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  • 1.
    Aasa, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vryonidis, Efstathios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Internal Doses of Glycidol in Children and Estimation of Associated Cancer Risk2019In: toxics, ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general population is exposed to the genotoxic carcinogen glycidol via food containing refined edible oils where glycidol is present in the form of fatty acid esters. In this study, internal (in vivo) doses of glycidol were determined in a cohort of 50 children and in a reference group of 12 adults (non-smokers and smokers). The lifetime in vivo doses and intakes of glycidol were calculated from the levels of the hemoglobin (Hb) adduct N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine in blood samples from the subjects, demonstrating a fivefold variation between the children. The estimated mean intake (1.4 mu g/kg/day) was about two times higher, compared to the estimated intake for children by the European Food Safety Authority. The data from adults indicate that the non-smoking and smoking subjects are exposed to about the same or higher levels compared to the children, respectively. The estimated lifetime cancer risk (200/10(5)) was calculated by a multiplicative risk model from the lifetime in vivo doses of glycidol in the children, and exceeds what is considered to be an acceptable cancer risk. The results emphasize the importance to further clarify exposure to glycidol and other possible precursors that could give a contribution to the observed adduct levels.

  • 2.
    Ahrén, Jennie C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dalman, Christina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Goodman, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
    We are family - parents, siblings, and eating disorders in a prospective total-population study of 250,000 Swedish males and females2013In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 693-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We examined how parental characteristics and other aspects of family background were associated with the development of eating disorders (ED) in males and females.

    Method: We used register data and record linkage to create the prospective, total-population study the Stockholm Youth Cohort. This cohort comprises all children and adolescents who were ever residents in Stockholm County between 2001 and 2007, plus their parents and siblings. Individuals born between 1984 and 1995 (N = 249, 884) were followed up for ED from age 12 to end of 2007. We used Cox regression modeling to investigate how ED incidence was associated with family socioeconomic position, parental age, and family composition.

    Results: In total, 3,251 cases of ED (2,971 females; 280 males) were recorded. Higher parental education independently predicted a higher rate of ED in females [e.g., adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.69 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.02) for degree-level vs. elementary-level maternal education], but not in males [HR 0.73 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.28), p < 0.001 for gender interaction]. In females, an increasing number of full-siblings was associated with lower rate of ED [e.g., fully adjusted HR 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.97) per sibling], whereas an increasing number of half-siblings was associated with a higher rate [HR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.09) per sibling].

    Discussion: The effect of parental education on ED rate varies between males and females, whereas the effect of number of siblings varies according to whether they are full or half-siblings. A deeper understanding of these associations and their underlying mechanisms may provide etiological insights and inform the design of preventive interventions

  • 3.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Höglund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Esfandabad, Hassan Shams
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A bisensory method for odor and irritation detection of formaldehyde and pyridine2012In: CHEMOSENS PERCEPT, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 146-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bisensory method was developed for determining the psychometric functions and absolute thresholds for odor and sensory irritation of two odorous irritants. Individual and group thresholds for formaldehyde or pyridine were measured for 31 age-matched subjects (18-35 years old). P (50) absolute thresholds were for formaldehyde odor 110 ppb (range 23-505), for pyridine odor 77 ppb (range 20-613), and for pyridine irritation 620 ppb (range 90-3,656); too few subjects' formaldehyde irritation thresholds were possible to determine (human exposures limited to 1 ppm). In spite of large interindividual differences, all thresholds for irritation were higher than for odor. The average slopes of the 62 psychometric functions for odor and the 32 possible for sensory irritation were highest for formaldehyde odor (83% per log ppb) and equal for pyridine odor and irritation (68% per log ppb). The bisensory method for measuring odor and sensory irritation jointly produced detection functions and absolute thresholds compatible with those earlier published; however, a steeper slope for sensory irritation than odor was expected for pyridine. The bisensory method is intended for measuring odor and sensory irritation to broadband mixtures and dynamic exposures, like indoor air.

