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  • 1.
    Aasa, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vryonidis, Efstathios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Internal Doses of Glycidol in Children and Estimation of Associated Cancer Risk2019In: toxics, ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general population is exposed to the genotoxic carcinogen glycidol via food containing refined edible oils where glycidol is present in the form of fatty acid esters. In this study, internal (in vivo) doses of glycidol were determined in a cohort of 50 children and in a reference group of 12 adults (non-smokers and smokers). The lifetime in vivo doses and intakes of glycidol were calculated from the levels of the hemoglobin (Hb) adduct N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine in blood samples from the subjects, demonstrating a fivefold variation between the children. The estimated mean intake (1.4 mu g/kg/day) was about two times higher, compared to the estimated intake for children by the European Food Safety Authority. The data from adults indicate that the non-smoking and smoking subjects are exposed to about the same or higher levels compared to the children, respectively. The estimated lifetime cancer risk (200/10(5)) was calculated by a multiplicative risk model from the lifetime in vivo doses of glycidol in the children, and exceeds what is considered to be an acceptable cancer risk. The results emphasize the importance to further clarify exposure to glycidol and other possible precursors that could give a contribution to the observed adduct levels.

  • 2. Ainsbury, E A
    et al.
    Bakhanova, E
    Barquinero, J F
    Brai, M
    Chumak, V
    Correcher, V
    Darroudi, F
    Fattibene, P
    Gruel, G
    Guclu, I
    Horn, S
    Jaworska, A
    Kulka, U
    Lindholm, C
    Lloyd, D
    Longo, A
    Marrale, M
    Monteiro Gil, O
    Oestreicher, U
    Pajic, J
    Rakic, B
    Romm, H
    Trompier, F
    Veronese, I
    Voisin, P
    Vral, A
    Whitehouse, C A
    Wieser, A
    Woda, C
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Rothkamm, K
    REVIEW OF RETROSPECTIVE DOSIMETRY TECHNIQUES FOR EXTERNAL IONISING RADIATION EXPOSURES.2011In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 147, no 4, p. 573-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements.

  • 3.
    Albrecht, Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Swansea University, UK.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. Methods: The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Results: Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Conclusions: Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components 'control over daily hours' and 'control over time off'. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements.

  • 4. Alexanderson, K.
    et al.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vahtera, J.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Melchior, M.
    Zins, M.
    Goldberg, M.
    Head, J.
    Diagnosis-specific sick leave as a long-term predictor of disability pension: a 13-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study2012In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 155-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Factors that increase the risk of labour market exclusion are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the extent to which all-cause and diagnosis-specific sick leave predict subsequent disability pension (DP).

    Methods Prospective cohort study of 20 434 persons employed by the French national gas and electric company (the GAZEL study). New sick-leave spells >7 days in 1990–1992 were obtained from company records. Follow-up for DP was from 1994 to 2007.

    Results The HR, adjusted for age and occupational position, for DP was 3.5 (95% CI 2.7 to 4.5) in men and 2.6 (95% CI 1.9 to 3.5) in women with one or more sick-leave spells >7 days compared with those with no sick leave. The strongest predictor of DP was sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis, HR 7.6 (95% CI 5.2 to 10.9) for men and 4.1 (95% CI 2.9 to 5.9) for women. Corresponding HRs for sick leave due to circulatory diagnoses in men and women were 5.6 (95% CI 3.7 to 8.6) and 3.1 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.3), for respiratory diagnoses 3.9 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.8) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 4.0), and musculoskeletal diagnoses 4.6 (95% CI 3.4 to 6.4) and 3.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.8), respectively.

    Conclusions Sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis is a major risk factor for subsequent DP, especially among men. Sick leave due to musculoskeletal or circulatory disorders was also a strong predictor of DP. Diagnosis-specific sick leave should be recognised as an early risk marker for future exclusion from the labour market.

  • 5.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Augustine, Lilly
    Peer acceptance in the school class and subjective health complaints: a multilevel approach2013In: Journal of School Health, ISSN 0022-4391, E-ISSN 1746-1561, Vol. 83, no 10, p. 690-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Feeling accepted by peers is important for young people's health but few studies have examined the overall degree of acceptance in school and its health consequences. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether health complaints among Swedish students can be attributed to the acceptance climate in their school class even when the health effects of their own (individual) acceptance score have been taken into account. METHODS: The data used were from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study for the years 2001 to 2002, 2005 to 2006, and 2009 to 2010, consisting of 13,902 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade Swedish students nested into 742 school classes. The statistical analyses were performed by means of linear regression multilevel analysis. RESULTS: The results indicated that the variation in subjective health complaints could be ascribed partly to the school-class level (boys: 5.0%; girls: 13.5%). Peer acceptance at the individual level demonstrated a clear association with health: the lower the acceptance, the higher the complaint scores. For girls, but not for boys, the overall degree of peer acceptance in the school class demonstrated a contextual effect on health, net of acceptance at the student level. Interaction analyses also revealed an increasingly favorable health among poorly accepted girls as the acceptance climate in the school class declined. CONCLUSIONS: A lower overall degree of peer acceptance in the school class is associated with poorer health among girls. However, girls who

  • 6.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Friendship network characteristics and psychological well-being in late adolescence: Exploring differences by gender and gender composition2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between friendship networks and psychological well-being among 19-year-olds. Methods: The data used was a random sample of Swedish individuals born in 1990 who answered a questionnaire in 2009-2010. Friendship networks were considered in terms of three measures of emotional support. Six statements about the individual's emotional state were used to create a summary measure of psychological well-being. Gender and gender composition were included as potentially moderating factors. The association between friendship networks and psychological well-being was analysed by means of linear regression analysis (n = 1289). Results: The results indicate that males' and females' friendship networks were similar with regard to quality and trust, whereas males' networks were characterized by less self-disclosure and a stronger preference for same-gender friendships. Gender composition did not matter for the support levels. Emotional support was associated with psychological well-being but there were gender differences: females seemed to benefit more health-wise from having high-quality (and trusting) networks. Moreover, whereas self-disclosure among males was positively linked to well-being, this was not the case among females. None of these associations were moderated by gender composition. Conclusions: In sum, friendship networks are beneficial for the psychological well-being among late adolescents, but there are some important differences according to gender.

  • 7. Anund, A.
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fors, C.
    Ihlström, J.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Söderström, B.
    Bussförares arbetstider kopplat till trötthet [Bus drivers' working hours and the relationship to fatigue]2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Fors, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day.

    Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers.

    Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness.

    Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  • 9. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Hallvig, David
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Observer rated sleepiness and real road driving: an explorative study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e64782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1) one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2) one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant's sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers' impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r = .588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r = .360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs.

