services and (2) stressing the value of addressing cultural context and religious values while investigating (health) information seeking of people with foreign background.

    Originality/value - This is one of the first studies to systematically review and examine the behaviour of immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees in relation to health information and healthcare services in the European context.

  • 28.
    Ahmed, Arif
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Lager, Anton
    Fredlund, Peeter
    Schafer Elinder, Liselotte
    Consumption of fruit and vegetables and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a 4-year longitudinal study among Swedish adults2020Inngår i: Journal of Nutritional Science, E-ISSN 2048-6790, Vol. 9, artikkel-id e14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A low intake of fruit and vegetables is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the size of the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) of a low intake and to investigate possible sex differences. In this regard, this study used a longitudinal data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort located in Sweden, collected in 2010 and 2014. The analysis included 14 718 men and 20 589 women aged 25 to 84 years. Fruit and vegetable intake, separately <2 servings/d or combined <4 servings/d (one serving corresponding to 100 g) was set as a cut-point for low intake. The sex difference at baseline was examined. Sex-stratified logistic regression was performed with onset of T2D as the outcome and fruit and vegetable intake at baseline as the exposure with adjustment for other known risk factors. Results indicate that men consumed significantly (P < 0.001) less fruit and vegetables compared with women. A 62 % higher risk to develop T2D over the 4-year period was observed in men who had low vegetable intake compared with high intake after adjusting for age, education, BMI, smoking, alcohol and physical activity (OR 1.62; 95 % CI 1.00, 2.63). In women, a significantly higher risk of T2D was also observed with a low intake of vegetables, but not after adjustment. The present study suggests that higher consumption of vegetables seems to be protective for the onset of T2D in men. Thus, increasing the intake of vegetables in men should be a public health priority.

  • 29. Ahmed, Imaduddin
    et al.
    Parikh, Priti
    Munezero, Parfait
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen. Ericsson, Sweden.
    Sianjase, Graham
    Coffman, D'Maris
    The impact of power outages on households in Zambia2023Inngår i: Economia Politica, ISSN 1120-2890, E-ISSN 1973-820X, nr 40, s. 835-867Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As global average temperatures rise, so does the frequency and intensity of El Niño-induced droughts, which in turn threaten the reliability of hydropower. 1.4 billion people live in countries where hydropower constitutes more than a quarter of the electricity production and which have experienced El Niño droughts, meaning many more power outages can be expected around the world. Little research has been conducted on the impact of power outages on mental health. This study takes Zambia as its case study to examine the impact that El Niño droughts have had on the lives of householders connected to a highly hydropower-dependant electricity grid, and includes the impact it has had on their physical and self-reported mental health. Using 54 online responses to a survey, we found that the greatest impacts of outages spoiled food, compromised entertainment, compromised ability to work and limitation in cooking options. More than a fifth of respondents reported experiencing self-reported depression to a major degree or all of the time due to power outages, with individuals writing their own responses that they felt debilitated, experienced reduced communication and reduced activities, and stress. Using Bayesian inference, we found that changes in sleeping patterns arising from power outages was a statistically significant predictor of self-reported depression. 63% of surveyed households were willing to pay approximately USD 0.10/kWh as of the end of 2019, about double the tariff that they did, to ensure reliable electricity supply. Household income was a statistically significant predictor of willingness to pay more.

