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  • 1.
    Aasa, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vryonidis, Efstathios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Internal Doses of Glycidol in Children and Estimation of Associated Cancer Risk2019In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general population is exposed to the genotoxic carcinogen glycidol via food containing refined edible oils where glycidol is present in the form of fatty acid esters. In this study, internal (in vivo) doses of glycidol were determined in a cohort of 50 children and in a reference group of 12 adults (non-smokers and smokers). The lifetime in vivo doses and intakes of glycidol were calculated from the levels of the hemoglobin (Hb) adduct N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine in blood samples from the subjects, demonstrating a fivefold variation between the children. The estimated mean intake (1.4 mu g/kg/day) was about two times higher, compared to the estimated intake for children by the European Food Safety Authority. The data from adults indicate that the non-smoking and smoking subjects are exposed to about the same or higher levels compared to the children, respectively. The estimated lifetime cancer risk (200/10(5)) was calculated by a multiplicative risk model from the lifetime in vivo doses of glycidol in the children, and exceeds what is considered to be an acceptable cancer risk. The results emphasize the importance to further clarify exposure to glycidol and other possible precursors that could give a contribution to the observed adduct levels.

  • 2. Abrahamsen, Annbjørg Selma
    et al.
    Johannesen, Ása
    Debes, Fróði
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Weihe, Pál
    Working environment and fatigue among fishers in the north Atlantic: a field study2023In: International Maritime Health, ISSN 1641-9251, E-ISSN 2081-3252, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study investigates how Faroese deep-sea fishers’ exposure to work-related stressors affects their sleep, sleepiness, and levels of fatigue. Being constantly exposed to the unpredictable and harsh North Atlantic Ocean, having long work hours and split sleep for up to 40 days consecutively, they will arguably suffer from fatigue.

    Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty seven fishers participated in this study, and data was gathered throughout 202 days at sea. Subjective data was collected at the start and end of trips via questionnaires, sleep and sleepiness diaries and supplemented by objective sleep data through actigraphs. Ship movements were logged with a gyroscope connected to a laptop. A noise metre measured each work station and resting area, and noise exposure profiles were calculated based on each participant’s activity and location. Linear mixed-effect models investigated the effects of work exposure variables on sleep efficiency, and cumulative link mixed models measured effects on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and physical fatigue scale.

    Results: Time of day followed by ship movement were the exposure variables with the highest impact on the outcome variables of sleep efficiency, sleepiness and physical fatigue. The number of days at sea revealed correlations to outcome variables either by itself or interacting with the sleep periods per day. Crew size, shift system or noise did not impact outcome variables when in the model with other variables. Larger catches improved sleep efficiency but did not affect sleepiness and physical fatigue ratings.

    Conclusions: The findings indicate a chronically fatigued fisher population, and recommends urgent attention being paid to improving the structure of vessels and installing stabilators for greater stability at sea; work schedules being evaluated for protection of health; and work environments being designed that fulfill human physiological requirements in order to ensure the wellbeing and safety of those at sea.

  • 3. Abrahamsen, Annbjørg Selma
    et al.
    Weihe, Pál
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Debes, Fróði
    Impact of work exposure on cognitive performance in Faroese deep-sea fishers: a field study2022In: International Maritime Health, ISSN 1641-9251, E-ISSN 2081-3252, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examines the impact of work-related exposure on the cognitive performance of Faroese deep-sea fishers. Faroese fishing crews work long hours in demanding and noisy environments amidst highly uncertain and challenging weather conditions. These factors, together with compromised patterns of rest and sleep, are known to increase fatigue. Our aim was to study if changes could be measured in fishers’ cognitive performance at the end of the trip when compared with the baseline measure at the beginning.

    Materials and methods: Data was collected over 15 months (May 2017 to July 2018) from 157 fishers on 18 fishing trips which involved 202 investigative days on board. Questionnaires and six computerised cognitive tests: Simple Reaction Time, Numeric Working Memory, Corsi Blocks, Rapid Visual Information Processing, Digit Vigilance, and Card Sorting Test were used for data collection at the beginning and end of the trip. Differences between the outcomes on the two test points were analysed with one-way ANOVA comparing the performances at the beginning and end of the voyage, and two-way ANOVA to examine the interactive effect of chronotype and test occasions on the outcomes. Mixed models were used to test for the effects of predictor variables.

    Results: Significant declines in cognitive performance were observed from the beginning to the end of the trip, with decreases in visuospatial memory and reaction times, and increases in cognitive lapses. Furthermore, slowing in response times was observed in the second half of the Digit Vigilance test when comparing the halves.

    Conclusions: Declines in performance were observed from the start to the end of the trip. Furthermore, fishers performed significantly worse in the second half of some parted tests, and evening types seem less influenced by irregular work hours. These findings call for improving the safety of the vessels and their crew.

  • 4. Abrahamsen, Annbjørg
    et al.
    Weihe, Pál
    Debes, Fróði
    van Leeuwen, Wessel MA.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Sleep, Sleepiness, and Fatigue on Board Faroese Fishing Vessels2022In: Nature and Science of Sleep, ISSN 1179-1608, Vol. 14, p. 347-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Faroese fishers have four times more accidents than workers on land. The aim was to understand fishers’ fatigue better and how their work and sleep patterns influenced their sleepiness levels and cognitive performance.

    Materials and Methods: A total of 157 Faroese fishers wore wrist-worn actigraphs at sea and one week on land and filled in sleep and sleepiness diaries during the trip. Furthermore, a 3-minute simple reaction time (SRT) test was completed at the beginning and end of the trip. The ship’s movement and noise were also logged. The actiwatch results were analysed with mixed methods repeated measures. The sleepiness registrations and performance on the SRT-test were analysed with paired t-test. The ship movements (Pitch and roll) were divided into approximately three same-sized groups (lowest 1/3, medium 1/3, and highest 1/3) and compared against the Karolinska Sleepiness Scores (KSS ranging from 1– 9) ≥ 7 and physical tiredness (ranging from 1– 9) scores ≥ 7. Chi-square tests were used to determine the significance of these differences. Mean sleepiness scores at sea, and the proportion of sleepiness scores ≥ 7 were calculated, as well as sleepiness scores as a function of the time of day.

    Results: While at sea, fishers had more split sleep, slept less, and had lower sleep efficiency than onshore. Sleepiness was higher at the end of the trip, and cognitive decline was found. The number of major lapses was higher at the end of the trip, but with no significant difference between the median reaction times.

    Conclusion: The crew on-board the freezer longliner, who worked 8– 8 shifts, slept the most, had the longest continuous sleep periods, the highest sleep efficiency, the lowest sleepiness levels, and the highest noise exposure during their time off.

  • 5. Ainsbury, E A
    et al.
    Bakhanova, E
    Barquinero, J F
    Brai, M
    Chumak, V
    Correcher, V
    Darroudi, F
    Fattibene, P
    Gruel, G
    Guclu, I
    Horn, S
    Jaworska, A
    Kulka, U
    Lindholm, C
    Lloyd, D
    Longo, A
    Marrale, M
    Monteiro Gil, O
    Oestreicher, U
    Pajic, J
    Rakic, B
    Romm, H
    Trompier, F
    Veronese, I
    Voisin, P
    Vral, A
    Whitehouse, C A
    Wieser, A
    Woda, C
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Rothkamm, K
    REVIEW OF RETROSPECTIVE DOSIMETRY TECHNIQUES FOR EXTERNAL IONISING RADIATION EXPOSURES.2011In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 147, no 4, p. 573-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements.

  • 6.
    Albrecht, Sophie Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    The Highs and Lows of Work-Time Control: Exploring the role of control over working hours for health2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible work-time arrangements are thought to create ways of aligning work and private life and facilitate recovery. While temporal flexibility is found to generally bolster work–life balance, its effects on health outcomes are less well known. The present thesis seeks to examine if and how perceived control over working hours benefits workers’ health. Utilising a large Swedish cohort study, four empirical studies explored the association of work-time control (WTC) with subsequent mental and physical health as well as the underlying mechanisms and moderating influences.