  • 10. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Fors, Carina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Filtness, Ashleigh
    Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers2016In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  • 11.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Taloyan, Marina
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Associations Between Being 'locked-In' and Health - An Epidemiological Study2019In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 71-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between an individual's level of perceived control over labor market position (locked-in and not locked-in) and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods. A representative sample (n = 11,675) of the working population in southern Sweden responded to a questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents worked in their preferred workplace and occupation. Nineteen percent reported being in a nonpreferred workplace and nonpreferred occupation (double locked-in). Twenty-three percent reported suboptimal health compared with 31% among the double locked-in. The risk of suboptimal health was elevated in all locked-in groups also after adjustment for background variables and job strain. In the double locked-in group, the fully adjusted odds ratio for suboptimal health was 1.72 (95% confidence interval 1.49-1.99) and for suboptimal psychological well-being 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.84-2.56). Odds ratio for the other locked-in groups was lower but still statistically significant. Conclusions. Being at a nonpreferred work-place or occupation was associated with impaired health.

  • 12.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations? Evidence from a Swedish national cohort2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 310-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in burnout, self-rated health (SRH) and sickness absence between human service occupations (HSOs) and other occupations, and whether they can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population (n = 4408). Employment in HSOs, psychosocial work environment and organizational resources in 2012 predicted relative risks of sickness absence, burnout and suboptimal SRH in 2014 using modified Poisson regressions. The psychosocial work factors' and organizational resource variables' relative importance were estimated by adding them to the models one by one, and with population attributable fractions (PAFs). Results: Employment in HSOs was associated with a higher risk of sickness absence and the risk was explained by psychosocial and organizational factors, particularly high emotional demands, low work-time control and exposure to workplace violence. Employment in HSOs was not associated with burnout after sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, and furthermore not with SRH. A lower risk of suboptimal SRH was found in HSOs than in other occupations with equivalent psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. PAFs indicated that psychosocial work environment and organizational resource improvements could lead to morbidity reductions for all outcomes; emotional demands were more important in HSOs. Conclusions: HSOs had higher risks of sickness absence and burnout than other occupations. The most important work factors to address were high emotional demands, low work-time control, and exposure to workplace violence.

  • 13. Axelsson, J.
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Gustavsson, P.
    Rudman, A.
    Selection into shift and night work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Beckers, Debby G. J.
    et al.
    Kompier, Michiel A. J.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Härmä, Mikko
    Worktime control: theoretical conceptualization, current empirical knowledge, and research agenda2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 291-297Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15. Beelen, Rob
    et al.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
    Xun, Wei W.
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Houthuijs, Danny
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Oudin, Anna
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Olsson, David
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Lanki, Timo
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Oftedal, Bente
    Aamodt, Geir
    Nafstad, Per
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Penell, Johanna
    Korek, Michal
    Pyko, Andrei
    Thorup Eriksen, Kirsten
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Becker, Thomas
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Bots, Michiel
    Meliefste, Kees
    Wang, Meng
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Kraemer, Ursula
    Heinrich, Joachim
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Key, Timothy
    Peters, Annette
    Cyrys, Josef
    Concin, Hans
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ineichen, Alex
    Schaffner, Emmanuel
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Dratva, Julia
    Ducret-Stich, Regina
    Vilier, Alice
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Grioni, Sara
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Galassi, Claudia
    Migliore, Enrica
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Tamayo, Ibon
    Amiano, Pilar
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Katsoulis, Michail
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Vineis, Paolo
    Hoek, Gerard
    Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality An Analysis of 22 European Cohorts2014In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 368-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposure to several air pollutants with all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, as well as with specific cardiovascular causes of death. Methods: Data from 22 European cohort studies were used. Using a standardized protocol, study area-specific air pollution exposure at the residential address was characterized as annual average concentrations of the following: nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); particles with diameters of less than 2.5 mu m (PM2.5), less than 10 mu m (PM10), and 10 mu m to 2.5 mu m (PMcoarse); PM2.5 absorbance estimated by land-use regression models; and traffic indicators. We applied cohort-specific Cox proportional hazards models using a standardized protocol. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain pooled effect estimates. Results: The total study population consisted of 367,383 participants, with 9994 deaths from CVD (including 4,992 from ischemic heart disease, 2264 from myocardial infarction, and 2484 from cerebrovascular disease). All hazard ratios were approximately 1.0, except for particle mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality; for PM2.5, the hazard ratio was 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0.87-1.69) per 5 mu g/m(3) and for PM10, 1.22 (0.91-1.63) per 10 mu g/m(3). Conclusion: In a joint analysis of data from 22 European cohorts, most hazard ratios for the association of air pollutants with mortality from overall CVD and with specific CVDs were approximately 1.0, with the exception of particulate mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality for which there was suggestive evidence for an association.

  • 16. Belenky, Gregory
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Wasensten, Nancy J.
    Introduction2016In: Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine / [ed] Meir Kryger, Thomas Roth, William C. Dement, Elsevier, 2016, 6, p. 679-681Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bellavia, Andrea
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Wolk, Alicja
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol.
    Orsini, Nicola
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol.
    Sleep Duration and Survival Percentiles Across Categories of Physical Activity2014In: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 179, no 4, p. 484-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between long sleep duration and death is not fully understood. Long sleep is associated with low physical activity, which is a strong predictor of death. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep duration and death across categories of total physical activity in a large prospective cohort of Swedish men and women. We followed a population-based cohort of 70,973 participants (37,846 men and 33,127 women), aged 45-83 years, from January 1998 to December 2012. Sleep duration and physical activity levels were assessed through a questionnaire. We evaluated the association of interest in terms of mortality rates by estimating hazard ratios with Cox regression and in terms of survival by evaluating 15th survival percentile differences with Laplace regression. During 15 years of follow-up, we recorded 14,575 deaths (8,436 men and 6,139 women). We observed a significant interaction between sleep duration and physical activity in predicting death (P < 0.001). Long sleep duration (>8 hours) was associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio = 1.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.39) and shorter survival (15th percentile difference = -20 months; 95% confidence interval: -30, -11) among only those with low physical activity. The association between long sleep duration and death might be partly explained by comorbidity with low physical activity.