  • 30. Ahmed, Sayem
    et al.
    Hasan, Md. Zahid
    Laokri, Samia
    Jannat, Zerin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Ahmed, Mohammad Wahid
    Dorin, Farzana
    Vargas, Veronica
    Khan, Jahangir A. M.
    Technical efficiency of public district hospitals in Bangladesh: a data envelopment analysis2019Inngår i: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, E-ISSN 1478-7547, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: District hospitals (DHs) provide secondary level of healthcare to a wide range of population in Bangladesh. Efficient utilization of resources in these secondary hospitals is essential for delivering health services at a lower cost. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the technical efficiency of the DHs in Bangladesh. Methods: We used input-oriented data envelopment analysis method to estimate the variable returns to scale (VRS) and constant returns to scale (CRS) technical efficiency of the DHs using data from Local Health Bulletin, 2015. In this model, we considered workforce as well as number of inpatient beds as input variables and number of inpatient, outpatient, and maternal services provided by the DHs as output variables. A Tobit regression model was applied for assessing the association of institutional and environmental characteristics with the technical efficiency scores. Results: The average scale, VRS, and CRS technical efficiency of the DHs were estimated to 85%, 92%, and 79% respectively. Population size, poverty headcount, bed occupancy ratio, administrative divisions were significantly associated with the technical efficiency of the DHs. The mean VRS and CRS technical efficiency demonstrated that the DHs, on an average, could reduce their input mix by 8% and 21% respectively while maintaining the same level of output. Conclusion: Since the average technical efficiency of the DHs was 79%, there is little scope for overall improvements in these facilities by adjusting inputs. Therefore, we recommend to invest further in the DHs for improvement of services. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) should improve the efficiency in resource allocation by setting an input-mix formula for DHs considering health and socio-economic indicators (e.g., population density, poverty, bed occupancy ratio). The formula can be designed by learning from the input mix in the more efficient DHs. The MoHFW should conduct this kind of benchmarking study regularly to assess the efficiency level of health facilities which may contribute to reduce the wastage of resources and consequently to provide more affordable and accessible public hospital care.

  • 31.
    Ahrén, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Barn till överskuldsatta: underlagsrapport till Barns och ungas hälsa, vård och omsorg 20132013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Ahrén, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lager, Anton
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Ungdomars psykosociala hälsa2012Inngår i: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Mikael Rostila, Susanna Toivanen, Stockholm: Liber, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33. Akenine, Ulrika
    et al.
    Barbera, Mariagnese
    Beishuizen, Cathrien R. L.
    Pour, Mandana Fallah
    Guillemont, Juliette
    Rosenberg, Anna
    Coley, Nicola
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Salo, Lotta
    Savy, Stephanie
    Pols, A. Jeannette
    Andrieu, Sandrine
    Richard, Edo
    Soininen, Hilkka
    van Charante, Eric Moll
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Attitudes of at-risk older adults about prevention of cardiovascular disease and dementia using eHealth: a qualitative study in a European context2020Inngår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 10, nr 8, artikkel-id e037050Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and dementia is a key health priority among older adults. Understanding individuals’ attitudes to, the prevention of these conditions, particularly when delivered through novel eHealth tools, could help in designing effective prevention programmes. The aim of the study was to explore the attitudes of older adults at increased risk of CVD and dementia regarding engagement in eHealth self-management prevention programmes, and to describe the facilitators and barriers.

    Design A qualitative research approach was used. Data were collected through eight focus groups in Finland, France and the Netherlands. Data were analysed following the principles of grounded theory.

    Setting and participants Forty-four community-dwellers aged 65+ at risk of CVD were recruited from a previous trial cohort in Finland, and through general practices in France and the Netherlands.

    Results The study identified three categories: access to reliable information, trust in the healthcare providers and burden and stigma of dementia. A core category was also identified: the interactive process of the three categories influencing engagement in self-management prevention programme. The categories were interconnected through an interactive process and influenced by the local healthcare culture and context which shaped them differently, becoming either facilitators or barriers to engage in eHealth self-management prevention programmes.

    Conclusions The study emphasises the importance of considering the interactions between the identified categories in this study, grounded in the local healthcare culture and context in further developments of eHealth self-management interventions that aim to prevent CVD and dementia.

  • 34. Al-Adhami, Maissa
    et al.
    Berglund, Erik
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Salari, Raziye
    A cross-sectional study of health and well-being among newly settled refugee migrants in Sweden–The role of health literacy, social support and self-efficacy2022Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, nr 12, artikkel-id e0279397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural barriers such as inadequate housing, lack of employment opportunities, and discrimination are known to adversely affect the health of newly settled refugee migrants. However, these barriers remain largely unresolved and unaddressed. Thus, there is a need to better understand how other factors, such as individual-level health resources, may influence health and mitigate ill health in the early post-migration phase. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between health outcomes and individual health resources including health literacy, social support, and self-efficacy in newly settled refugee migrants. Survey data was collected from 787 refugee migrants in Sweden. Logistical regression analysis showed that limited health literacy, lack of emotional support, and low self-efficacy were consistently associated with poor health outcomes. Demographic variables such as gender, education, and type of residence permit were not as imperative. Individual-level health resources may play an important role in the general and psychological well-being of newly settled migrants. Promoting health literacy and facilitating the attainment of social support may buffer for structural challenges in the establishment phase and enhance the prospects of later health and social integration.