  • 4. Boccardi, Virginia
    et al.
    Calvani, Riccardo
    Limongi, Federica
    Marseglia, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Mason, Alexandra
    Noale, Marianna
    Rogoli, Domenico
    Veronese, Nicola
    Crepaldi, Gaetano
    Maggi, Stefania
    Consensus paper on the executive summary of the international conference on Mediterranean diet and health: a lifelong approach an Italian initiative supported by the Mediterranean Diet Foundation and the Menarini Foundation2018In: Nutrition, ISSN 0899-9007, Vol. 51-52, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mediterranean Diet Foundation, in collaboration with the International Menarini Foundation, organized the International Conference on Mediterranean Diet and Health: A Lifelong Approach. The Conference was held in Ostuni (Puglia, Italy) from March 30 to April 1, 2017. The event received the endorsement of the American Federation for Aging Research, the Research Consortium Luigi Amaducci, the European Nutrition for Health Alliance, the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, the Clinical Section of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics European Region, the National Research Council Research Project on Aging, the Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics, and the Italian Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.During the conference, results were presented from major studies on dietary interventions aiming to assess the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of chronic diseases and the potential underlying mechanisms. Twenty-six international speakers, in seven different sessions, discussed the biological basis, clinical impact, health policy, and behavioral implications of the Mediterranean diet, and its use in potential interventions for health promotion.

  • 5. Borg, Saskia
    et al.
    Seubert, Janina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lipids in Eating and Appetite Regulation - A Neuro-Cognitive Perspective2017In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, ISSN 1438-7697, E-ISSN 1438-9312, Vol. 119, no 12, article id 1700106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foods high in dietary fat provide a particularly energy-rich source of nutrition. A preferred food choice in humans, their intake is thought to contribute substantially to the current obesity epidemic. Fat has recently been proposed to constitute a basic taste; yet, its diverse sensory properties in the olfactory and somatosensory domain, as well as its postingestive effects have made the exact attributes that make its consumption so appealing difficult to disentangle. Recent scientific advances have shed light on the different molecular mechanisms underlying the sensory detection of fat in the periphery, and described their relevance for perceptual experience and eating behavior. However, these different analysis levels are to date poorly integrated, both within each sensory modality, and from a multisensory perspective.

  • 6.
    Cannon, Barbara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    What Ignites UCP1?2017In: Cell Metabolism, ISSN 1550-4131, E-ISSN 1932-7420, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 697-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We thought we knew how the heat-producing uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue was activated: by fatty acids released upon lipid droplet breakdown in the brown adipocytes. However, two studies in this issue (Schreiber et al., 2017; Shin et al., 2017) imply that this classical model may not be valid: heat can be produced in brown fat without intracellular lipolysis.

  • 7. Cheung, L.
    et al.
    Gertow, J.
    Werngren, O.
    Folkersen, L.
    Petrovic, Natasa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Franco-Cereceda, A.
    Eriksson, P.
    Fisher, R. M.
    Human mediastinal adipose tissue displays certain characteristics of brown fat2013In: Nutrition & Diabetes, ISSN 2044-4052, E-ISSN 2044-4052, Vol. 3, no UNSP e66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The amount of intra-thoracic fat, of which mediastinal adipose tissue comprises the major depot, is related to various cardiometabolic risk factors. Autopsy and imaging studies indicate that the mediastinal depot in adult humans could contain brown adipose tissue (BAT). To gain a better understanding of this intra-thoracic fat depot, we examined possible BAT characteristics of human mediastinal in comparison with subcutaneous adipose tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adipose tissue biopsies from thoracic subcutaneous and mediastinal depots were obtained during open-heart surgery from 33 subjects (26 male, 63.7 +/- 13.8 years, body mass index 29.3 +/- 5.1 kg m(-2)). Microarray analysis was performed on 10 patients and genes of interest confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in samples from another group of 23 patients. Adipocyte size was determined and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) protein expression investigated with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The microarray data showed that a number of BAT-specific genes had significantly higher expression in the mediastinal depot than in the subcutaneous depot. Higher expression of UCP1 (24-fold, P < 0.001) and PPARGC1A (1.7-fold, P = 0.0047), and lower expression of SHOX2 (0.12-fold, P < 0.001) and HOXC8 (0.14-fold, P < 0.001) in the mediastinal depot was confirmed by qPCR. Gene set enrichment analysis identified two gene sets related to mitochondria, which were significantly more highly expressed in the mediastinal than in the subcutaneous depot (P < 0.01). No significant changes in UCP1 gene expression were observed in the subcutaneous or mediastinal depots following lowering of body temperature during surgery. UCP1 messenger RNA levels in the mediastinal depot were lower than those in murine BAT and white adipose tissue. In some mediastinal adipose tissue biopsies, a small number of multilocular adipocytes that stained positively for UCP1 were observed. Adipocytes were significantly smaller in the mediastinal than the subcutaneous depot (cross-sectional area 2400 +/- 810 versus 3260 +/- 980 mu m(2), P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Human mediastinal adipose tissue displays some characteristics of BAT when compared with the subcutaneous depot at microscopic and molecular levels.