  • 18. Bergvall, Tomas
    et al.
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Lindquist, Marie
    vigiGrade: A Tool to Identify Well-Documented Individual Case Reports and Highlight Systematic Data Quality Issues2014In: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual case safety reports of suspected harm from medicines are fundamental to post-marketing surveillance. Their value is directly proportional to the amount of clinically relevant information they include. To improve the quality of the data, communication between stakeholders is essential and can be facilitated by a simple score and visualisation of the results. The objective of this study was to propose a measure of completeness and identify predictors of well-documented reports, globally. The Uppsala Monitoring Centre has developed the vigiGrade completeness score to measure the amount of clinically relevant information in structured format, without reflecting whether the information establishes causality between the drug and adverse event. The vigiGrade completeness score (C) starts at 1 for reports with information on time-to-onset, age, sex, indication, outcome, report type, dose, country, primary reporter and comments. For each missing dimension, a penalty is detracted which varies with clinical relevance. We classified reports with C > 0.8 as well-documented and identified all such reports in the WHO global individual case safety report database, VigiBase, from 2007 to January 2012. We utilised odds ratios with statistical shrinkage to identify subgroups with unexpectedly high proportions of well-documented reports. Altogether, 430,000 (13 %) of the studied reports achieved C > 0.8 in VigiBase. For VigiBase as a whole, the median completeness was 0.41 with an interquartile range of 0.26-0.63. Two out of three well-documented reports come from Europe, and two out of three from physicians. Among the countries with more than 1,000 reports in total, the highest rate of well-documented reports is 65 % in Italy. Tunisia, Spain, Portugal, Croatia and Denmark each have rates above 50 %, and another 20 countries have rates above 30 %. On the whole, 24 % of the reports from physicians are well-documented compared with only 4 % for consumers/non-health professionals. Notably, Denmark and Norway have more than 50 % well-documented reports from consumers/non-health professionals and higher rates than for physicians. The rate of well-documented reports for the E2B format is 11 % compared with 22 % for the older INTDIS (International Drug Information System) format. However, for E2B reports entered via the WHO programme's e-reporting system VigiFlow, the rate is 29 %. Overall, only one report in eight provides the desired level of information, but much higher proportions are observed for individual countries. Physicians and e-reporting tools also generate greater proportions of well-documented reports overall. Reports from consumers/non-health professionals in specific regions have excellent quality, which illustrates their potential for the future. vigiGrade has already provided valuable information by highlighting data quality issues both in Italy and the USA.

  • 19.
    Bernard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Temporary, self-employed and permanent workers: A Swedish study on work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013In: , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Griep, Yannick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Calgary, Canada.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    How Do Job Insecurity and Organizational Justice Relate to Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Difficulties: A Multilevel Study on Immediate and Prolonged Effects in Swedish Workers2019In: Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on stress and justice literature, we argue that perceptions of job insecurity induce feelings of low procedural justice, which has immediate and prolonged negative effects on health (depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties). Moreover, we explore whether the strength of the job insecurity-justice relationship differs between individuals as a function of their average level of job insecurity over time. Finally, we explore whether the procedural justice-health relationship differs between individuals as a function of variability in justice perceptions over time. We analyzed Swedish panel data from permanent workers over four consecutive waves (with a two-year time lag between waves) using multilevel analysis, separating within- and between-person variance. Results showed that job insecurity associated negatively with procedural justice at the same time point for all waves. Prolonged effects were less stable. We found immediate (but not prolonged) indirect effects of job insecurity on health outcomes via procedural justice. Average levels in job insecurity over time moderated the within-person job insecurity-justice relationship. However, variability in procedural justice over time did not moderate the within-person justice-health relationship. In conclusion, disentangling within- and between-person variability of job insecurity and justice perceptions contributes to the understanding of health effects.

  • 21.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Staying in or switching between permanent, temporary and self-employment during 2008-2010: Associations with changing job characteristics and emotional exhaustion2019In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 215-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour market segmentation theories suggest that permanent and temporary workers are exposed to economic risks to different degrees, and differ in their working life quality and well-being. However, few studies have tested these ideas during times of economic crisis. Also, little is known about how the self-employed compare to permanent and temporary workers and are affected by economic downturns. This study investigated Swedish workers in different labour market segments before and after the financial crisis (2008 and 2010). More specifically, it looked at job characteristics and strain differences between permanent, temporary and self-employed workers. Data (N = 6335) came from SLOSH, a longitudinal representative cohort study of the Swedish workforce. Contradicting segmentation theories, differences between permanent and temporary workers were small. The self-employed stood out with favourable job characteristics, but comparable strain levels. During the crisis, work demands and strain declined for many of the workers studied here.

  • 22. Beronius, A.
    et al.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Making the most of expert judgment in hazard and risk assessment of chemicals2017In: Toxicology Research, ISSN 2045-452X, E-ISSN 2045-4538, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 571-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the reliability and relevance of toxicity and ecotoxicity studies is an integral step in the assessment of the hazards and risks of chemicals. This evaluation is inherently reliant on expert judgment, which often leads to differences between experts' conclusions regarding how individual studies can contribute to the body of evidence. The conclusions of regulatory assessment, such as establishing safe exposure levels for humans and the environment and calculations of margins of exposure, may have large consequences for which chemicals are permitted on the market and their allowed uses. It is therefore important that such assessments are based on all reliable and relevant scientific data, and that assessment principles and assumptions, such as expert judgment, are transparently applied. It is not possible nor desirable to completely eliminate expert judgment from the evaluation of (eco) toxicity studies. However, it is desirable to introduce measures that increase structure and transparency in the evaluation process so as to provide scientifically robust risk assessments that can be used for regulatory decision making. In this article we present results from workshop exercises with Nordic experts to illustrate how experts' evaluations regarding the reliability and relevance of (eco) toxicity studies for risk assessment may vary and discuss methods intended to promote structure and transparency in the evaluation process.

  • 23. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hakanen, Jari J.
    Kristensen, Tage S.
    It is not just about occupation, but also about where you work2017In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 372-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Dentistry is characterized by a meaningful but also stressful psychosocial working environment. Job satisfaction varies among staff working under different organizational forms. The aim of this study was to identify (i) to what extent crucial psychosocial work environment characteristics differ among occupations in general public dental clinics in Sweden, and (ii) how much of the variation within each occupation is attributable to the organizational level. Methods: All staff (N=1782) employed in four public dental organizations received an email with personal log-in to an electronic questionnaire based on the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. After two reminders, a response rate of 75% was obtained. Responses from 880 nonmanagerial dentists, dental hygienists and dental nurses working in general practices were included in our analyses. Results: First, we compared the three dental occupations. We found that job demands, task resources (eg influence, possibilities for development and role clarity), strain symptoms and attitudes to work differed among occupations, dentists having the least favourable situation. Next, we compared the four organizations for each occupational group, separately. For dentists, a significant and relevant amount of variance (P<.05 and ICC >.05) was explained by the organizational level for 15 of 26 subscales, least pronounced for task resources. By contrast, for dental nurses and hygienists, the corresponding number was 2 subscales of 26. The psychosocial working environment of people working at the organization with the highest levels of strain indicators and the least positive work-related attitudes differed systematically from the organization with the most favourable profile, in particular regarding job demands and leadership aspects. Conclusion: In conclusion, the psychosocial working environment depended to a large degree on occupation and, for dentists in particular, also on their organizational affiliation. The findings suggest a potential for designing interventions at organizational level for improvements of the psychosocial working environment for dentists.