    Study I assessed the factorial structure of an instrument to measure WTC and found two sub-dimensions: control over daily hours (the length, starting and ending times of a workday) and control over time off (the taking of breaks/time/days off, paid and unpaid). Levels of control per sub-dimension were described by demographic and work-related factors for a large sample of Swedish workers. In particular, shift, public sector and female workers reported low levels of WTC.

    Study II examined effects of control over daily hours and time off on depressive symptoms. Increasing control over time off was related to decreasing depressive symptoms over time, whereas only initial level of control over daily hours was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. For both sub-dimensions of WTC, the direction of this effect was predominantly from perceived control to subsequent depressive symptoms; reversed processes were of less importance.

    Study III focused on work–life interference as one step on the causal chain between WTC and depressive symptoms and musculoskeletal complaints, respectively. For both sub-dimensions of WTC, part of the effect on depressive symptoms went through work–life interference. Reversed processes played a role between depressive symptoms and work–life interference only. Control over time off was found to mitigate work–life interference and subsequent depressive symptoms more than control over daily hours, albeit with generally small effects. Regarding musculoskeletal complaints, effects were even smaller and work–life interference appeared to be less important.

    Study IV assessed gender differences in the impact of WTC on work–life interference and exhaustion regarding the mediating role of overtime hours. In a sample of knowledge workers, higher control over time off was associated with lower subsequent work–life interference and exhaustion, while control over daily hours was unrelated to both outcomes. Although men worked more overtime hours than women on average, no evidence was found for men with high control over time off/daily hours to perceive more work–life interference/exhaustion due to increased overtime compared to women.

    This thesis found that higher levels of WTC were beneficial for a range of health outcomes, which was partly explained by fewer work–life conflicts. While these effects were generally small, control over time off in particular was consistently associated with favourable outcomes in health, work-life balance and working hours. Given that the level of workers’ discretion over working hours varies starkly by work and demographic factors, enhancing the availability of flexible work-time arrangements is in the interest of public health. WTC, with a particular focus on employees’ ability to take time off from work, may improve the daily work–life interface and support a sustainable working life.

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  • 7.
    Albrecht, Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Swansea University, UK.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. Methods: The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Results: Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Conclusions: Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components 'control over daily hours' and 'control over time off'. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements.

  • 8.
    Albrecht, Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Swansea University, UK.
    Prospective effects of work-time control on overtime, work-life interference and exhaustion in female and male knowledge workersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Employee-based flexible working hours are increasing, particularly among knowledge workers. Research indicates that women and men use work–time control (WTC; control over time off and daily hours) differently: while men work longer paid hours, women use WTC to counteract work–life interference. In a knowledge-worker sample, we examined associations between WTC and overtime, work–life interference and exhaustion and tested if gender moderates the mediating role of overtime.

    Methods: The sample contained 2248 Swedish knowledge workers. Employing hierarchical regression modelling, we examined effects of control over time off/daily hours on subsequent overtime hours, work–life interference and exhaustion in general and in gender-stratified samples. Using conditional process analysis, we tested moderated mediation models.

    Results: Control over time off was related to less work–life interference (βmen=-0.117; CI95%: -0.237 to 0.003; βwomen=-0.253; CI95%: -0.386 to -0.120) and lower exhaustion (βmen=-0.199; CI95%: -0.347 to -0.051; βwomen=-0.271; CI95%: -0.443 to -0.100). For control over daily hours, estimates were close to zero. While men worked more overtime (42 minutes/week), we could not confirm gender moderating the indirect effect of control over time off/daily hours on work–life interference/exhaustion via overtime. Independent of gender, effects of control over time off on work–life interference were partly explained by working fewer overtime hours.

    Conclusion: Control over time off was related to lower exhaustion and better work–life balance (in particular for women). We found no evidence for men’s work–life interference increasing with higher WTC due to working more overtime. Knowledge workers’ control over time off may aid to prevent work–life interference and burnout.

  • 9. Alexanderson, K.
    et al.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vahtera, J.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Melchior, M.
    Zins, M.
    Goldberg, M.
    Head, J.
    Diagnosis-specific sick leave as a long-term predictor of disability pension: a 13-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 155-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Factors that increase the risk of labour market exclusion are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the extent to which all-cause and diagnosis-specific sick leave predict subsequent disability pension (DP).

    Methods Prospective cohort study of 20 434 persons employed by the French national gas and electric company (the GAZEL study). New sick-leave spells >7 days in 1990–1992 were obtained from company records. Follow-up for DP was from 1994 to 2007.

    Results The HR, adjusted for age and occupational position, for DP was 3.5 (95% CI 2.7 to 4.5) in men and 2.6 (95% CI 1.9 to 3.5) in women with one or more sick-leave spells >7 days compared with those with no sick leave. The strongest predictor of DP was sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis, HR 7.6 (95% CI 5.2 to 10.9) for men and 4.1 (95% CI 2.9 to 5.9) for women. Corresponding HRs for sick leave due to circulatory diagnoses in men and women were 5.6 (95% CI 3.7 to 8.6) and 3.1 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.3), for respiratory diagnoses 3.9 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.8) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 4.0), and musculoskeletal diagnoses 4.6 (95% CI 3.4 to 6.4) and 3.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.8), respectively.

    Conclusions Sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis is a major risk factor for subsequent DP, especially among men. Sick leave due to musculoskeletal or circulatory disorders was also a strong predictor of DP. Diagnosis-specific sick leave should be recognised as an early risk marker for future exclusion from the labour market.

  • 10. Ali, Nadeem
    et al.
    Kadi, Mohammad W.
    Ali Albar, Hussain Mohammed Salem
    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz
    Chandrasekaran, Sivaraman
    Summan, Ahmed Saleh
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Malarvannan, Govindan
    Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Car Dust: A Pilot Study in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 4803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People may spend a significant amount of their daily time in cars and thus be exposed to chemicals present in car dust. Various chemicals are emitted from during car use, contaminating the car dust. In this study, we compiled published and unpublished data on the occurrence of phthalates, flame retardants (FRs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Saudi car dust. Phthalates, a class of chemical commonly used as plasticizers in different car parts, were the major pollutants found in car dust, with a median value of n-ary sumation phthalates 1,279,000 ng/g. Among other chemicals, organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were found to be between 1500-90,500 ng/g, which indicates their use as alternative FRs in the car industry. The daily exposure to Saudi drivers (regular and taxi drivers) was below the respective reference dose (RfD) values of the individual chemicals. However, the estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values due to chronic exposure to these chemicals was >1 x 10(-5) for taxi drivers for phthalates and PAHs, indicating that the long-term exposure to these chemicals is a cause of concern for drivers who spend considerable time in cars. The study has some limitations, due to the small number of samples, lack of updated RfD values, and missing cancer slope factors for many studied chemicals. Despite these limitations, this study indicates the possible range of exposure to drivers from chemicals in car dust and warrants further extensive studies to confirm these patterns.