  • 8. Dixen, Karen
    et al.
    Basse, Astrid L.
    Murholm, Maria
    Isidor, Marie S.
    Hansen, Lillian H. L.
    Petersen, M. Christine H.
    Madsen, Lise
    Petrovic, Natasa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Quistorff, Bjorn
    Hansen, Jacob B.
    ERR gamma Enhances UCP1 Expression and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Brown Adipocytes2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 516-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are important regulators of energy metabolism. Here we investigated the hypothesis that ERR gamma impacts on differentiation and function of brown adipocytes. Design and Methods: We characterize the expression of ERR gamma in adipose tissues and cell models and investigate the effects of modulating ERR? activity on UCP1 gene expression and metabolic features of brown and white adipocytes. Results: ERR gamma was preferentially expressed in brown compared to white fat depots, and ERR gamma was induced during cold-induced browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue and brown adipogenesis. Overexpression of ERR gamma positively regulated uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression levels during brown adipogenesis. This ERR gamma-induced augmentation of UCP1 expression was independent of the presence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha) but was associated with increased rates of fatty acid oxidation in adrenergically stimulated cells. ERR? did not influence mitochondrial biogenesis, and its reduced expression in white adipocytes could not explain their low expression level of UCP1. Conclusions: Through its augmenting effect on expression of UCP1, ERR gamma may physiologically be involved in increasing the potential for energy expenditure in brown adipocytes, a function that is becoming of therapeutic interest.

  • 9. Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Marcus, Claude
    Sleep, physical activity and BMI in six to ten-year-old children measured by accelerometry: a cross-sectional study2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 10, p. 82-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between objective measures of sleep, physical activity and BMI in Swedish pre-adolescents. The day-to-day association between physical activity and sleep quality as well as week-day and weekend pattern of sleep is also described. Method: We conducted a cross sectional study consisted of a cohort of 1.231 children aged six to ten years within the Stockholm county area. Sleep and physical activity were measured by accelerometry during seven consecutive days. Outcome measures are total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep start and sleep end; physical activity intensity divided into: sedentary (<1.5 METS), light (1.5 to 3 METS) and moderate-to-vigorous (> 3 METS); and Body Mass Index standard deviations score, BMIsds. Results: Total sleep time decreased with increasing age, and was shorter in boys than girls on both weekdays and weekends. Late bedtime but consistent wake-up time during weekends made total sleep time shorter on weekends than on weekdays. Day-to-day within-subject analysis revealed that moderate-to-vigorous intense physical activity promoted an increased sleep efficiency the following night (CI < 0.001 to 0.047), while total sleep time was not affected (CI -0.003 to 0.043). Neither sleep duration (CI -0.024 to 0.022) nor sleep efficiency (CI -0.019 to 0.028) affected mean physical activity level the subsequent day. The between-subject analysis indicates that the sleep of children characterized by high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the day was frequently interrupted (SE = -. 23, P < .01). A negative association between BMIsds and sleep duration was found (-. 10, p < .01). Conclusions: Short sleep duration was associated with high BMI in six to ten year old children. This study underscores the importance of consistent bedtimes throughout the week for promoting sleep duration in preadolescents. Furthermore, this study suggests that a large proportion of intensive physical activity during the day might promote good sleep quality.

  • 10. Gall, Kelly
    et al.
    van Zutven, Kim
    Lindström, Joanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Bentley, Caroline
    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra
    Harrison, Carmel
    Lewis, Vivienne
    Mond, Jonathan
    Obesity and emotional well-being in adolescents: Roles of body dissatisfaction, loss of control eating, and self-rated health2016In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 837-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveWeak or inconsistent association between obesity and impairment in emotional well-being in population-based samples has led to efforts to identify mediating variables. This study examined the relative importance of body dissatisfaction (BD), loss of control (LOC) eating, and self-rated health (SRH) in mediating the association between obesity and impairment in emotional well-being in a school-based sample of adolescents (boys, n=437; girls, n=950). MethodsModerated mediation analysis was employed to assess the relative importance of the putative mediating variables and moderation of mediation effects by sex following the methods suggested by Hayes and coworkers. ResultsBD and SRH, but not LOC eating, were found to mediate the association between obesity and impairment in emotional well-being. Stronger mediation effects were observed for BD than for SRH. None of these results was moderated by sex. ConclusionsThe findings suggest that it may be important to target BD in obesity prevention and treatment programs in order to reduce the adverse impact of excess body weight on young people's emotional well-being.