  • 24. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld
    Hadzibajramovic, Emina
    Construct validity of a global scale for Workplace Social Capital based on COPSOQ III2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 8, article id e0221893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim

    Workplace Social Capital has been suggested as a useful concept when addressing organizational and social factors of the work environment. The overall aim of the present study is to establish and evaluate the construct validity of a measure of Workplace Social Capital based on the operationalization suggested in the third version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial questionnaire.

    Methods

    The present study is based on data collected as part of a validation and development project for the use of the Swedish version of COPSOQ at workplaces and includes responses from 1316 human service workers answering a workplace survey. Six items from scales for organizational justice, vertical trust and horizontal trust in COPSOQ III were included in the analyses. Rasch Analysis was used for scale validation.

    Results

    The analyses showed that the psychometric properties of the suggested COPSOQ scale for Workplace Social Capital were satisfactory after accommodation for local dependency. Each individual item worked as intended, the scale was unidimensional and functioned invariantly for women and men, and for younger and older employees. The scale was furthermore found to be valid for use for distinguishing groups, not individuals.

    Conclusion

    We have established that the scale for Workplace Social Capital measured by COPSOQ III is valid for distinguishing groups, e.g. work teams. The scale exhibits good construct validity as it satisfies the measurement criteria defined by the Rasch model.

  • 25. Björkenstam, C.
    et al.
    Weitoft, G.R.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Nordstrom, P.
    Hallqvist, J.
    Ljung, R.
    School grades, parental education and suicide: a national register-based cohort study2010In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background To investigate whether school performance is a risk factor for suicide death later in life and, if so, to what extent this is explained by intergenerational effects of parental education.

    Methods This population-based cohort study comprises national birth cohorts between 1972 and 1981 in Sweden. We followed 898 342 students, graduating between 1988 and 1997 from the 9 years of compulsory school, equivalent to junior high school, until 31 December 2006, generating 11 148 758 person-years and 1490 suicides. Final school grades, in six categories, and risk of suicide were analysed with Poisson regression.

    Results The incidence rate ratio (RR) for suicide death for students with the lowest grades was 4.57 (95% CI 2.82 to 7.40) for men and 2.67 (1.42 to 5.01) for women compared to those with highest grades after adjustment for a number of sociodemographic and parental morbidity variables, such as year of graduation, parental education, lone parenthood, household receiving social welfare or disability pension, place of schooling, adoption, maternal age and parent's mental illness. Students with grades in the middle categories had RRs in between. These relationships were not modified by parental education.

    Conclusions The strong association between low school grades and suicide in youth and young adulthood emphasises the importance of both primary and secondary prevention in schools.

  • 26.
    Björklund, Justina A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Aune, M.
    Lignell, S.
    Darnerud, P. O.
    Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane concentrations in dust collected with two sampling methods and matched breast milk samples2012In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 279-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Household dust from 19 Swedish homes was collected using two different sampling methods: from the occupants own home vacuum cleaner after insertion of a new bag and using a researcher-collected method where settled house dust was collected from surfaces above floor level. The samples were analyzed for 16 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Significant correlations (r = 0.600.65, Spearman r = 0.470.54, P < 0.05) were found between matched dust samples collected with the two sampling methods for ?OctaBDE and ?DecaBDE but not for ?PentaBDE or HBCD. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of all PBDE congeners were found in the researcher-collected dust than in the home vacuum cleaner bag dust (VCBD). For HBCD, however, the concentrations were significantly higher in the home VCBD samples. Analysis of the bags themselves indicated no or very low levels of PBDEs and HBCD. This indicates that there may be specific HBCD sources to the floor and/or that it may be present in the vacuum cleaners themselves. The BDE-47 concentrations in matched pairs of VCBD and breast milk samples were significantly correlated (r = 0.514, P = 0.029), indicating that one possible exposure route for this congener may be via dust ingestion. Practical Implications The statistically significant correlations found for several individual polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, ?OctaBDE and ?DecaBDE between the two dust sampling methods in this study indicate that the same indoor sources contaminate both types of dust or that common processes govern the distribution of these compounds in the indoor environment. Therefore, either method is adequate for screening ?OctaBDE and ?DecaBDE in dust. The high variability seen between dust samples confirms results seen in other studies. For hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), divergent results in the two dust types indicate differences in contamination sources to the floor than to above-floor surfaces. Thus, it is still unclear which dust sampling method is most relevant for HBCD as well as for ?PentaBDE in dust and, further, which is most relevant for determining human exposure to PBDEs and HBCD.

  • 27. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Work-Home Interference and Burnout A Study Based on Swedish Twins2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 361-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study sets out to investigate the impact of work-home interference on burnout in women and men, while taking genetic and family environmental factors into account. Methods: A total of 4446 Swedish twins were included in the study. The effects of work-home conflict (WHC) and home-work conflict (HWC) on burnout between and within pairs were analyzed with co-twin control analyses. Results: Both WHC and HWC were significantly associated with burnout. Genetic factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. Familial factors were not involved for WHC and burnout, neither for women nor for men. Conclusions: This study shows the importance to encounter WHC per se to prevent burnout. Because of genetic confounding in HWC and burnout in women, preventive efforts may also take into account individual characteristics.

  • 28.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    An explorative review of the Lean office concept2013In: Journal of Corporate Real Estate, ISSN 1463-001X, E-ISSN 1479-1048, Vol. 15, no 3/4, p. 167-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The concept of Lean office design has emerged, claiming to support an efficient labour process. This article aims to investigate how the two main perspectives identified in the Lean office: the neo-Tayloristic approach and the team-based approach, based in different historical backgrounds, use the office design to shorten lead time and free up time.

    Design/methodology/approach – An extensive review is done in the article of what the Lean office concept means for different research areas and to practitioners.

    Findings – The study presents the two Lean office perspectives in relation to each other, something that has not been done before since it is only recently the team-based Lean office was introduced. The study also presents possible risk and benefits of two perspectives from an employee and organizational perspective.

    Research limitations/implications – Since this is a first exploratory review of the Lean office concept based on theories and examples from design practice, further empirical studies are needed to determine risks and benefits of the concept.