  • 35. Al-Adhami, Maissa
    et al.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Salari, Raziye
    Åkerman, Eva
    ”Putting words to their feelings”– civic communicators’ perceptions and experiences of an in-depth course on mental health for newly settled refugee migrants in Sweden2023Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikkel-id 510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Newly settled refugee migrants face psychological stressors stemming from pre-, during- and post-migration experiences. In Sweden, mental health promotion is part of the health module in the civic orientation classes for newly settled refugee migrants. Training courses are offered to civic communicators and workshop leaders to facilitate communication about mental health; however, the training is seldom evaluated. In the current study, we aim to explore civic communicators’ perceptions and experiences of an in-depth mental health training course in relation to observed needs among newly settled refugee migrants.

    Method We interviewed ten civic communicators that had partaken in the in-depth training course on mental health. All respondents had prior migratory experience and worked as civic communicators in their native languages. The interviews were semi-structured and data were analyzed using thematic analysis.

    Results Three themes were identified: (1) Intertwined mental health needs related to migration, (2) Multi-layered barriers to addressing mental health, and (3) Becoming aware of the mental health journey. One overarching theme was arrived at through synthesizing the three themes ‘Acquired new tools to lead reflective conversations about mental health and well-being’.

    Conclusion The in-depth mental health training course led to the attainment of new knowledge and new tools enabling civic communicators to lead reflective conversations about mental health and well-being with newly settled refugee migrants. Mental health needs were related to pre- and post-migration experiences. Barriers to talking about mental health included stigma and a lack of arenas to promote the mental health of refugee migrants. Increasing knowledge among civic communicators can facilitate the promotion of mental self-help capacity and resilience among newly settled refugee migrants.

  • 36. Albert, Jan
    et al.
    Berglund, Torsten
    Gisslen, Magnus
    Groon, Peter
    Sonnerborg, Anders
    Tegnell, Anders
    Alexandersson, Anders
    Berggren, Ingela
    Blaxhult, Anders
    Brytting, Maria
    Carlander, Christina
    Carlson, Johan
    Flamholc, Leo
    Follin, Per
    Haggar, Axana
    Hansdotter, Frida
    Josephson, Filip
    Karlström, Olle
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Naver, Lars
    Pettersson, Karin
    Johansson, Veronica Svedhem
    Svennerholm, Bo
    Tunback, Petra
    Widgren, Katarina
    Risk of HIV transmission from patients on antiretroviral therapy: A position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 46, nr 10, s. 673-677Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern medical treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality in patients infected with this virus. ART has also been shown to reduce the transmission risk from individual patients as well as the spread of the infection at the population level. This position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy is based on a workshop organized in the fall of 2012. It summarizes the latest research and knowledge on the risk of HIV transmission from patients on ART, with a focus on the risk of sexual transmission. The risk of transmission via shared injection equipment among intravenous drug users is also examined, as is the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Based on current knowledge, the risk of transmission through vaginal or anal intercourse involving the use of a condom has been judged to be minimal, provided that the person infected with HIV fulfils the criteria for effective ART. This probably also applies to unprotected intercourse, provided that no other sexually transmitted infections are present, although it is not currently possible to fully support this conclusion with direct scientific evidence. ART is judged to markedly reduce the risk of blood-borne transmission between people who share injection equipment. Finally, the risk of transmission from mother to child is very low, provided that ART is started well in advance of delivery.

  • 37.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The mediating effect of work-life interference on the relationship between work-time control and depressive and musculoskeletal symptoms2020Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 469-479Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Evidence shows that work-time control (WTC) affects health but underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Work-life interference (WLI) might be a step on the causal pathway. The present study examined whether WLI mediates effects on mental and physical health and contrasted these to other causal pathways.

    Methods Four biennial waves from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH, N=26 804) were used. Cross-lagged analyses were conducted to estimate if WLI mediated effects from WTC (differentiating between control over daily hours and time off) to subsequent depressive and musculoskeletal symptoms. Other causal directions (reversed mediation, direct and reversed direct effects) and robustness of mediation (by including covariates) were examined.