  • 11.
    Holowko, Natalie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). School of Population Health, University of Queensland.
    Mishra, Gita
    School of Population Health, University of Queensland.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Social inequality in excessive gestational weight gain2014In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: 

    Optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) leads to better outcomes for both the mother and child, whereas excessive gains can act as a key stage for obesity development. Little is known about social inequalities in GWG. This study investigates the influence of education level on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and GWG.

    Design: 

    Register-based population study.

    Setting: 

    Sweden

    Participants: 

    Four thousand and eighty women born in Sweden who were a part of the third generation Uppsala Birth Cohort Study. Register data linkages were used to obtain information on social characteristics, BMI and GWG of women with singleton first births from 1982 to 2008.

    Main outcome measure: 

    Pre-pregnancy BMI and the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) categories of GWG for a given pre-pregnancy BMI. Results were adjusted for calendar period, maternal age, living arrangements, smoking, history of chronic disease and pre-pregnancy BMI when appropriate.

    Results: 

    Although most women (67%) were of healthy pre-pregnancy BMI, 20% were overweight and 8% were obese. Approximately half of all women in the sample had excessive GWG, with higher pre-pregnancy BMI associated with higher risk of excessive GWG, regardless of education level; this occurred for 76% of overweight and 75% of obese women. Lower educated women with a healthy pre-pregnancy BMI were at greater risk of excessive GWG—odds ratio 1.76 (95% confidence interval 1.28–2.43) for elementary and odds ratio 1.32 (1.06–1.64) for secondary compared with tertiary educated, adjusted for age and birth year period. Nearly half of women with an elementary or secondary education (48%) gained weight excessively.

    Conclusion: 

    Education did not provide a protective effect in avoiding excessive GWG among overweight and obese women, of whom ~75% gained weight excessively. Lower educated women with a BMI within the healthy range, however, are at greater risk of excessive GWG. Health professionals need to tailor their pre-natal advice to different groups of women in order to achieve optimal pregnancy outcomes and avoid pregnancy acting as a stage in the development of obesity.

  • 12. Irz, Xavier
    et al.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Kuosmanen, Nataliya
    Mazzocchi, Mario
    Modugno, Lucia
    Nocella, Giuseppe
    Shakersain, Behnaz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Traill, W. Bruce
    Xu, Weili
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Zanello, Giacomo
    Sociodemographic determinants of diet quality of the EU elderly: a comparative analysis in four countries2014In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1177-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate the sociodemographic determinants of diet quality of the elderly in four EU countries. Design Cross-sectional study. For each country, a regression was performed of a multidimensional index of dietary quality v. sociodemographic variables. Setting In Finland, Finnish Household Budget Survey (1998 and 2006); in Sweden, SNAC-K (2001-2004); in the UK, Expenditure & Food Survey (2006-07); in Italy, Multi-purpose Survey of Daily Life (2009). Subjects One- and two-person households of over-50s (Finland, n 2994; UK, n 4749); over-50 s living alone or in two-person households (Italy, n 7564); over-60 s (Sweden, n 2023). Results Diet quality among the EU elderly is both low on average and heterogeneous across individuals. The regression models explained a small but significant part of the observed heterogeneity in diet quality. Resource availability was associated with diet quality either negatively (Finland and UK) or in a non-linear or non-statistically significant manner (Italy and Sweden), as was the preference for food parameter. Education, not living alone and female gender were characteristics positively associated with diet quality with consistency across the four countries, unlike socio-professional status, age and seasonality. Regional differences within countries persisted even after controlling for the other sociodemographic variables. Conclusions Poor dietary choices among the EU elderly were not caused by insufficient resources and informational measures could be successful in promoting healthy eating for healthy ageing. On the other hand, food habits appeared largely set in the latter part of life, with age and retirement having little influence on the healthiness of dietary choices.