    Practical implications – The clarifying examples in the article make it useful for people involved in the design and building process of offices.

    Originality/value – The article brings together the fields of labour process, office research and facility management with the design practice and presents the two perspectives Lean office design in relation to each other, which has not been done before since the team-based Lean office has only recently been introduced.

  • 29.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lean i arbetslivet: Lean inom kontorsdesign2013In: Lean i arbetslivet / [ed] Per Sederblad, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 162-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    L'impact de la conception architecturale des bureaux sur le confort et le bien-être des employés [The impact of architectural design offices in the comfort and well-being of employees]2013In: Le confort au travail: Que nous apprend la psychologie environnementale? [Comfort at work: What can we learn from environmental psychology?] / [ed] Liliane Rioux, Jeanne Le Roy, Lolita Rubens, Johanna Le Conte, Presses de l'Université Laval , 2013, p. 17-39Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. School of Architecture, School of Architecture & Built Environment, The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Office type's association to employees' welfare: Three studies2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 779-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The workplace is important for employees' daily life and well-being. This article investigates exploratory the office design's role for employees' welfare from different perspectives.

    OBJECTIVE: By comparing different studies of the office, type's influence on different factors of employees' welfare the aim is to see if any common patterns exist in office design's impact.

    METHODS: The three included studies investigate office type's association with employees' welfare by measuring its influence on: a) perception of leadership, b) sick leave, and c) job satisfaction.The sample consists of office employees from a large, national representative work environment survey that work in one of the seven identified office types in contemporary office design: (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Statistical method used is multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis with adjustment for background factors.

    RESULTS: Overall results show that shared-room office, traditional open plan offices and flex-office stand out negatively, but to different degree(s) on the different outcomes measured.

    CONCLUSIONS: This explorative comparison of different studies finds a pattern of office types that repeatedly show indications of negative influence on employees' welfare, but further studies are needed to clarify this.

  • 32. Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Office Employees' Perception of Workspace Contribution: A Gender and Office Design Perspective2019In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 51, no 9-10, p. 995-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study, we investigated the relationship between office design and employee perception of its contribution to job satisfaction, comfort, and performance. The study includes 4,352 employees in seven different office designs. Associations between workspace satisfaction and perceived access to supportive facilities (ancillary spaces for concentrated work and for different meetings) were also investigated since these factors may be related to employees' workspace satisfaction. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed separately for men and women with adjustments for age and education. Supplementary correlation analyses were performed between workspace satisfaction and perceived access to supportive facilities. Results showed differences between employees' workspace satisfaction in studied office designs. Those with the lowest ratings of access to supportive facilities reported the lowest degree of satisfaction. The best results were found in cell-offices and the worst ones in hot-desking offices. Gender differences were also observed.

  • 33. Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Ström, Peter
    Aslan, Anna K. Dahl
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Shift work and cognitive aging: a longitudinal study2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 485-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed. Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986-2012. Night work history (ever/never) from 1998-2002 was available from a subsample (N = 320). Early adult cognitive test scores were available for 77 men. Results In latent growth curve modeling, there were no main effects of any-type or night shift work on the mean scores or rate of change in any of the cognitive domains. An interaction effect between any-type shift work and education on cognitive performance at retirement was noted. Lower-educated shift workers performed better on cognitive tests than lower-educated day workers at retirement. Sensitivity analyses, however, indicated that the interactions appeared to be driven by selection effects. Lower-educated day workers demonstrated poorer cognitive ability in early adulthood than lower-educated shift workers, who may have selected jobs entailing higher cognitive demand. Conclusion There was no difference in late-life cognitive aging between individuals with a history of working shifts compared to those who had typical day work schedules during midlife.

  • 34. Brooks, Steven J.
    et al.
    Harman, Christopher
    Grung, Merete
    Farmen, Eivind
    Ruus, Anders
    Vingen, Sjur
    Godal, Brit F.
    Barsiene, Janina
    Andreikenaite, Laura
    Skarpheoinsdottir, Halldora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sundt, Rolf C.
    Water Column Monitoring of the Biological Effects of Produced Water from the Ekofisk Offshore Oil Installation from 2006 to 20092011In: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, ISSN 1528-7394, E-ISSN 1087-2620, Vol. 74, no 7-9, p. 582-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian water column monitoring program investigates the biological effects of offshore oil and gas activities in Norwegian waters. In three separate surveys in 2006, 2008, and 2009, bioaccumulation and biomarker responses were measured in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) held in cages at known distances from the produced water (PW) discharge at the Ekofisk oil field. Identical monitoring studies performed in all three years have allowed the biological effects and bioaccumulation data to be compared, and in addition, enabled the potential environmental benefits of a PW treatment system (CTour), implemented in 2008, to be evaluated. The results of the 2009 survey showed that caged animals were exposed to low levels of PW components, with highest tissue concentrations in mussels located closest to the PW discharge. Mussels located approximately 1-2 km away demonstrated only background concentrations of target compounds. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkyl phenol (AP) metabolites in the bile of caged cod were elevated at stations 200-250 m from the discharge. There was also a signal of exposure relative to discharge for the biomarkers CYP1A in fish and micronuclei in mussels. All other fish and mussel biomarkers showed no significant exposure effects in 2009. The mussel bioaccumulation data in 2009 indicated a lower exposure to the PW effluent than seen previously in 2008 and 2006, resulting in an associated general improvement in the health of the caged mussels. This was due to the reduction in overall discharge of PW components (measured as oil in water) into the area in 2009 compared to previous years as a result of the improved PW treatment system.

  • 35. Bruckner, Tim .A.
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Cold ambient temperature in utero and birth outcomes in Uppsala, Sweden, 1915 to 19292014In: Annals of Epidemiology, ISSN 1047-2797, E-ISSN 1873-2585, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 116-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Although the literature reports adverse birth outcomes following ambient heat, less work focuses on cold. We, moreover, know of no studies of cold that examine stillbirth. We tested the relation between cold ambient temperature during pregnancy in Sweden and four outcomes: stillbirth, preterm, birth weight for gestational age, and birth length. We examined births from 1915 to 1929 in Uppsala, Sweden, which—unlike most societies today—experienced substandard indoor-heating and fewer amenities to provide shelter from cold.

    Methods

    We retrieved data on almost 14,000 deliveries from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Study. We linked a validated, daily ambient temperature series to all pregnancies and applied Cox proportional hazards (stillbirth and preterm) and linear regression models (birth weight and length). We tested for nonlinearity using quadratic splines.

    Results

    The risk of stillbirth rose as ambient temperature during pregnancy fell (hazard ratio for a 1°C decrease in temperature, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.17). Cold extremes adversely affected preterm and birth length, whereas warm extremes increased preterm risk. We observed no relation between cold and birth weight for gestational age.