    Results WLI partially mediated the relationship of WTC (control over daily hours/time off) with both health outcomes. Indirect effect estimates were small for depressive symptoms (-0.053 for control over time off and -0.018 for control over daily hours) and very small for musculoskeletal symptoms (-0.007 and -0.003, respectively). While other causal directions were generally weaker than causal mediational pathways, they played a larger role for musculoskeletal compared to depressive symptoms. Estimates relating to control over time off were in general larger than for control over daily hours.

    Conclusions Our results suggest that WLI mediates part of the effect from WTC to mental/musculoskeletal symptoms, but small estimates suggest that (i) WTC plays a small but consistent role in effects on health and (ii) particularly regarding musculoskeletal disorders, other causal directions and mediators need to be further examined.

  • 38.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study2017Inngår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 215, s. 143-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial work factors can affect depressive moods, but research is inconclusive if flexibility to self-determine working hours (work-time control, WTC) is associated with depressive symptoms over time. We investigated if either sub-dimension of WTC, control over daily hours and control over time off, was related to depressive symptoms over time and examined causal, reversed-causal, and reciprocal pathways.

    METHODS: The study was based on four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health which is a follow-up of representative samples of the Swedish working population. WTC was measured using a 5-item index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a brief subscale of the Symptom Checklist. Latent growth curve models and cross-lagged panel models were tested.

    RESULTS: Best fit was found for a model with correlated intercepts (control over daily hours) and both correlated intercepts and slopes (control over time off) between WTC and depressive symptoms, with stronger associations for control over time off. Causal models estimating impacts from WTC to subsequent depressive symptoms were best fitting, with a standardised coefficient between -0.023 and -0.048.

    LIMITATIONS: Results were mainly based on self-report data and mean age in the study sample was relatively high.

    CONCLUSION: Higher WTC was related to fewer depressive symptoms over time albeit small effects. Giving workers control over working hours - especially over taking breaks and vacation - may improve working conditions and buffer against developing depression, potentially by enabling workers to recover more easily and promoting work-life balance.

  • 39.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Prospective effects of work-time control on overtime, work-life interference and exhaustion in female and male knowledge workers2024Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 205-215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Employee-based flexible working hours are increasing, particularly among knowledge workers. Research indicates that women and men use work–time control (WTC; control over time off and daily hours) differently: while men work longer paid hours, women use WTC to counteract work–life interference. In a knowledge-worker sample, we examined associations between WTC and overtime, work–life interference and exhaustion and tested whether gender moderates the mediating role of overtime. Methods: The sample contained 2248 Swedish knowledge workers. Employing hierarchical regression modelling, we examined effects of control over time off/daily hours on subsequent overtime hours, work–life interference and exhaustion in general and in gender-stratified samples. Using conditional process analysis, we tested moderated mediation models. Results: Control over time off was related to less work–life interference (βmen= −0.117; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.237 to 0.003; βwomen= −0.253; 95% CI: −0.386 to −0.120) and lower exhaustion (βmen= −0.199; 95% CI: −0.347 to −0.051; βwomen= −0.271; 95% CI: −0.443 to −0.100). For control over daily hours, estimates were close to zero. While men worked more overtime (42 min/week), we could not confirm gender moderating the indirect effect of control over time off/daily hours on work–life interference/exhaustion via overtime. Independent of gender, effects of control over time off on work–life interference were partly explained by working fewer overtime hours. Conclusions: Control over time off was related to lower exhaustion and better work–life balance (in particular for women). We found no evidence for men’s work–life interference increasing with higher WTC owing to working more overtime. Knowledge workers’ control over time off may help prevent work–life interference and burnout.

  • 40.
    Albrecht, Sophie Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    The Highs and Lows of Work-Time Control: Exploring the role of control over working hours for health2021Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible work-time arrangements are thought to create ways of aligning work and private life and facilitate recovery. While temporal flexibility is found to generally bolster work–life balance, its effects on health outcomes are less well known. The present thesis seeks to examine if and how perceived control over working hours benefits workers’ health. Utilising a large Swedish cohort study, four empirical studies explored the association of work-time control (WTC) with subsequent mental and physical health as well as the underlying mechanisms and moderating influences.

    Study I assessed the factorial structure of an instrument to measure WTC and found two sub-dimensions: control over daily hours (the length, starting and ending times of a workday) and control over time off (the taking of breaks/time/days off, paid and unpaid). Levels of control per sub-dimension were described by demographic and work-related factors for a large sample of Swedish workers. In particular, shift, public sector and female workers reported low levels of WTC.