  • 11.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Augustine, Lilly
    Peer acceptance in the school class and subjective health complaints: a multilevel approach2013In: Journal of School Health, ISSN 0022-4391, E-ISSN 1746-1561, Vol. 83, no 10, p. 690-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Feeling accepted by peers is important for young people's health but few studies have examined the overall degree of acceptance in school and its health consequences. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether health complaints among Swedish students can be attributed to the acceptance climate in their school class even when the health effects of their own (individual) acceptance score have been taken into account. METHODS: The data used were from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study for the years 2001 to 2002, 2005 to 2006, and 2009 to 2010, consisting of 13,902 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade Swedish students nested into 742 school classes. The statistical analyses were performed by means of linear regression multilevel analysis. RESULTS: The results indicated that the variation in subjective health complaints could be ascribed partly to the school-class level (boys: 5.0%; girls: 13.5%). Peer acceptance at the individual level demonstrated a clear association with health: the lower the acceptance, the higher the complaint scores. For girls, but not for boys, the overall degree of peer acceptance in the school class demonstrated a contextual effect on health, net of acceptance at the student level. Interaction analyses also revealed an increasingly favorable health among poorly accepted girls as the acceptance climate in the school class declined. CONCLUSIONS: A lower overall degree of peer acceptance in the school class is associated with poorer health among girls. However, girls who

  • 12.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Friendship network characteristics and psychological well-being in late adolescence: Exploring differences by gender and gender composition2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between friendship networks and psychological well-being among 19-year-olds. Methods: The data used was a random sample of Swedish individuals born in 1990 who answered a questionnaire in 2009-2010. Friendship networks were considered in terms of three measures of emotional support. Six statements about the individual's emotional state were used to create a summary measure of psychological well-being. Gender and gender composition were included as potentially moderating factors. The association between friendship networks and psychological well-being was analysed by means of linear regression analysis (n = 1289). Results: The results indicate that males' and females' friendship networks were similar with regard to quality and trust, whereas males' networks were characterized by less self-disclosure and a stronger preference for same-gender friendships. Gender composition did not matter for the support levels. Emotional support was associated with psychological well-being but there were gender differences: females seemed to benefit more health-wise from having high-quality (and trusting) networks. Moreover, whereas self-disclosure among males was positively linked to well-being, this was not the case among females. None of these associations were moderated by gender composition. Conclusions: In sum, friendship networks are beneficial for the psychological well-being among late adolescents, but there are some important differences according to gender.

  • 13. Almroth, Melody
    et al.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Sorberg Wallin, Alma
    Andersson, Tomas
    van der Westhuizen, Amanda
    Falkstedt, Daniel
    Job control, job demands and job strain and suicidal behaviour among three million workers in Sweden2022In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 79, no 10, p. 681-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate the association between job control, job demands and their combination (job strain) and suicide attempts and deaths among male and female workers in Sweden.

    Methods Job control and demands were measured separately for men and women using a job exposure matrix, which was linked to around three million individuals based on their occupational title in 2005. Suicide attempts and deaths were measured in the hospital and cause of death registers from 2006 to 2016. HRs were estimated using discrete proportional hazards models with annually updated age as the time axis. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic, family, health, labour market and childhood factors, as well as the time-varying effects of unemployment, sick leave and family factors during follow-up.

    Results Low job control was associated with an increased risk of suicide attempts and deaths among both men and women while high job demands tended to be associated with a decreased risk. The combination of job control and job demands (job strain) reflected the increased risk of low control jobs and the decreased risk of high demand jobs. Associations were attenuated but still present after adjustments.

    Conclusions Low job control is related to suicide attempts and deaths, and this is only partially explained by important covariates measured both prebaseline and during follow-up. Attempts to increase job control among workers may be beneficial in preventing suicide.

  • 14. Almroth, Melody
    et al.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sörberg Wallin, Alma
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Falkstedt, Daniel
    Psychosocial workplace factors and alcohol-related morbidity: a prospective study of 3 million Swedish workers2022In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 366-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychosocial workplace factors may be associated with alcohol-related morbidity, but previous studies have had limited opportunities to take non-occupational explanatory factors into account. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between job control, job demands and their combination (job strain) and diagnosed alcohol-related morbidity while accounting for several potentially confounding factors measured across the life-course, including education. Methods: Job control, job demands and job strain were measured using the Swedish job exposure matrix measuring psychosocial workload on the occupational level linked to over 3 million individuals based on their occupational titles in 2005 and followed up until 2016. Cox regression models were built to estimate associations with alcohol-related diagnoses recorded in patient registers. Results: Low job control was associated with an increased risk of alcohol-related morbidity, while high job demands tended to be associated with a decreased risk. Passive and high-strain jobs among men and passive jobs among women were also associated with an increased risk of alcohol diagnoses. However, all associations were found to be weakened in models adjusted for other factors measured prospectively over the life-course, especially in models that included level of education. Conclusion: The associations between low job control and high job demands, and the risk of alcohol-related morbidity reflect underlying socioeconomic differences to some extent. Lower job control, however, remained associated with a higher risk of alcohol-related morbidity.

  • 15. Anderson, J. K.
    et al.
    Brecher, R. W.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    DeWitt, J.
    Fiedler, H.
    Kannan, K.
    Kirman, C. R.
    Lipscomb, J.
    Priestly, B.
    Schoeny, R.
    Seed, J.
    Verner, M.
    Hays, S. M.
    Grouping of PFAS for human health risk assessment: Findings from an independent panel of experts2022In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 134, article id 105226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An expert panel was convened to provide insight and guidance on per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) grouping for the purposes of protecting human health from drinking water exposures, and how risks to PFAS mixtures should be assessed. These questions were addressed through multiple rounds of blind, independent responses to charge questions, and review and comments on co-panelists responses. The experts agreed that the lack of consistent interpretations of human health risk for well-studied PFAS and the lack of information for the vast majority of PFAS present significant challenges for any mixtures risk assessment approach. Most experts agreed that all PFAS should not be grouped together, persistence alone is not sufficient for grouping PFAS for the purposes of assessing human health risk, and that the definition of appropriate subgroups can only be defined on a case-by-case manner. Most panelists agreed that it is inappropriate to assume equal toxicity/potency across the diverse class of PFAS. A tiered approach combining multiple lines of evidence was presented as a possible viable means for addressing PFAS that lack analytical and/or toxicological studies. Most PFAS risk assessments will need to employ assumptions that are more likely to overestimate risk than to underestimate risk, given the choice of assumptions regarding dose-response model, uncertainty factors, and exposure information.

  • 16. Anund, A.
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fors, C.
    Ihlström, J.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Söderström, B.
    Bussförares arbetstider kopplat till trötthet [Bus drivers' working hours and the relationship to fatigue]2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Fors, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day.

    Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers.

    Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness.

    Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  • 18. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Hallvig, David
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Observer Rated Sleepiness and Real Road Driving: An Explorative Study2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e64782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1) one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2) one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant's sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers' impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r = .588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r = .360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs.

  • 19. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Fors, Carina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Filtness, Ashleigh
    Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers2016In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  • 20. Aries, M. B. C.
    et al.
    Fischl, G.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Beute, F.
    The relationship of light exposure to sleep outcomes among office workers. Part 1: Working in the office versus at home before and during the COVID-pandemic2022In: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between everyday light exposure and sleep was studied for office workers. The study was conducted during the upswing of the COVID-19 pandemic, enabling a comparison between Office and Home Workdays. Fifteen full-time office employees were monitored for a period of 4–6 weeks. They wore a light-tracking device on their clothes and had a sleep tracker at home. Compared to an Office Workday, light exposure was lower in the afternoon and total sleep time was almost 5 minutes longer on a Home Workday. Sleep efficiency was the same on both workday types. A higher median illuminance level in the afternoon was significantly related to later sleep onset on an Office Workday. Higher median illuminance levels in the morning were related to earlier awakening. Counter to expectations, higher light levels in the evening were also related to earlier awakening. Everyday light exposure matters for sleep quality but may affect circadian functioning differently than the often more extreme light interventions employed in laboratory experiments. Moreover, differences in outcomes between Office and Home Workdays signal the need for further investigation to provide supportive light levels during workhours.