    Conclusion

    In historical Sweden, cold temperatures during pregnancy increased stillbirth and preterm risk and reduced birth length among live births.

  • 36. Bustamante, Mariona
    et al.
    Hernandez-Ferrer, Caries
    Sarria, Yaris
    Harrison, Graham I.
    Nonell, Lara
    Kang, Wenjing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Friedlander, Marc R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Estivill, Xavier
    Gonzalez, Juan R.
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Young, Antony R.
    The acute effects of ultraviolet radiation on the blood transcriptome are independent of plasma 25OHD(3)2017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, p. 239-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular basis of many health outcomes attributed to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that they may originate from transcriptional changes in blood cells. This was determined by assessing the effect of fluorescent solar simulated radiation (FSSR) on the transcriptional profile of peripheral blood pre- and 6 h, 24 h and 48 h post-exposure in nine healthy volunteers. Expression of 20 genes was down regulated and one was up-regulated at 6 h after FSSR. All recovered to baseline expression at 24 h or 48 h. These genes have been associated with immune regulation, cancer and blood pressure; health effects attributed to vitamin D via solar UVR exposure. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 [250HD(3)] levels increased over time after FSSR and were maximal at 48 h. The increase was more pronounced in participants with low basal 250HD(3) levels. Mediation analyses suggested that changes in gene expression due to FSSR were independent of 250HD(3) and blood cell subpopulations.

  • 37. Celeste, Roger Keller
    et al.
    Nadanovsky, Paulo
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Trends in socioeconomic disparities in the utilization of dental care in Brazil and Sweden2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 640-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To describe trends in socioeconomic disparities in utilization of dental care. Methods: We obtained cross-sectional data from Sweden in the period 1968-2000 and from Brazil in 1986 and 2002 for 16 state capitals. The outcome was the percentage of people who reported that they had visited the dentist in the last 12 months, calculated for a higher and a lower income group and stratified by sex, age (two groups: young and adults) and dental status. Adjusted prevalence differences and prevalence ratios were produced using Poisson regression. Results: In Brazil, there was a decline in use of dental care among the 15-19 year olds in the period 1986-2002, but not among the 35-44 year olds. In Sweden, there was a decline among the young and adults between 1991 and 2000. Overall, socioeconomic disparities in use of dental services between the higher and the lower economic groups showed a decline in both countries. The reduction in disparities among young Brazilians was 1.1 percentage points per year (p < 0.01), but among the other age groups the decline was not significant (p>0.01). In the last surveys, the gap remained in both countries and age groups (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The recent decline in utilization of dental care and in the socioeconomic gap may mirror improvements in oral health. However, there are still relevant and persistent disparities in utilization of dental care in both countries, with a higher proportion of people of higher socioeconomic status visiting the dentist.

  • 38. Chen, Yiqin
    et al.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kaserzon, Sarit
    Wang, Xianyu
    Weijs, Liesbeth
    Gallen, Michael
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Li, Yan
    Aylward, Lesa L.
    Sly, Peter D.
    Mueller, Jochen E.
    Monthly variation in faeces: blood concentration ratio of persistent organic pollutants over the first year of life2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 147, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that the concentrations of a range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in faeces is linearly proportional to the POP concentrations in blood of human adults irrespective of age and gender. In order to investigate the correlation between POP concentrations in faeces and blood in infants, the monthly variation of POP concentrations in faeces over the first year of life of one infant was investigated in this study and compared to modelled blood concentrations. Faecal samples were collected from one male infant daily. The samples were pooled by month and analysed for three selected POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47)). The POP concentrations in faecal samples increased for the first four months by a factor of 2.9, 4.9 and 1.4 for PCB153, BDE47, and p,p'-DDE, respectively. The faecal concentrations of all POPs decreased rapidly following the introduction of formula and solid food to the diet and subsequent weaning of the infant. Further, a one-compartment model was developed to estimate the daily POP concentrations in the blood of the infant. The POP concentrations in blood were predicted to vary much less over the first year than those observed in faeces. The faeces:blood concentration ratio of selected POPs (K-fb) differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between the period before and after weaning, and observed changes in K-fb are far greater than the uncertainty in the estimated K-fb. A more stable K-fb after weaning indicates the possibility of applying the stable K-fb values for non-invasive assessment of internal exposure in infants after weaning. The intra-individual variation in K-fb in infants is worthy of further investigation.

  • 39. da Silva, Marisa
    et al.
    Stadlinger, Nadja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Mmochi, Aviti J.
    Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby
    Marrone, Gaetano
    Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Health Symptoms Among Rice Farmers in Zanzibar2016In: Journal of Agromedicine, ISSN 1059-924X, E-ISSN 1545-0813, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 335-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agrarian population in low- and middle-income countries suffers from a number of adverse health effects due to pesticide exposure. In Zanzibar, the government subsidizes pesticides to enhance local rice production. The objectives of this study were to assess Zanzibar smallholder rice farmers' pesticide use and self-reported health symptoms in relation to pesticide exposure, training, and use of protective measures and to raise awareness for future local policy formulation. An exploratory cross-sectional interviewer-administered study was conducted among 99 rice farmers. Participants were selected based on convenience sampling and stratified by expected exposure category. The study participants reported using pesticides in World Health Organization (WHO) Class II. Of pesticide users, 61% reported one or more symptoms of possible acute pesticide poisoning. Only 50% of pesticide users had received training in safe handling and application of pesticides, but those who had displayed a higher use of protective measures. Farmers who did not use protective measures were more likely to have reported skin irritation and headache, which, together with eye irritation, were the most commonly reported acute symptoms. The main sociodemographic differences between the expected exposure categories of pesticide users and nonusers were in gender and education level. Scaling up of training in safe handling and application of pesticides is needed. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms behind the choice to use pesticides or not.

  • 40. Dahlgren, A.
    et al.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kircher, A.
    Lüthöft, M.
    Barnett, M.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fatiqueat sea: a simulator study of sleepiness, sleep and neurobehavioural performance during different watch schedules2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Different levels of work-related stress and the effects on sleep, fatigue and cortisol2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 277-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods Thirty-four white-collar workers participated under two different conditions. One workweek with a relatively high stress level (H) and one with a lower stress level (L) as measured through self-rated stress during workdays. The workers wore activity monitors, filled out a sleep diary, gave saliva samples (for cortisol), and rated their sleepiness and stress during one workday and one free day. Results During the week with stress the number of workhours increased and total sleep time decreased. Sleepiness showed a significant interaction between weeks and time of day, with particularly high levels towards the evenings of the stress week. Cortisol also showed a significant interaction, with a more flattened pattern, probably due to increased evening levels during the stress week. Stress (restlessness) at bedtime was significantly increased during the stress week. Conclusion The results demonstrate that a workweek with a high workload and much stress increases sleepiness and workhours, impairs sleep, and affects the pattern of diurnal cortisol secretion.