  • 13.
    Kalinovich, Anastasia V.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation.
    Mattsson, C. L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Youssef, M. R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Petrovic, Natasa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Ost, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Skulachev, V. P.
    Shabalina, Irina G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation.
    Mitochondria-targeted dodecyltriphenylphosphonium (C12TPP) combats high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice2016In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 1864-1874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A membrane-penetrating cation, dodecyltriphenylphosphonium (C12TPP), facilitates the recycling of fatty acids in the artificial lipid membrane and mitochondria. C12TPP can dissipate mitochondrial membrane potential and may affect total energy expenditure and body weight in animals and humans. METHODS: We investigated the metabolic effects of C12TPP in isolated brown-fat mitochondria, brown adipocyte cultures and mice in vivo. Experimental approaches included the measurement of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, western blotting, magnetic resonance imaging and bomb calorimetry. RESULTS: In mice, C12TPP (50 mu mol per (day.kg body weight)) in the drinking water significantly reduced body weight (12%, P<0.001) and body fat mass (24%, P<0.001) during the first 7 days of treatment. C12TPP did not affect water palatability and intake or the energy and lipid content in feces. The addition of C12TPP to isolated brown-fat mitochondria resulted in increased oxygen consumption. Three hours of pretreatment with C12TPP also increased oligomycin-insensitive oxygen consumption in brown adipocyte cultures (P<0.01). The effects of C12TPP on mitochondria, cells and mice were independent of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, C12TPP treatment increased the mitochondrial protein levels in the brown adipose tissue of both wild-type and UCP1-knockout mice. Pair-feeding revealed that one-third of the body weight loss in C12TPP-treated mice was due to reduced food intake. C12TPP treatment elevated the resting metabolic rate (RMR) by up to 18% (P<0.05) compared with pair-fed animals. C12TPP reduced the respiratory exchange ratio, indicating enhanced fatty acid oxidation in mice. CONCLUSIONS: C12TPP combats diet-induced obesity by reducing food intake, increasing the RMR and enhancing fatty acid oxidation.

  • 14.
    Kotova, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. The Swedish National Food Agency, Sweden.
    Frostne, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Tareke, Eden
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergman, Rolf
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Paulsson, Birgit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Segerbäck, Dan
    Jenssen, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Grawé, Jan
    Differences in micronucleus frequency and acrylamide adduct levels with hemoglobin between vegetarians and non-vegetarians2015In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 1181-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrients and food constituents can prevent or contribute to genotoxicity. In this study, the possible influence of a vegetarian/non-vegetarian diet on genotoxic effects was investigated in 58 non-smoking healthy vegetarians (V) and non-vegetarians (NV), age 21-37 years from the Stockholm area in Sweden. Physical activity and dietary habits were similar in both groups, with the exception of the intake of meat and fish. Using flow cytometry, we determined the formation of micronuclei (MN) in transferrin-positive immature peripheral blood reticulocytes (Trf-Ret) (Total: n = 53; V: n = 27; NV: n = 26). Dietary exposure to acrylamide was measured through hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in peripheral erythrocytes (Total: n = 53; V: n = 29; NV: n = 24). Hb adducts of both acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide were monitored as a measure of the corresponding in vivo doses. Our data demonstrated that compared with the non-vegetarians, the vegetarians exhibited lower frequencies of MN (fMN) in the Trf-Ret (p < 0.01, Student's t test). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that there was no association between the fMN and factors such as age, sex, intake of vitamins/minerals, serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels, physical activity, and body mass index. The mean Hb adduct levels of acrylamide and glycidamide showed no significant differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between the adduct levels and fMN in the individuals. The ratio of the Hb adduct levels from glycidamide and acrylamide, however, showed a significant difference (p < 0.04) between the two groups. These data suggest that the vegetarian diet might be beneficial in lowering genomic instability in healthy individuals. The measured Hb adduct levels indicate that the total intake of acrylamide does not differ between the two studied groups and does not contribute to the observed difference in fMN, although an influence of the diet on the metabolic rates of acrylamide was indicated. In addition, the observed significant difference in the background fMN in the two groups demonstrated that the MN analysis method has a sensitivity applicable to the biomonitoring of human lifestyle factors.