  • 21.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    The changing nature of work - Job strain, job support and sickness absence among care workers and in other occupations in Sweden 1991-20132021In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 15, article id 100893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined exposure changes in three psychosocial dimensions - job demands, job control, and social support - and the associations between these dimensions and sickness absence throughout the period 1991-2013. The analyses covered periods of economic ups and downs in Sweden and periods involving major fluctuations in sickness absence. Data on care workers (n = 16,179) and a comparison group of employees in other occupations (n = 82,070) were derived from the biennial Swedish Work Environment Survey and linked to register data on sickness absence. Eight exposure profiles, based on combinations of demands, control, and support, were formed. The proportion of individuals with work profiles involving high demands doubled among care workers (14%-29%) while increasing modestly in the comparison group (17%-21%) 1991-2013. The work profile that isolated high-strain (iso-strain), i.e., high demands, low control, and low social support, was more prevalent among care workers, from 4% in 1991 to 11% in 2013. Individuals with work profiles involving highdemand jobs had the highest number of days on sickness absence during the study period and those with the isostrain work profile had the highest increase in sickness absence, from 15 days per year during 1993-1994, to 42 days during 2000-2002. Employees with a passive work profile (low job demands and low job control) had the lowest rate and the lowest increase in sickness absence. Individuals with active work profiles, where high demands are supposed to be balanced by high job control, had a rather high increase in sickness days around 2000. A conclusion is that there is a long-term trend towards jobs with high demands. This trend is stronger among care workers than among other occupations. These levels of job demands seem to be at such a level that it is difficult to compensate for with higher job control and social support.

  • 22.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Taloyan, Marina
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Associations Between Being 'locked-In' and Health - An Epidemiological Study2019In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 71-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between an individual's level of perceived control over labor market position (locked-in and not locked-in) and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods. A representative sample (n = 11,675) of the working population in southern Sweden responded to a questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents worked in their preferred workplace and occupation. Nineteen percent reported being in a nonpreferred workplace and nonpreferred occupation (double locked-in). Twenty-three percent reported suboptimal health compared with 31% among the double locked-in. The risk of suboptimal health was elevated in all locked-in groups also after adjustment for background variables and job strain. In the double locked-in group, the fully adjusted odds ratio for suboptimal health was 1.72 (95% confidence interval 1.49-1.99) and for suboptimal psychological well-being 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.84-2.56). Odds ratio for the other locked-in groups was lower but still statistically significant. Conclusions. Being at a nonpreferred work-place or occupation was associated with impaired health.

  • 23.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations? Evidence from a Swedish national cohort2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 310-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in burnout, self-rated health (SRH) and sickness absence between human service occupations (HSOs) and other occupations, and whether they can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population (n = 4408). Employment in HSOs, psychosocial work environment and organizational resources in 2012 predicted relative risks of sickness absence, burnout and suboptimal SRH in 2014 using modified Poisson regressions. The psychosocial work factors' and organizational resource variables' relative importance were estimated by adding them to the models one by one, and with population attributable fractions (PAFs). Results: Employment in HSOs was associated with a higher risk of sickness absence and the risk was explained by psychosocial and organizational factors, particularly high emotional demands, low work-time control and exposure to workplace violence. Employment in HSOs was not associated with burnout after sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, and furthermore not with SRH. A lower risk of suboptimal SRH was found in HSOs than in other occupations with equivalent psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. PAFs indicated that psychosocial work environment and organizational resource improvements could lead to morbidity reductions for all outcomes; emotional demands were more important in HSOs. Conclusions: HSOs had higher risks of sickness absence and burnout than other occupations. The most important work factors to address were high emotional demands, low work-time control, and exposure to workplace violence.

  • 24. Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Ulla
    et al.
    Chen, Jie
    Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana
    Atkinson, Richard
    Bauwelinck, Mariska
    Bellander, Tom
    Brandt, Jørgen
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Concin, Hans
    Fecht, Daniela
    Forastiere, Francesco
    van Gils, Carla H.
    Gulliver, John
    Hertel, Ole
    Hoek, Gerard
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Janssen, Nicole
    Therming Jørgensen, Jeanette
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Ketzel, Matthias
    Klompmaker, Jochem O.
    Lang, Alois
    Leander, Karin
    Liu, Shuo
    Ljungman, Petter L. S.
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Mehta, Amar Jayant
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Oftedal, Bente
    Pershagen, Göran
    Peter, Raphael Simon
    Peters, Annette
    Renzi, Matteo
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Centrum, Sweden.
    Rodopoulou, Sophia
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Schwarze, Per Everhard
    Severi, Gianluca
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Strak, Maciej
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Long-term exposure to fine particle elemental components and lung cancer incidence in the ELAPSE pooled cohort2021In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 193, article id 110568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence.

    Methods: We pooled seven cohorts from across Europe and assigned exposure estimates for eight components of PM2.5 representing non-tail pipe emissions (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)), long-range transport (sulfur (S)), oil burning/industry emissions (nickel (Ni), vanadium (V)), crustal material (silicon (Si)), and biomass burning (potassium (K)) to cohort participants' baseline residential address based on 100 m by 100 m grids from newly developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status).

    Results: The pooled study population comprised 306,550 individuals with 3916 incident lung cancer events during 5,541,672 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive association between exposure to all eight components and lung cancer incidence, with adjusted HRs of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16) per 50 ng/m(3) PM2.5 K, 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.15) per 1 ng/m3 PM2.5 Ni, 1.22 (95% CI 1.11, 1.35) per 200 ng/m(3) PM2.5 S, and 1.07 (95% CI 1.02, 1.12) per 200 ng/m(3) PM2.5 V. Effect estimates were largely unaffected by adjustment for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, effect estimates of K, Ni, S, and V were slightly attenuated, whereas effect estimates of Cu, Si, Fe, and Zn became null or negative.

    Conclusions: Our results point towards an increased risk of lung cancer in connection with sources of combustion particles from oil and biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosols rather than non-exhaust traffic emissions. Specific limit values or guidelines targeting these specific PM2.5 components may prove helpful in future lung cancer prevention strategies.

  • 25. Axelsson, J.
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Gustavsson, P.
    Rudman, A.
    Selection into shift and night work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Azad, Azade
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svärd, Veronica
    Patients' with Multimorbidity and Psychosocial Difficulties and Their Views on Important Professional Competence for Rehabilitation Coordinators in the Return-to-Work Process2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 19, article id 10280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinators may play a key role during the return-to-work (RTW) process for people on sickness absence. There are still few studies on the newly implemented rehabilitation coordinators (RECO) within Swedish healthcare, and none focus on their competence. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with multimorbidity and psychosocial difficulties describe the professional competence of the RECO they encountered during their RTW process. The study takes a relational and practical approach in defining professional competence, including both what professionals do and what they possess. Interviews with 12 people with multimorbidity and psychosocial difficulties who had encountered a RECO during their RTW process were analysed using thematic analysis. Six different themes were found: communicative and coordinating skills; advisory and guidance skills; engagement and advocacy skills; being persistent and flexible; being empathic and therapeutic; being professional and trustworthy. Most of these are found in research on RTW coordinators, but being persistent, and having advisory, guidance, advocacy and therapeutic skills have not been recognised as important competences previously. This study adds patients' views on important professional competence that support the RTW process, which should be regarded in further developments of RECOs' functions and their competence descriptions.

  • 27.
    Azad, Azadé
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Svärd, Veronica
    Competence and professionalisation among return-to-work coordinators in Sweden: comparisons by original profession: [Kompetens och professionalisering bland rehabiliteringskoordinatorer i Sverige: Jämförelser mellan grundprofessioner]2023In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Return-to-work coordinators (RTWC) support people on sickness absence and is a new healthcare occupation in Sweden. Its practitioners represent a variety of professions, there is no common undergraduate training and vague role and competence descriptions. The aim was to explore differences in training and competence according to original professions (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, counselling, and other professions) and coordinators' views on which professions they believe provide the best competence for the role. All RTWCs (82) in one region were invited to answer a questionnaire (89% response rate). Mixed-methods analyses were applied. The results showed that counselling professions were more likely than other professional groups to have further training, particularly in conversation methods, and a lower proportion of them stated needing more knowledge about gender equality, social problems, insurance/benefit and conversation methods. The analysis of free-text answers identified three competence areas of importance: advice and guidance, a holistic view, and personality over profession. Occupational therapists and social workers were seen as having the best competence for the coordinating role. The results outline some common values, norms and important competences for RTWCs that could help develop the RTW coordination training and pave the way for RTWCs professionalisation process.