  • 42.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Stockholm.
    Kecklund, Göran
    National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Stockholm.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Stockholm.
    Overtime work and its effects on sleep, sleepiness, cortisol and blood pressure in an experimental field study2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 318-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Previous studies of long workhours and their effects on stress, sleep, and health show inconclusive results. This inconclusiveness may be partly due to methodological problems such as the use of between-group designs or comparisons before and after reorganizations. In addition, stress is usually a confounder. A within-person design was used to examine the effects of working 8- or 12-hour shifts in the absence of additional stress. Methods In an experimental field study, 16 white-collar workers [9 women, mean age 45.9 (SD 15) years] undertook one workweek with normal workhours (8 hours) and 1 week of overtime with 4 extra hours of regular worktasks (12 hours). The participants wore actigraphs, rated sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and stress throughout the day, and rated workload and how exhausted they felt. Saliva samples were collected on Mondays and Thursdays for cortisol analysis. On these days, ambulatory heart rate and blood pressure were also measured for 24 hours. Results Overtime was associated with higher levels of exhaustion. Sleepiness showed a significant interaction between conditions, with higher levels at the end of the workweek featuring overtime. Total sleep time was shorter in the overtime week. There were no significant differences between ratings of stress and workload. Cortisol showed a circadian variation but no main effect of condition. Conclusions One week of overtime work with a moderate workload produced no main effects on physiological stress markers. Nevertheless, sleep was negatively affected, with shorter sleeps during overtime work and greater problems with fatigue and sleepiness.

  • 43.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Swansea University, UK.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Rudman, Ann
    Quick returns and night work as predictors of sleep quality, fatigue, work-family balance and satisfaction with work hours2016In: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 759-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quick returns (intervals of <11 h between the end of one shift and the start of the next) are associated with short sleeps and fatigue on the subsequent shift. Recent evidence suggests that shift workers regard quick returns as being more problematic than night work. The current study explored quick returns and night work in terms of their impact on sleep, unwinding, recovery, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-family interference. Data from the 2006 cohort of Swedish nursing students within the national Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study were analysed (N = 1459). Respondents completed a questionnaire prior to graduation (response rate 69.2%) and 3 years after graduation (65.9%). The analyses examined associations between frequency of quick returns and night work and measures taken in year three, while adjusting for confounding factors (in year three and prior graduation). Frequency of quick returns was a significant predictor of poor sleep quality, short sleeps, unwinding, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-to-family interference, with higher frequency predicting more negative outcomes. Quick returns did not predict recovery after rest days. Frequency of night work did not predict any of the outcomes. In conclusion, quick returns were an important determinant of sleep, recovery and wellbeing, whereas night work did not show such an association.

  • 44.
    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Andel, Ross
    Fors, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Are Occupational Complexity and Socioeconomic Position Related to Psychological Distress 20 Years Later?2015In: Journal of Aging and Health, ISSN 0898-2643, E-ISSN 1552-6887, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 1266-1285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess occupational complexity in midlife in relation to psychological distress in older adulthood (69+ years) and explore the role of socioeconomic position. Method: Baseline data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey and follow-up data from the Swedish Longitudinal Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old were combined, resulting in 20+ years of follow-up. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regressions. Results: Higher occupational complexity was associated with less psychological distress 20 years later adjusted for age, sex, follow-up year, hours worked the year before baseline, and psychological distress at baseline. Higher socioeconomic position yielded the same pattern of results. Socioeconomic position partially accounted for the association between occupational complexity and psychological distress. Discussion: With social gradient not easily amenable to modification, efforts to increase engagement at work may offer a viable option to attenuate the influence of work environment on psychological distress later in life.

  • 45. de Vasconcelos, Carla Aparecida
    et al.
    Vieira, Maurilio Nunes
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Yehia, Hani Camille
    Speech Analysis for Fatigue and Sleepiness Detection of a Pilot2019In: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, ISSN 2375-6314, E-ISSN 2375-6322, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 415-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue and sleepiness are well recognized determinants of human-error related accidents and incidents in aviation. In Brazil, according to the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aeronautical Accidents (CENIPA), the rate of accidents in the aerial modal is 1 per 2 d. Human factors are present in 90% of these accidents. CASE REPORT: This paper describes a retrospective study of the communication between a pilot and an air traffic control tower just before a fatal accident. The objective was the detection of fatigue and sleepiness of a pilot, who complained of these signs and symptoms before the flight, by means of voice and speech analysis.The in-depth accident analysis performed by CENIPA indicated that sleepiness and fatigue most likely contributed to the accident. Speech samples were analyzed for two conditions: 1) nonsleepy data recorded 35 h before the air crash (control condition), which were compared with 2) data from samples collected about 1 h before the accident and also during the disaster (sleepy condition). Audio recording analyses provided objective measures of the temporal organization of speech, such as hesitations, silent pauses, prolongation of final syllables, and syllable articulation rate. DISCUSSION: The results showed that speech during the day of the accident had significantly low elocution and articulation rates compared to the preceding day, also indicating that the methodology adopted in this study is feasible for detection of fatigue and sleepiness through speech analysis.

  • 46.
    Deperas-Kaminska, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Institute of Mother and Child, Poland.
    Bajinskis, Ainars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Marczyk, Michal
    Polanska, Joanna
    Wersäll, Peter
    Lidbrink, Elisabet
    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.
    Guipaud, Oliver
    Benderitter, Marc
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Jan Kochanowski University, Poland.
    RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN LEVELS OF SELECTED PROTEINS IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD SERUM OF BREAST CANCER PATIENTS AS A POTENTIAL TRIAGE BIODOSIMETER FOR LARGE-SCALE RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCIES2014In: Health Physics, ISSN 0017-9078, E-ISSN 1538-5159, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 555-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of a large scale radiological emergency, where thousands of people may require fast biological dosimetry for the purpose of triage, makes it necessary to search for new, high throughput biological dosimeters. The authors tested an assay based on the quantitative analysis of selected proteins in peripheral blood serum. They were particularly interested in testing proteins that are specific to irradiation of skin, as these can be used in cases of partial body exposure. Candidate proteins were identified in an earlier study with mice, where skin of the animals was exposed to different doses of radiation and global expression of serum proteins was analyzed. Eight proteins were found, the expression of which showed a consistent dose-response relationship. Human analogues of these proteins were identified, and their expression was measured in peripheral blood serum of 16 breast cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy. The proteins were Apolipoprotein E; Apolipoprotein H; Complement protein 7; Prothrombinase; Pantothenate Kinase 4; Alpha-2-macroglobulin; Fetuin B and Alpha-1-Anti-Chymotrypsin. Measurements were carried out in blood samples collected prior to exposure (control), on the day after one fraction (2 Gy), on the day after five fractions (10 Gy), on the day after 10 fractions (20 Gy), and 1 mo after 23-25 fractions (total dose of 46-50 Gy). Multivariate analysis was carried out, and a multinomial logistic regression model was built. The results indicate that the combined analysis of Apolipoprotein E, Factor X, and Pantothenate Kinase 4 allows discriminating between exposure to 2 Gy and lower and between 10 Gy and higher. The discrimination is possible up to 1 mo after exposure.