  • 15. Lehtisalo, Jenni
    et al.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    Valve, Paivi
    Antikainen, Riitta
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Strandberg, Timo
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Lindstrom, Jaana
    Nutrient intake and dietary changes during a 2-year multi-domain lifestyle intervention among older adults: secondary analysis of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) randomised controlled trial2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 291-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancing age increases the risk for diseases and health concerns like cognitive decline, constituting a major public health challenge. Lifestyle, especially healthy diet, affects many risk factors related to chronic diseases, and thus lifestyle interventions among older adults may be beneficial in promoting successful ageing. We completed a randomised 2-year multi-domain lifestyle intervention trial aiming at prevention of cognitive decline among 631 participants in the intervention and 629 in the control group, aged 60-77 years at baseline. Dietary counselling was one of the intervention domains together with strength exercise, cognitive training and management of CVD risk factors. The aim of this paper was to describe success of the intervention -that is, how an intervention based on national dietary recommendations affected dietary habits as a part of multi-intervention. Composite dietary intervention adherence score comprising nine distinct goals (range 0-9 points from none to achieving all goals) was 5.0 at baseline, and increased in the intervention group after the 1st (P< 0.001) and 2nd (P = 0.005) year. The difference in change compared with the control group was significant at both years (P < 0.001 and P= 0.018). Intake of several vitamins and minerals decreased in the control group but remained unchanged or increased in the intervention group during the 2 years. Well-targeted dietary counselling may prevent age-related decline in diet quality and help in preventing cognitive decline.

  • 16. Ma, Fei
    et al.
    Li, Qing
    Zhou, Xuan
    Zhao, Jiangang
    Song, Aili
    Li, Wen
    Liu, Huan
    Xu, Weili
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Tianjin Medical University, China.
    Huang, Guowei
    Effects of folic acid supplementation on cognitive function and A-related biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial2019In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 345-356Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Martins, Andressa J.
    et al.
    Martini, Lígia A.
    Moreno, Claudia R. C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Prudent diet is associated with low sleepiness among short-haul truck drivers2019In: Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), ISSN 0899-9007, E-ISSN 1873-1244, Vol. 63-64, p. 61-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The lifestyle of postindustrial society has undergone major shifts characterized by changes in demographic and epidemiologic profiles, eating habits, and job structures, with irregular working hours, particularly night shifts. The investigation of dietary patterns is of great importance for the discussion and devising of effective dietary strategies for shift and night workers in general, particularly in view of the increased sleepiness reported during night work.

    Objective

    We aimed to determine the association between dietary patterns of Brazilian truck drivers and sleepiness levels, according to work shift.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study of 52 drivers (25 long haul and 27 short haul) at a freight company was carried out. This study entailed application of a structured questionnaire collecting sociodemographic, lifestyle, and nutritional status data. Assessment of dietary intake using a 24-h dietary recall and an evaluation of sleepiness by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale were performed. The principal components of the diet were analyzed by factor analysis to derive dietary patterns. A linear mixed model was then applied to determine a model for sleepiness levels of the drivers as a function of dietary pattern, time of day, and work shift.

    Results

    Three intake patterns were derived: traditional, prudent, and Western. Associations of time of day (F = 23.629, P < 0.01) and shift type (F = 42.218, P < 0.01) on sleepiness were found. An association between diet and sleepiness was also evident, where the prudent pattern was associated with low sleepiness among short-haul truck drivers (F = 3.865, P = 0.02).

    Conclusions

    The results of the present study revealed an association between dietary patterns and short-haul driving, in which the healthy pattern produced low sleepiness during the day. The sleepiness curve of long-haul drivers appears to have a flattening pattern, probably because of irregular working times.

  • 18. Merlin, Jon
    et al.
    Evans, Bronwyn A.
    Dehvari, Nodi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Sato, Masaaki
    Bengtsson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hutchinson, Dana S.
    Could burning fat start with a brite spark? Pharmacological and nutritional ways to promote thermogenesis2016In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 18-42Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two types of adipose tissue with distinct functions-white adipose tissue stores chemical energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue consumes energy and releases heat (thermogenesis) in response to sympathetic nerve activity. In humans, treatments that promote greater brown adipose tissue deposition and/or activity would be highly beneficial in regimes aimed at reducing obesity. Adult humans have restricted populations of prototypical brown adipocytes in the neck and chest areas, but recent advances have established that adipocytes with similar properties, termed brite adipocytes, can be recruited in subcutaneous depots thought to be primarily white adipose tissue. These brite adipocytes express the protein machinery required for thermogenesis, but to assess brite adipocytes as viable therapeutic targets we need to understand how to promote conversion of white adipocytes to brite adipocytes and ways to increase optimal energy consumption and thermogenesis in these brite adipocytes. This can be accomplished by pharmacological and nutritional therapies to differing degrees, as reviewed in detail here.