  • 28. Badarin, Kathryn
    et al.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Almroth, Melody
    Falkstedt, Daniel
    Hillert, Lena
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Combined exposure to heavy physical workload and low job control and the risk of disability pension: A cohort study of employed men and women in Sweden2023In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 96, no 7, p. 973-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate the separate and combined effects of overall heavy physical workload (PWL) and low decision authority on all-cause disability pension (DP) or musculoskeletal DP.

    Methods This study uses a sample of 1,804,242 Swedish workers aged 44–63 at the 2009 baseline. Job Exposure Matrices (JEMs) estimated exposure to PWL and decision authority. Mean JEM values were linked to occupational codes, then split into tertiles and combined. DP cases were taken from register data from 2010 to 2019. Cox regression models estimated sex-specific Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The Synergy Index (SI) estimated interaction effects.

    Results Heavy physical workload and low decision authority were associated with an increased risk of DP. Workers with combined exposure to heavy PWL and low decision authority often had greater risks of all-cause DP or musculoskeletal DP than when adding the effects of the single exposures. The results for the SI were above 1 for all-cause DP (men: SI 1.35 95%CI 1.18–1.55, women: SI 1.19 95%CI 1.05–1.35) and musculoskeletal disorder DP (men: SI 1.35 95%CI 1.08–1.69, women: 1.13 95%CI 0.85–1.49). After adjustment, the estimates for SI remained above 1 but were not statistically significant.

    Conclusion Heavy physical workload and low decision authority were separately associated with DP. The combination of heavy PWL and low decision authority was often associated with higher risks of DP than would be expected from adding the effects of the single exposures. Increasing decision authority among workers with heavy PWL could help reduce the risk of DP.

  • 29. Badarin, Kathryn
    et al.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hillert, Lena
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Physical workload and increased frequency of musculoskeletal pain: a cohort study of employed men and women with baseline occasional pain2021In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 78, no 8, p. 558-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is prevalent among the workforce. This study investigates the long-term association between physical workload (PWL) and increased frequency of MSP among male and female employees with pre-existing occasional MSP.

    Methods This study uses the Stockholm Public Health cohort survey data from the baseline 2006. The sample includes 5715 employees with baseline occasional MSP (no more than a few days per month). Eight PWL exposures and overall PWL were estimated using a job-exposure matrix (JEM). The JEM was assigned to occupational titles from a national register in 2006. Follow-up survey data on frequent MSP (a few or more times a week) were collected from 2010. Logistic regressions produced sex-specific ORs with 95% CIs and were adjusted for education, health conditions, psychological distress, smoking, BMI, leisure-time physical activity and decision authority.

    Results Associations were observed between several aspects of heavy PWL and frequent MSP for men (eg, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.20, among those in the highest exposure quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile for heavy lifting) and women (eg, OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.29, among those in the highest exposure quartile compared with those in the the lowest quartile for physically strenuous work). Small changes were observed in the OR after adjustment, but most of the ORs for PWL exposures among the men were no longer statistically significantly increased.

    Conclusion A high level of exposure to heavy PWL was associated with increased frequency of MSP 4 years later for men and women with baseline occasional pain.

  • 30. Badarin, Kathryn
    et al.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hillert, Lena
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    The impact of musculoskeletal pain and strenuous work on self-reported physical work ability: a cohort study of Swedish men and women2022In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 939-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective We investigated the separate and combined effects of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and strenuous work (heavy physical workload (PWL)/low-decision authority) on poor physical work ability (WA).

    Methods This study uses baseline data from the 2010 Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (SPHQ) including 9419 workers with good physical WA. Exposure to PWL and decision authority were estimated using sex-specific job-exposure matrices linked to occupations. Exposures (high/low) were combined with the presence of MSP. Follow-up data on physical WA were taken from the 2014 SPHQ and dichotomised (the responses: moderate, rather poor and very poor indicated poor WA). Logistic regression models calculated sex-specific odds ratios adjusting for age, education and health and lifestyle factors. Interaction between MSP and strenuous work was examined using the synergy index (SI). Analyses were conducted using SPSS.27.

    Results MSP, heavy PWL and low-decision authority were separately associated with poor WA. MSP was associated with higher odds of poor WA than strenuous work for women, the opposite for men. Combinations of MSP and strenuous work often resulted in higher risks of poor WA than when adding the effects of the single exposures (e.g., MSP and heavy PWL men: AOR 4.04 95% CI 2.00-8.15, women: AOR: 3.25 95% CI 1.81-5.83). The SI was non-significant for both sexes.

    Conclusion Workers with MSP and strenuous work often had higher risks of poor WA than would be expected from adding the effects of the single exposures. To decrease poor WA in this group, strenuous work should be lowered, and MSP addressed in workplaces.

  • 31.
    Balk, Fabian G. P.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Winkens Pütz, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Ribbenstedt, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gomis, Melissa I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Université Paris-Saclay, France.
    Filipovic, Marko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. NIRAS Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Children's exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids - a modelling approach2019In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 1875-1886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adults are mainly exposed to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via ingestion of food, inhalation of air and ingestion of dust, whereas for children the exposure to PFASs is largely unknown. This study aimed to reconstruct the serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in children after infancy up to 10.5 years of age and to test if dietary intake is the major exposure pathway for children to PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS after infancy. For this work, a dataset from a Finnish child cohort study was available, which comprised serum concentrations of the studied perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and PFAS concentration measurements in dust and air samples from the children's bedrooms. The calculated PFAA intakes were used in a pharmacokinetic model to reconstruct the PFAA serum concentrations from 1 to 10.5 years of age. The calculated PFOA and PFOS intakes were close to current regulatory intake thresholds and diet was the major exposure medium for the 10.5 year-olds. The one-compartment PK model reconstructed median PFOA and PFOS serum concentrations well compared to corresponding measured median serum concentrations, while the modelled PFHxS serum concentrations showed a constant underestimation. The results imply that children's exposure to PFOA and PFOS after breastfeeding and with increasing age resembles the exposure of adults. Further, the children in the Finnish cohort experienced a rather constant exposure to PFOA and PFOS between 1 and 10.5 years of age. The PFHxS exposure sources and respective pharmacokinetic parameter estimations need further investigation.

  • 32. Baudin, Clémence
    et al.
    Lefèvre, Marie
    Selander, Jenny
    Babisch, Wolfgang
    Cadum, Ennio
    Carlier, Marie-Christine
    Champelovier, Patricia
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Huithuijs, Danny
    Lambert, Jacques
    Laumon, Bernard
    Pershagen, Göran
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Velonaki, Venetia
    Hansell, Anna
    Evrard, Anne-Sophie
    Saliva cortisol in relation to aircraft noise exposure: pooled-analysis results from seven European countries2019In: Environmental Health, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 18, article id 102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many studies have demonstrated adverse effects of exposure to aircraft noise on health. Possible biological pathways for these effects include hormonal disturbances. Few studies deal with aircraft noise effects on saliva cortisol in adults, and results are inconsistent.

    Objective: We aimed to assess the effects of aircraft noise exposure on saliva cortisol levels and its variation in people living near airports.