    Study II examined effects of control over daily hours and time off on depressive symptoms. Increasing control over time off was related to decreasing depressive symptoms over time, whereas only initial level of control over daily hours was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. For both sub-dimensions of WTC, the direction of this effect was predominantly from perceived control to subsequent depressive symptoms; reversed processes were of less importance.

    Study III focused on work–life interference as one step on the causal chain between WTC and depressive symptoms and musculoskeletal complaints, respectively. For both sub-dimensions of WTC, part of the effect on depressive symptoms went through work–life interference. Reversed processes played a role between depressive symptoms and work–life interference only. Control over time off was found to mitigate work–life interference and subsequent depressive symptoms more than control over daily hours, albeit with generally small effects. Regarding musculoskeletal complaints, effects were even smaller and work–life interference appeared to be less important.

    Study IV assessed gender differences in the impact of WTC on work–life interference and exhaustion regarding the mediating role of overtime hours. In a sample of knowledge workers, higher control over time off was associated with lower subsequent work–life interference and exhaustion, while control over daily hours was unrelated to both outcomes. Although men worked more overtime hours than women on average, no evidence was found for men with high control over time off/daily hours to perceive more work–life interference/exhaustion due to increased overtime compared to women.

    This thesis found that higher levels of WTC were beneficial for a range of health outcomes, which was partly explained by fewer work–life conflicts. While these effects were generally small, control over time off in particular was consistently associated with favourable outcomes in health, work-life balance and working hours. Given that the level of workers’ discretion over working hours varies starkly by work and demographic factors, enhancing the availability of flexible work-time arrangements is in the interest of public health. WTC, with a particular focus on employees’ ability to take time off from work, may improve the daily work–life interface and support a sustainable working life.

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  • 41. Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Early Health and School Outcomes for Children with Lesbian Parents: Evidence from Sweden2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was early to legalize same-sex partnership (1995), to allow same-sex couples to adopt children (2003), and to offer same-sex couples fertility treatment through the national health system (2005). Using population data, we identify children of lesbian parents as those whose biological mother was a registered same-sex partner no later than six months after the child's birth. The number of such children increased markedly from 1995 to 2010 with a total of 750 children for the whole period. We find that boys and girls with lesbian parents had 2.4 percent lower birth weight than other children, a difference that is statistically significant from zero at the 5 percent level. Girls, but not boys, also have a higher probability of having a low birth weight. We follow these children until age ten and observe diseases of the respiratory system. Boys with lesbian parents have a significantly lower probability of such diseases (-3.4 percentage points), and girls with lesbian parents an insignificantly higher probability (+2.4 percentage points). Our analysis of school outcomes at age ten uses a small sample so precision is low. The point estimates show that boys with lesbian parents outperform other children by around 10 percentiles higher test scores in Math and Swedish. These differences are barely significant, while estimates for girls are lower and not significant. For all outcomes, we find that children with lesbian parents benefit from their mother's socio-economic status, whereas they suffer in terms of birth weight from having been exposed to fertility treatment.

  • 42. Alfredsson Ågren, Kristin
    et al.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Internet opportunities and risks for adolescents with intellectual disabilities: a comparative study of parents' perceptions2020Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 27, nr 8, s. 601-613Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In contemporary society internet and digital competencies are used to perform activities.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate opportunities and risks of internet use as perceived by the parents of adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) in comparison with a national reference group of parents of adolescents.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with group comparisons using a national survey. Analyses were carried out using Fisher’s exact test and logistic regression to control for confounding factors.

    Results: A significantly higher proportion of parents of adolescents with ID perceive opportunities associated with internet use and playing games, and a lower proportion perceive risks with negative consequences, compared with the reference group. Significantly more parents of adolescents with ID perceive their adolescent never use smartphones and social media compared with the reference group. Fewer parents of adolescents with ID have concerns about online risks for their adolescents compared with the reference group.

    Conclusion and Significance: The results provide new knowledge for occupational therapists to support positive risk-taking in internet-use for adolescents with ID, in collaboration with their parents, to enable the development of digital competencies and digital participation in everyday life in a digitalised society.