  • 47. Descatha, Alexis
    et al.
    Sembajwe, Grace
    Baer, Michael
    Boccuni, Fabio
    Di Tecco, Cristina
    Duret, Clement
    Evanoff, Bradley A.
    Gagliardi, Diana
    Ivanov, Ivan D.
    Leppink, Nancy
    Marinaccio, Alessandro
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ozguler, Anna
    Pega, Frank
    Pell, John
    Pico, Fernando
    Pruss-Ustun, Annette
    Ronchetti, Matteo
    Roquelaure, Yves
    Sabbath, Erika
    Stevens, Gretchen A.
    Tsutsumi, Akizumi
    Ujita, Yuka
    Iavicoli, Sergio
    WHO/ILO work-related burden of disease and injury: Protocol for systematic reviews of exposure to long working hours and of the effect of exposure to long working hours on stroke2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 119, p. 366-378Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from stroke attributable to exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. Objectives: We aim to systematically review studies on occupational exposure to long working hours (called Systematic Review 1 in the protocol) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of long working hours on stroke (called Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework, conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. Data sources: Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, CISDOC and PsychINFO. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand-search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. Study eligibility and criteria: We will include working-age (>= 15 years) workers in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State, but exclude children (< 15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative prevalence studies of relevant levels of occupational exposure to long working hours (i.e. 35-40, 41-48, 49-54 and >= 55 h/week) stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation, in the years 2005-2018. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the relative effect of a relevant level of long working hours on the incidence of or mortality due to stroke, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e. 35-40 h/week). Study appraisal and synthesis methods: At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2.

  • 48. Dickerson, Aisha S.
    et al.
    Ransome, Yusuf
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Human prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and risk behaviors in adolescence2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 129, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are chemicals used in a variety of products before they were widely banned due to toxic effects in humans and wildlife. Because of continued persistence and ubiquity of these contaminants, risk of exposure to people living in industrialized countries is still high. Experimental research show that developmental exposure to PCB may alter function of brain pleasure centers and potentially influence disinhibitory behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol use. Yet, the potential effects of developmental PCB exposure on adolescent substance use have not been studied in humans. We used the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS), a prospective birth cohort study in the Oakland and East Bay areas of California, to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to PCB congeners (66, 74, 99, 118, 138, 153, 170, 180, 187, and 203) and later disinhibitory behaviors in adolescents, specifically alcohol consumption and smoking, in a randomly selected sample (n = 554). Total prenatal PCB exposure was not associated with disinhibitory behaviors, among adolescents. However, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for being a current smoker, was higher in subjects within the third quartile of maternal PCB 66 exposure compared to those below the median (aOR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05, 3.55). The aOR for drinking > 2 alcoholic beverages per week, were also higher for adolescents within the third (aOR = 1.46; 95% CI 0.86, 2.47) and fourth quartile of PCB 66 exposure (aOR = 1.39; 95% CI 0.83, 2.35), but the differences did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that this specific PCB congener may play a role inducing neurodevelopmental alterations that could potentially increase the risk of becoming a long-term user of tobacco and possibly alcohol. There were no notable differences between magnitude or direction of effect between boys and girls. Future replicate analyses with larger longitudinal samples and animal experimental studies of potential underlying mechanisms are warranted.

  • 49. Downing, Simone
    et al.
    Scott, Laura Louise
    Zguna, Nadezda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Downing, Timothy Grant
    Human Scalp Hair as an Indicator of Exposure to the Environmental Toxin -N-Methylamino-l-alanine2018In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary or aerosol exposure to the environmental neurotoxin -N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is a putative risk factor for the development of sporadic neurodegenerative disease. There are many potential sources of BMAA in the environment, but BMAA presence and quantities are highly variable. It has been suggested that BMAA in human hair may serve as an indicator of exposure. We sought to evaluate the use of the BMAA content of human scalp hair as an indicator of exposure, as well as the correlation between specific lifestyle or dietary habits, reported as hypothesised exposure risk factors, and BMAA in hair. Scalp hair samples and questionnaires were collected from participants in a small residential village surrounding a freshwater impoundment renowned for toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Data suggested a positive correlation between hair BMAA content and consumption of shellfish, and possibly pork. No statistically significant correlations were observed between hair BMAA content and residential proximity to the water or any other variable. Hair BMAA content was highly variable, and in terms of exposure, probably reflects primarily dietary exposure. However, the BMAA content of human hair may be affected to a great extent by several other factors, and as such, should be used with caution when evaluating human BMAA exposure, or correlating exposure to neurodegenerative disease incidence.

  • 50. Dragano, Nico
    et al.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Erbel, Raimund
    Fahlén, Göran
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hamer, Mark
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Knutsson, Anders
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Schupp, Jürgen
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Zins, Marie
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Incident Coronary Heart Disease A Multicohort Study of 90,164 Individuals2017In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 619-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease.

    Methods: This multicohort study (the IPD-Work consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies. Stressful work in 90,164 men and women without coronary heart disease at baseline was assessed by validated effort-reward imbalance and job strain questionnaires. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first nonfatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Study-specific estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis.

    Results: At baseline, 31.7% of study members reported effort-reward imbalance at work and 15.9% reported job strain. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, 1,078 coronary events were recorded. After adjustment for potential confounders, a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.35) was observed for effort-reward imbalance compared with no imbalance. The hazard ratio was 1.16 (1.01-1.34) for having either effort-reward imbalance or job strain and 1.41 (1.12-1.76) for having both these stressors compared to having neither effort-reward imbalance nor job strain.

    Conclusions: Individuals with effort-reward imbalance at work have an increased risk of coronary heart disease, and this appears to be independent of job strain experienced. These findings support expanding focus beyond just job strain in future research on work stress.

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