    Methods: This study focused on the 1300 residents included in the HYENA and DEBATS cross-sectional studies, with complete information on cortisol sampling. All the participants followed a similar procedure aiming to collect both a morning and an evening saliva cortisol samples. Socioeconomic and lifestyle information were obtained during a face-to-face interview. Outdoor aircraft noise exposure was estimated for each participant's home address. Associations between aircraft noise exposure and cortisol outcomes were investigated a priori for male and female separately, using linear regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Different approaches were used to characterize cortisol levels, such as morning and evening cortisol concentrations and the absolute and relative variations between morning and evening levels.

    Results: Statistically significant increases of evening cortisol levels were shown in women with a 10-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise exposure in terms of LA(eq, 16h) (exp(beta) = 1.08; CI95% = 1.00-1.16), L-den (exp(beta) = 1.09; CI95% = 1.01-1.18), L-night (exp(beta) = 1.11; CI95% = 1.02-1.20). A statistically significant association was also found in women between a 10-dB(A) increase in terms of L-night and the absolute variation per hour (exp(beta) = 0.90; CI95% = 0.80-1.00). Statistically significant decreases in relative variation per hour were also evidenced in women, with stronger effects with the L-night (exp(beta) = 0.89; CI95% = 0.83-0.96) than with other noise indicators. The morning cortisol levels were unchanged whatever noise exposure indicator considered. There was no statistically significant association between aircraft noise exposure and cortisol outcomes in men.

    Conclusions: The results of the present study show statistically significant associations between aircraft noise exposure and evening cortisol levels and related flattening in the (absolute and relative) variations per hour in women. Further biological research is needed to deepen knowledge of the pathway between noise exposure and disturbed hormonal regulation, and specially the difference in effects between genders.

  • 33. Beckers, Debby G. J.
    et al.
    Kompier, Michiel A. J.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Härmä, Mikko
    Worktime control: theoretical conceptualization, current empirical knowledge, and research agenda2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 291-297Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 34. Beelen, Rob
    et al.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
    Xun, Wei W.
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Houthuijs, Danny
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Oudin, Anna
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Olsson, David
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Lanki, Timo
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Oftedal, Bente
    Aamodt, Geir
    Nafstad, Per
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Penell, Johanna
    Korek, Michal
    Pyko, Andrei
    Thorup Eriksen, Kirsten
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Becker, Thomas
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Bots, Michiel
    Meliefste, Kees
    Wang, Meng
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Kraemer, Ursula
    Heinrich, Joachim
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Key, Timothy
    Peters, Annette
    Cyrys, Josef
    Concin, Hans
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ineichen, Alex
    Schaffner, Emmanuel
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Dratva, Julia
    Ducret-Stich, Regina
    Vilier, Alice
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Grioni, Sara
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Galassi, Claudia
    Migliore, Enrica
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Tamayo, Ibon
    Amiano, Pilar
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Katsoulis, Michail
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Vineis, Paolo
    Hoek, Gerard
    Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality An Analysis of 22 European Cohorts2014In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 368-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposure to several air pollutants with all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, as well as with specific cardiovascular causes of death. Methods: Data from 22 European cohort studies were used. Using a standardized protocol, study area-specific air pollution exposure at the residential address was characterized as annual average concentrations of the following: nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); particles with diameters of less than 2.5 mu m (PM2.5), less than 10 mu m (PM10), and 10 mu m to 2.5 mu m (PMcoarse); PM2.5 absorbance estimated by land-use regression models; and traffic indicators. We applied cohort-specific Cox proportional hazards models using a standardized protocol. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain pooled effect estimates. Results: The total study population consisted of 367,383 participants, with 9994 deaths from CVD (including 4,992 from ischemic heart disease, 2264 from myocardial infarction, and 2484 from cerebrovascular disease). All hazard ratios were approximately 1.0, except for particle mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality; for PM2.5, the hazard ratio was 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0.87-1.69) per 5 mu g/m(3) and for PM10, 1.22 (0.91-1.63) per 10 mu g/m(3). Conclusion: In a joint analysis of data from 22 European cohorts, most hazard ratios for the association of air pollutants with mortality from overall CVD and with specific CVDs were approximately 1.0, with the exception of particulate mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality for which there was suggestive evidence for an association.

  • 35. Belenky, Gregory
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Wasensten, Nancy J.
    Introduction2016In: Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine / [ed] Meir Kryger, Thomas Roth, William C. Dement, Elsevier, 2016, 6, p. 679-681Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Bellavia, Andrea
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Wolk, Alicja
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol.
    Orsini, Nicola
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol.
    Sleep Duration and Survival Percentiles Across Categories of Physical Activity2014In: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 179, no 4, p. 484-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between long sleep duration and death is not fully understood. Long sleep is associated with low physical activity, which is a strong predictor of death. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep duration and death across categories of total physical activity in a large prospective cohort of Swedish men and women. We followed a population-based cohort of 70,973 participants (37,846 men and 33,127 women), aged 45-83 years, from January 1998 to December 2012. Sleep duration and physical activity levels were assessed through a questionnaire. We evaluated the association of interest in terms of mortality rates by estimating hazard ratios with Cox regression and in terms of survival by evaluating 15th survival percentile differences with Laplace regression. During 15 years of follow-up, we recorded 14,575 deaths (8,436 men and 6,139 women). We observed a significant interaction between sleep duration and physical activity in predicting death (P < 0.001). Long sleep duration (>8 hours) was associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio = 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.39) and shorter survival (15th percentile difference = -20 months; 95% confidence interval: -30, -11) among only those with low physical activity. The association between long sleep duration and death might be partly explained by comorbidity with low physical activity.

  • 37. Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Almroth, Melody
    Falkstedt, Daniel
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    The impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical workload on disability pension–a cohort study of Swedish men2023In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Understanding the impact of physical capacity in combination with high physical workload could be beneficial for the prevention of health-related exits from work. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the separate and combined effects of low cardiorespiratory fitness and high physical workload on disability pension (DP) due to any cause, musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

    Methods A total of 279 353 men born between 1951 and 1961 were followed regarding DP between 2006 and 2020, ages 45–64. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed during military conscription, using an ergometer bicycle test. Physical workload was based on a job-exposure matrix (JEM) linked to occupational title in 2005. Cox regression models estimated separate and combined associations with DP.

    Results Low cardiorespiratory fitness and high physical workload were associated with increased risk of DP. For all cause DP, the fully adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for those with low cardiorespiratory fitness was 1.38 (1.32–1.46) and for those with high physical workload 1.48 (1.39–1.57). For all cause and MSD DP, but not for CVD DP, the combination of low cardiorespiratory fitness and high physical workload resulted in higher risks than when adding the effect of the single exposures.

    Conclusion Both low cardiorespiratory fitness in youth and later exposure to high physical workload were associated with an increased risk of DP, where workers with the combination of both low cardiorespiratory fitness and a high physical workload had the highest risks (all-cause and MSD DP).

  • 38. Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    Marklund, Staffan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Björklund, Christina
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    A Resourceful Work Environment Moderates the Relationship between Presenteeism and Health: A Study Using Repeated Measures in the Swedish Working Population2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 13, article id 4711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate if the psychosocial work environment moderates the proposed negative impact of presenteeism on future general health. We expect that the negative impact of presenteeism on general health is weaker if the psychosocial work environment is resourceful, and more pronounced if the environment is stressful. Data were derived from the 2008-2018 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted ofn= 15,779 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results from the autoregressive GEE models showed statistically significant interaction terms between presenteeism and all four investigated moderators, i.e., job demands, job control, job support and job strain. The results indicate that the psychosocial work environment moderates the negative association between presenteeism and general health and illustrates a buffering effect of the psychosocial work environment. A possible explanation for these results may be that psychosocially resourceful work environments give room for adjustments in the work situation and facilitate recovery. The results also indicate that by investing the psychosocial work environment employers may be able to promote worker health as well as prevent reduced job performance due to presenteeism.