  • 19. Männikkö, Reija
    et al.
    Komulainen, Pirjo
    Schwab, Ursula
    Heikkilä, Harri M.
    Savonen, Kai
    Hassinen, Maija
    Hänninen, Tuomo
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    The Nordic diet and cognition - The DR's EXTRA Study2015In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 231-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of dementia associated with ageing populations has stimulated interest in identifying modifiable lifestyle factors that could prevent cognitive impairment. One such potential preventive lifestyle factor is the Nordic diet that has been shown to reduce the risk of CVD; however, its effect on cognition has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to estimate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of the baseline Nordic diet with cognitive function at baseline and after a 4-year follow-up in a population-based random sample (n 1140 women and men, age 57-78 years) as secondary analyses of the Finnish Dose-Responses to Exercise Training study. The Nordic diet score was created based on reported dietary components in 4-d food records. Cognition was assessed by the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). The baseline Nordic diet score had been positively associated with Verbal Fluency (beta 0.08 (95% CI 0.00, 0.16), P=0.039) and Word List Learning (beta 0.06 (95% CI 0.01, 0.10), P=0.022) at 4 years but not with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease total score (CERAD-TS) or MMSE at 4 years, after adjustment for baseline cognitive scores, demographic factors and health-related factors. After excluding individuals with impaired cognition at baseline, the baseline Nordic diet score had also been positively associated with the CERAD-TS (beta 0.10 (95% CI 0.00, 0.20), P=0.042) and MMSE (beta 0.03 (95% CI 0.00, 0.06), P=0.039) at 4 years. These associations disappeared after further adjustment for energy intake. In conclusion, the Nordic diet might have a positive association with cognition in individuals with normal cognition.

  • 20. Nakamura, Ayumi
    et al.
    Itaki, Chieko
    Saito, Ayako
    Yonezawa, Toko
    Aizawa, Koichi
    Hirai, Ayumi
    Suganuma, Hiroyuki
    Miura, Tomisato
    Mariya, Yasushi
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Possible benefits of tomato juice consumption: a pilot study on irradiated human lymphocytes from healthy donors2017In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 16, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate much of the DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. Among carotenoids, lycopene and beta-carotene, present in tomato juice, are known to be strong radical scavengers. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of tomato juice intake on the levels of DNA damage and oxidative stress in human whole blood induced by in vitro exposure to X-rays. Methods: Ten healthy adults were asked to drink 190 g of tomato juice, containing 17 mg lycopene and 0.25 mg beta-carotene, per day for 3 weeks and then refrain from drinking it for 3 weeks. Peripheral whole blood samples were collected before and after the intake period of tomato juice and after the washout period. The blood samples were exposed in vitro to X-ray doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 2 Gy. Cytogenetic damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and the dicentrics (DIC) assay. The level of oxidative stress was determined using serum 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and plasma reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds (d-ROMs). The concentration of carotenoids in plasma was measured at the three time points. Results: The levels of 8-oxo-dG tended to decrease during the intake period and increase during the washout period. A non-significant inverse correlation was noted between the plasma concentration of lycopene plus beta-carotene and the level of 8-oxo-dG (P = 0.064). The radiation-induced MN and DIC frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner, and when compared at the same dose, theMN and DIC frequencies decreased during the intake period compared with those at baseline and then increased during the washout period. The results suggest that continuous tomato juice consumption non-significantly decreases extracellular 8-oxo-dG, d-ROMs, and MN. Tomato juice intake had minimal or no effect on radiation-induced 8-oxo-dG and d-ROMs. For most radiation doses, continuously tomato juice intake lowered the levels of MN and DIC. Conclusion: Tomato juice consumption may suppress human lymphocyte DNA damage caused by radiation, but further examination is required.