  • 43. Alfredsson Ågren, Kristin
    et al.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Internet-use among adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Sweden2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44. Alfvén, Tobias
    et al.
    Dahlstrand, Johan
    Humphreys, David
    Helldén, Daniel
    Hammarstrand, Sofia
    Hollander, Anna-Clara
    Målqvist, Mats
    Nejat, Sahar
    Søgaard Jørgensen, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Friberg, Peter
    Tomson, Göran
    Placing children and adolescents at the centre of the Sustainable Development Goals will deliver for current and future generations2019Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikkel-id 1670015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Child health is taking the back seat in development strategies. In summarising a newly released collaborative report, this paper calls for a novel conceptual model where child health takes centre stage in relation to the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals. It lays out five principles by which renewed effort and focus would yield the most benefit for children and adolescents. These include: re-defining global child health in the post-2015 era by placing children and adolescents at the centre of the Sustainable Development Goals; striving for equity; realising the rights of the child to thrive throughout the life-course; facilitating evidence informed policy-making and implementation; and capitalising on interlinkages within the SDGs to galvanise multisectoral action. These five principles offer models that together have the potential of improving design, return and quality of global child health programs while re-energising the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals.

  • 45. Ali, Magdi M. M.
    et al.
    Elghazali, Gehad
    Montgomery, Scott M.
    Farouk, Salah E.
    Nasr, Amre
    Noori, Suzan I. A.
    Shamad, Mahdi M.
    Fadlelseed, Omar E.
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Fc{gamma}RIIa (CD32) Polymorphism and Onchocercal Skin Disease: Implications for the Development of Severe Reactive Onchodermatitis (ROD)2007Inngår i: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ISSN 0002-9637, E-ISSN 1476-1645, Vol. 77, nr 6, s. 1074-1078Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathologic manifestations of Onchocerca volvulus infection depend on the interplay between the host and the parasite. A genetic single nucleotide polymorphism in the Fc gamma RIIa gene, resulting in arginine (R) or histidine (H) at position 131, affects the binding to the different IgG subclasses and may influence the clinical variations seen in onchocerciasis. This study investigated the relationship between this polymorphism and disease outcome. Fc gamma RIIa genotyping was performed on clinically characterized onchocerciasis patients (N = 100) and healthy controls (N = 74). Fc gamma RIIa genotype R/R131 frequencies were significantly higher among patients with severe dermatopathology (P < 0.001). Increased risk of developing this form was mostly associated with one tribe (Masalit) (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1-9.9, P = 0.042). The H131 allele was found to be significantly associated with a reduced risk of having the severe form of the disease (adjusted OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.13-0.46, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that the polymorphism influences the clinical outcome of onchocerciasis.

  • 46.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Future orientation climate in the school class: Relations to adolescent delinquency, heavy alcohol use, and internalizing problem2016Inngår i: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 70, s. 324-331Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known, based on previous research, that adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their future are related to the risk of delinquency, alcohol use as well as health. However, other well-known facts are that adolescents' actions are substantially shaped in interaction with peers and that, during adolescence, individuals spend a considerable amount of the day at school, in interaction with classmates. Despite this, there is an almost complete lack of studies exploring to what extent the school climate, as measured by thoughts and feelings about the future, can influence individual adolescents. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether the future orientation (FO) climate, measured at the school class level, is related to delinquency, alcohol use and internalizing problems at the individual level, among a sample of Swedish students 14–15 years of age. The data used come from the Swedish part of the Youth in Europe (YES!) study, which is part of the larger project Children of Immigrants - Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). In the present paper, we use data from the first wave, collected among 8th grade students in 2010/11 (n = 4119–4364). The method used was multilevel modeling (linear probability models (LPM) and linear regression analysis). The results showed that, in school classes where a high proportion of students had a positive future orientation, the risk of heavy alcohol use at the individual level was lower, also after adjusting for individual FO and for individual- and class-level socioeconomic conditions. A similar, but not statistically significant, tendency was found for delinquency. In addition, having a high proportion of students with a positive FO in a school class was associated with fewer internalizing problems, also after controlling for individual FO and socioeconomic conditions at the individual and school class level. We conclude that the surrounding school class, in terms of its general future orientation climate, may play a role for individual outcomes in the form of problem behaviors and mental health.