  • 39. Bergvall, Tomas
    et al.
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Lindquist, Marie
    vigiGrade: A Tool to Identify Well-Documented Individual Case Reports and Highlight Systematic Data Quality Issues2014In: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual case safety reports of suspected harm from medicines are fundamental to post-marketing surveillance. Their value is directly proportional to the amount of clinically relevant information they include. To improve the quality of the data, communication between stakeholders is essential and can be facilitated by a simple score and visualisation of the results. The objective of this study was to propose a measure of completeness and identify predictors of well-documented reports, globally. The Uppsala Monitoring Centre has developed the vigiGrade completeness score to measure the amount of clinically relevant information in structured format, without reflecting whether the information establishes causality between the drug and adverse event. The vigiGrade completeness score (C) starts at 1 for reports with information on time-to-onset, age, sex, indication, outcome, report type, dose, country, primary reporter and comments. For each missing dimension, a penalty is detracted which varies with clinical relevance. We classified reports with C > 0.8 as well-documented and identified all such reports in the WHO global individual case safety report database, VigiBase, from 2007 to January 2012. We utilised odds ratios with statistical shrinkage to identify subgroups with unexpectedly high proportions of well-documented reports. Altogether, 430,000 (13 %) of the studied reports achieved C > 0.8 in VigiBase. For VigiBase as a whole, the median completeness was 0.41 with an interquartile range of 0.26-0.63. Two out of three well-documented reports come from Europe, and two out of three from physicians. Among the countries with more than 1,000 reports in total, the highest rate of well-documented reports is 65 % in Italy. Tunisia, Spain, Portugal, Croatia and Denmark each have rates above 50 %, and another 20 countries have rates above 30 %. On the whole, 24 % of the reports from physicians are well-documented compared with only 4 % for consumers/non-health professionals. Notably, Denmark and Norway have more than 50 % well-documented reports from consumers/non-health professionals and higher rates than for physicians. The rate of well-documented reports for the E2B format is 11 % compared with 22 % for the older INTDIS (International Drug Information System) format. However, for E2B reports entered via the WHO programme's e-reporting system VigiFlow, the rate is 29 %. Overall, only one report in eight provides the desired level of information, but much higher proportions are observed for individual countries. Physicians and e-reporting tools also generate greater proportions of well-documented reports overall. Reports from consumers/non-health professionals in specific regions have excellent quality, which illustrates their potential for the future. vigiGrade has already provided valuable information by highlighting data quality issues both in Italy and the USA.

  • 40.
    Bernard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Temporary, self-employed and permanent workers: A Swedish study on work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013In: , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Griep, Yannick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. University of Calgary, Canada.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    How Do Job Insecurity and Organizational Justice Relate to Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Difficulties: A Multilevel Study on Immediate and Prolonged Effects in Swedish Workers2020In: Applied Psychology: an international review, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 1271-1300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on stress and justice literature, we argue that perceptions of job insecurity induce feelings of low procedural justice, which has immediate and prolonged negative effects on health (depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties). Moreover, we explore whether the strength of the job insecurity-justice relationship differs between individuals as a function of their average level of job insecurity over time. Finally, we explore whether the procedural justice-health relationship differs between individuals as a function of variability in justice perceptions over time. We analyzed Swedish panel data from permanent workers over four consecutive waves (with a two-year time lag between waves) using multilevel analysis, separating within- and between-person variance. Results showed that job insecurity associated negatively with procedural justice at the same time point for all waves. Prolonged effects were less stable. We found immediate (but not prolonged) indirect effects of job insecurity on health outcomes via procedural justice. Average levels in job insecurity over time moderated the within-person job insecurity-justice relationship. However, variability in procedural justice over time did not moderate the within-person justice-health relationship. In conclusion, disentangling within- and between-person variability of job insecurity and justice perceptions contributes to the understanding of health effects.

  • 42.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Staying in or switching between permanent, temporary and self-employment during 2008-2010: Associations with changing job characteristics and emotional exhaustion2019In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 215-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour market segmentation theories suggest that permanent and temporary workers are exposed to economic risks to different degrees, and differ in their working life quality and well-being. However, few studies have tested these ideas during times of economic crisis. Also, little is known about how the self-employed compare to permanent and temporary workers and are affected by economic downturns. This study investigated Swedish workers in different labour market segments before and after the financial crisis (2008 and 2010). More specifically, it looked at job characteristics and strain differences between permanent, temporary and self-employed workers. Data (N = 6335) came from SLOSH, a longitudinal representative cohort study of the Swedish workforce. Contradicting segmentation theories, differences between permanent and temporary workers were small. The self-employed stood out with favourable job characteristics, but comparable strain levels. During the crisis, work demands and strain declined for many of the workers studied here.

  • 43. Beronius, A.
    et al.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Making the most of expert judgment in hazard and risk assessment of chemicals2017In: Toxicology Research, ISSN 2045-452X, E-ISSN 2045-4538, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 571-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the reliability and relevance of toxicity and ecotoxicity studies is an integral step in the assessment of the hazards and risks of chemicals. This evaluation is inherently reliant on expert judgment, which often leads to differences between experts' conclusions regarding how individual studies can contribute to the body of evidence. The conclusions of regulatory assessment, such as establishing safe exposure levels for humans and the environment and calculations of margins of exposure, may have large consequences for which chemicals are permitted on the market and their allowed uses. It is therefore important that such assessments are based on all reliable and relevant scientific data, and that assessment principles and assumptions, such as expert judgment, are transparently applied. It is not possible nor desirable to completely eliminate expert judgment from the evaluation of (eco) toxicity studies. However, it is desirable to introduce measures that increase structure and transparency in the evaluation process so as to provide scientifically robust risk assessments that can be used for regulatory decision making. In this article we present results from workshop exercises with Nordic experts to illustrate how experts' evaluations regarding the reliability and relevance of (eco) toxicity studies for risk assessment may vary and discuss methods intended to promote structure and transparency in the evaluation process.

  • 44. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Dollard, Maureen F.
    Benchmarks for Evidence-Based Risk Assessment with the Swedish Version of the 4-Item Psychosocial Safety Climate Scale2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 22, article id 8675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to validate the short version of The Psychosocial Safety Climate questionnaire (PSC-4, Dollard, 2019) and to establish benchmarks indicating risk levels for use in Sweden. Cross-sectional data from (1) a random sample of employees in Sweden aged 25-65 years (n = 2847) and (2) a convenience sample of non-managerial employees from 94 workplaces (n = 3066) were analyzed. Benchmarks for three PSC risk levels were developed using organizational compliance with Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) regulations as criterion. The results support the validity and usefulness of the Swedish PSC-4 as an instrument to indicate good, fair, and poor OSH practices. The recommended benchmark for indicating good OSH practices is an average score of >12.0, while the proposed cutoff for poor OSH practices is a score of <= 8.0 on the PSC-4. Scores between these benchmarks indicate fair OSH practices. Furthermore, aggregated data on PSC-4 supported its reliability as a workplace level construct and its association with quantitative demands, quality of leadership, commitment to the workplace, work engagement, job satisfaction, as well as stress and burnout. Thus, the Swedish version of PSC-4 can be regarded as a valid and reliable measure for both research and practical use for risk assessment at workplaces.

  • 45. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Burr, Hermann
    Validation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire Version III and Establishment of Benchmarks for Psychosocial Risk Management in Sweden2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 9, article id 3179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the Swedish standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ III, and investigates its reliability and validity at individual and workplace levels with the aim of establishing benchmarks for the psychosocial work environment. Cross-sectional data from (1) a random sample of employees in Sweden aged 25-65 years (N = 2847) and (2) a convenience sample of non-managerial employees at 51 workplaces (N = 1818) were analysed. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated as well as the effects of sex, work sector and blue/white-collar work. Population benchmarks and mean scores for major occupational groups were computed based on weighted data. ICC(1) and ICC(2) estimates were computed to evaluate aggregation to the workplace level and Pearson inter-correlations to evaluate construct validity at individual and aggregated levels. The reliability and scale characteristics were satisfactory, with few exceptions, at both individual and workplace levels. The strength and direction of correlations supported the construct validity of the dimensions and the amount of variance explained by workplace justified aggregation to the workplace level. The present study thus supports the use of COPSOQ III for measurement at the workplace level and presents benchmarks for risk management as well as for research purposes.

  • 46. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hakanen, Jari J.
    Kristensen, Tage S.
    It is not just about occupation, but also about where you work2017In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 372-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Dentistry is characterized by a meaningful but also stressful psychosocial working environment. Job satisfaction varies among staff working under different organizational forms. The aim of this study was to identify (i) to what extent crucial psychosocial work environment characteristics differ among occupations in general public dental clinics in Sweden, and (ii) how much of the variation within each occupation is attributable to the organizational level. Methods: All staff (N=1782) employed in four public dental organizations received an email with personal log-in to an electronic questionnaire based on the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. After two reminders, a response rate of 75% was obtained. Responses from 880 nonmanagerial dentists, dental hygienists and dental nurses working in general practices were included in our analyses. Results: First, we compared the three dental occupations. We found that job demands, task resources (eg influence, possibilities for development and role clarity), strain symptoms and attitudes to work differed among occupations, dentists having the least favourable situation. Next, we compared the four organizations for each occupational group, separately. For dentists, a significant and relevant amount of variance (P<.05 and ICC >.05) was explained by the organizational level for 15 of 26 subscales, least pronounced for task resources. By contrast, for dental nurses and hygienists, the corresponding number was 2 subscales of 26. The psychosocial working environment of people working at the organization with the highest levels of strain indicators and the least positive work-related attitudes differed systematically from the organization with the most favourable profile, in particular regarding job demands and leadership aspects. Conclusion: In conclusion, the psychosocial working environment depended to a large degree on occupation and, for dentists in particular, also on their organizational affiliation. The findings suggest a potential for designing interventions at organizational level for improvements of the psychosocial working environment for dentists.

  • 47. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hadzibajramovic, Emina
    Construct validity of a global scale for Workplace Social Capital based on COPSOQ III2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 8, article id e0221893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim

    Workplace Social Capital has been suggested as a useful concept when addressing organizational and social factors of the work environment. The overall aim of the present study is to establish and evaluate the construct validity of a measure of Workplace Social Capital based on the operationalization suggested in the third version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial questionnaire.

    Methods

    The present study is based on data collected as part of a validation and development project for the use of the Swedish version of COPSOQ at workplaces and includes responses from 1316 human service workers answering a workplace survey. Six items from scales for organizational justice, vertical trust and horizontal trust in COPSOQ III were included in the analyses. Rasch Analysis was used for scale validation.

    Results

    The analyses showed that the psychometric properties of the suggested COPSOQ scale for Workplace Social Capital were satisfactory after accommodation for local dependency. Each individual item worked as intended, the scale was unidimensional and functioned invariantly for women and men, and for younger and older employees. The scale was furthermore found to be valid for use for distinguishing groups, not individuals.

    Conclusion

    We have established that the scale for Workplace Social Capital measured by COPSOQ III is valid for distinguishing groups, e.g. work teams. The scale exhibits good construct validity as it satisfies the measurement criteria defined by the Rasch model.

  • 48. Beute, F.
    et al.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Aries, M. B. C.
    The relationship of light exposure to sleep outcomes among office workers. Part 2: Comparison of days with and without social constraints2022In: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social constraints posed by work schedules influence sleep duration and timing. Everyday light exposure can help (or hinder) sleep outcomes. This study investigated the differences in the relationship between light exposure and sleep outcomes on days with and without social constraints using ambulatory assessment for 4–6 weeks for 15 office employees. The effects of light on sleep were investigated for both clock time and wake time (related to individual sleep times). Participants were exposed to more light during the morning and afternoon on workdays, and sleep times were later on days without social constraints. The relationship between light exposure and sleep was more pronounced, or sometimes even only present, for days without social constraints. In addition, no differences were found between clock time and wake time, which underlines the complexity of the relationship between everyday light exposure and sleep. Despite increased light exposure during workdays, the effects of light on sleep were more pronounced on days without social constraints. It may signal that office workers need a more substantial circadian stimulus (i.e. higher light exposure) for light to influence sleep outcomes on days with social constraints.

  • 49. Bjorvatn, Bjørn
    et al.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Pallesen, Ståle
    Waage, Siri
    Vedaa, Øystein
    Blytt, Kjersti M.
    Buchvold, Hogne
    Moen, Bente E.
    Thun, Eirunn
    The Association Between Shift Work and Immunological Biomarkers in Nurses2020In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 8, article id 415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Shift work is associated with several negative health effects. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear, but low-grade inflammation has been suggested to play a role. This project aimed to determine whether levels of immunological biomarkers differ depending on work schedule, self-reported sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality, and presence of shift work disorder (study 1). Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether these biomarkers differ after a night of sleep vs. at the end of a night or a day shift (study 2).

    Methods: In study 1, 390 nurses provided blood samples after a night of sleep with the dried blood spot method. In study 2, a subset of 55 nurses also provided blood samples after a day shift and after a night shift. The following biomarkers were measured: interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, interleukin-13, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Multiple linear regressions with adjustment for age, sex and body mass index (study 1) and ANOVAs with repeated measures (study 2) were conducted.

    Results: In study 1, neither work schedule, number of night shifts, number of quick returns (<11 h between consecutive shifts), sleep duration, poor sleep quality, nor shift work disorder were systematically associated with most of these biomarkers. Compared with day only work, day-evening work was associated with higher levels of IL-1alpha and IL-13, quick returns were associated with higher levels of IL-1beta and MCP-1, short sleep duration (<6 h) was associated with lower levels of IL-1beta and higher levels of TNF-alpha, and long sleep duration (8+ h) was associated with higher levels of IL-13. In study 2, IL-1beta levels were higher (large effect size) both after a day shift (14% increase) and a night shift (75% increase) compared with levels after a night of sleep. Similarly, TNF-alpha levels were higher (moderate-large effect size) after a day shift (50% increase) compared to after a night of sleep. In contrast, MCP-1 levels were lower (large effect size) both after a day shift (22% decrease) and a night shift (12% decrease) compared with after a night of sleep.

    Conclusions: We found some indications that shift work influenced immunological biomarkers. The results should be interpreted with caution due to limitations, e.g., related to the sampling procedure and to low levels of biomarkers in the blood samples.

  • 50. Bjuhr, Marie
    et al.
    Engstrom, Maria
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Lindberg, Magnus
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    Incentives behind and Experiences of Being Active in Working Life after Age 65 in Sweden2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 23, article id 15490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since individual and societal expectations regarding the possibility of an extended working life after the expected retirement age are increasing, research on sustainable working life combined with healthy ageing is needed. This study explores the incentives behind and experiences of an extended working life after the expected retirement age of 65 among Swedish people. The inductive qualitative content analyses are based on 18 individual semi-structured interviews among persons 67–90 years old with varying characteristics and varying experiences of extended working lives. The analyses revealed that working contributed to (1) sustained internal resources, i.e., cognitive function, physical ability and increased vigor; (2) sustained external resources, i.e., social enrichment, better daily routines and economic benefits; (3) added meaningfulness to life, i.e., being needed, capability and satisfaction with working tasks. Meanwhile, having flexible working conditions enabled a satisfying balance between work and leisure. Altogether, these different aspects of overall health and working life were interpreted as contributing to increased feelings of vitality, the innermost dimension of health. Conclusions: regardless of biological age, our results indicate that being able to remain active in working life can be beneficial to vitality and could make these results valuable for both health-care personnel and employers.

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