  • 47.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The Gendered Mirror on the Wall: Satisfaction with Physical Appearance and Its Relationship to Global Self-esteem and Psychosomatic Complaints Among Adolescent Boys and Girls2018Inngår i: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 525-541Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated gender differences in satisfaction with physical appearance as a domain-specific aspect of self-esteem, and its association with global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints. The data used was from the Stockholm School Survey, conducted among ninth grade students (15–16 years), with pooled information from six cross-sectional surveys in 2004–2014 (n = 32,117). Girls reported lower satisfaction with their appearance than boys. Satisfaction with appearance was more strongly associated with global self-esteem among girls, while the association with psychosomatic complaints was similar for both genders. There was a tendency towards a decline in satisfaction with appearance at the end of the study period for both genders, albeit more strong for girls. We conclude that satisfaction with appearance may contribute to our understanding of poor mental well-being among adolescent girls.

  • 48.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor family relationships in adolescence as a risk factor of in-patient somatic care across the life course: Findings from a 1953 cohort2021Inngår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 100807Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prior research has shown that poor family relations during upbringing have long-term detrimental effects on mental health. Few previous studies have, however, focused on somatic health outcomes and studies rarely cover the life span until retirement age. The aims of the current study were, firstly, to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and in-patient somatic care across the life course whilst adjusting for confounders at baseline and concurrent psychiatric in-patient care; and secondly, to compare the risks of somatic and psychiatric in-patient care across the life course.

    Methods: Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 participants born in 1953 who were followed up until 2016. Information on family relationships was collected from the participants' mothers in 1968. Annual information on in-patient somatic and psychiatric care was retrieved from official register data from 1969 to 2016.

    Results: Poisson regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of in-patient somatic care in mid- and especially in late adulthood (ages 44-53 and 54-63 years), even when controlling for the co-occurrence of psychiatric illness and a range of childhood conditions. No statistically significant association was observed in early adulthood (ages 16-43 years), when controlling for confounders. These findings are in sharp contrast to the analyses of inpatient psychiatric care, according to which the association with poor family relations was strongest in early adulthood and thereafter attenuated across the life course.

    Conclusion: Poor family relationships in adolescence are associated with an increased risk of severe consequences for somatic health lasting to late adulthood even when controlling for confounders including in-patient psychiatric care, emphasising the potentially important role of early interventions.

  • 49.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    School effectiveness and students' future orientation: A multilevel analysis of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2019Inngår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 70, s. 62-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Future orientation (FO) refers to individuals' beliefs and feelings about their future. Earlier research has primarily investigated correlates of FO at the individual and family level, but it seems likely that FO is also shaped by other central agents or institutions, such as the school. Earlier studies have found positive associations between “school effectiveness” and student performance, and negative associations in relation to e.g., bullying, delinquency, and health risk behaviors. The current study investigated three teacher-reported features of school effectiveness - school leadership, teacher cooperation and consensus, and school ethos - and their links with student-reported FO.

    Methods

    Survey data were collected in 2016 among 5131 students (aged 17–18 years) and 1061 teachers in 46 upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden, and merged with school-level register data. Two-level binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results

    The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of school leadership and school ethos were associated with a greater likelihood of reporting an optimistic FO among students. Teacher cooperation and consensus was however not associated with students' FO.

    Conclusion

    The findings indicate that the school environment contributes to shaping students' beliefs about their future. Thus, enhancing features of school effectiveness may be a way of promoting a positive development and brighter objective future prospects for the young, via pathways such as good student-teacher relations and academic motivation and achievement.

  • 50.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Sivertsson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor family relationships in adolescence as a risk factor of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course: A prospective cohort study2020Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 48, nr 7, s. 726-732Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that poor family relations in childhood are associated with adverse mental health in adulthood. Yet, few studies have followed the offspring until late adulthood, and very few have had access to register-based data on hospitalisation due to psychiatric illness. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relations in adolescence and the likelihood of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course up until age 55. Methods: Data were derived from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study, with information on 2638 individuals born in 1953. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants' mothers in 1968. Information on in-patient psychiatric treatment was derived from administrative registers from 1969 to 2008. Binary logistic regression was used. Results: Poor family relations in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of later in-patient treatment for a psychiatric diagnosis, even when adjusting for other adverse conditions in childhood. Further analyses showed that poor family relations in adolescence were a statistically significant predictor of in-patient psychiatric care up until age 36-45, but that the strength of the association attenuated over time. Conclusions: Poor family relationships during upbringing can have serious negative mental-health consequences that persist into mid-adulthood. However, the effect of poor family relations seems to abate with age. The findings point to the importance of effective interventions in families experiencing poor relationships.

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