  • 21. Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is loss in odor sensitivity inevitable to the aging individual?: A study of successfully aged elderly2012In: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 188-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that the variability in odor detectability is large in the elderly population. Compared to young adults, most elderly demonstrate poor detectability although some show normal ability. To shed light on why there is this discrepancy among the elderly, absolute detection thresholds for pyridine odor were determined by the method of constant stimuli. Young adults (20-24 years) were compared with elderly (77-87 years) who were successfully aged with respect to medical health and cognitive ability. The results showed that these elderly and young adults had very similar mean detection thresholds for pyridine (105 and 100 ppb, respectively) and psychometric detection functions (identical slopes with increasing pyridine concentration). These results imply that deficits in odor detectability may not be inevitable to the aging individual and that factors secondary to aging, such as poor medical health status and cognitive decline, may contribute to deficits in odor detectability in normal aging.

  • 22. O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina
    et al.
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Pedersen, Marie
    Fthenou, Eleni
    Espinosa, Ana
    Tsiapa, Xristina
    Chalkiadaki, Georgia
    Daraki, Vasiliki
    Dermitzaki, Eirini
    Decordier, Ilse
    Farmer, Peter B.
    Georgiadis, Panagiotis
    Georgiou, Vaggelis
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.
    Merlo, Domenico Franco
    Romaguera, Dora
    Roumeliotaki, Theano
    Sarri, Katerina
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vande Loock, Kim
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kleinjans, Jos
    Kirsch-Volders, Micheline
    Chatzi, Leda
    Maternal diet during pregnancy and micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood T lymphocytes in mothers and newborns (Rhea cohort, Crete)2018In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 209-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The study assessed whether diet and adherence to cancer prevention guidelines during pregnancy were associated with micronucleus (MN) frequency in mothers and newborns. MN is biomarkers of early genetic effects that have been associated with cancer risk in adults. Methods A total of 188 mothers and 200 newborns from the Rhea cohort (Greece) were included in the study. At early-mid pregnancy, we conducted personal interviews and a validated food frequency questionnaire was completed. With this information, we constructed a score reflecting adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention guidelines on diet, physical activity and body fatness. At delivery, maternal and/or cord blood was collected to measure DNA and hemoglobin adducts of dietary origin and frequencies of MN in binucleated and mononucleated T lymphocytes (MNBN and MNMONO). Results In mothers, higher levels of red meat consumption were associated with increased MNBN frequency [2nd tertile IRR = 1.34 (1.00, 1.80), 3rd tertile IRR = 1.33 (0.96, 1.85)] and MNMONO frequency [2nd tertile IRR = 1.53 (0.84, 2.77), 3rd tertile IRR = 2.69 (1.44, 5.05)]. The opposite trend was observed for MNBN in newborns [2nd tertile IRR = 0.64 (0.44, 0.94), 3rd tertile IRR = 0.68 (0.46, 1.01)], and no association was observed with MNMONO. Increased MN frequency in pregnant women with high red meat consumption is consistent with previous knowledge. Conclusions Our results also suggest exposure to genotoxics during pregnancy might affect differently mothers and newborns. The predictive value of MN as biomarker for childhood cancer, rather than adulthood, remains unclear. With few exceptions, the association between maternal carcinogenic exposures during pregnancy and childhood cancer or early biologic effect biomarkers remains poorly understood.

  • 23. Oliveira, A.J.
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lopes, C.S.
    Monteiro Ponce de Leon, A.
    The influence of social relationships on obesity: sex differences in a longitudinal study2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1540-1547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the effect of five dimensions of social relationships on obesity and potential sex differences in these associations.

    Design and Methods: This study used longitudinal data from the Swedish Level of Living Surveys (LNU) in 1991 and 2000. The sample included 3,586 individuals. The dimensions of social relationships examined in this study include emotional support, frequency of visiting friends, marital status, marital status changes, and a Social Relationships Index (SRI). Obesity status was based on BMI (kg/m(2)) and calculated with self-reported measurements. The association between social relationships and the incidence of obesity after 9 years of follow-up was evaluated through Poisson regressions.Results: After controlling for confounders, we found that the lack of emotional support (RR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.1-4.6) influenced the incidence of obesity among men. In addition, men with the lowest levels of SRI (RR = 2.22; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4) had an increased risk of being obese. Among women, SRI was not significantly associated with obesity. Women who changed their marital status from married to unmarried had lower risk of obesity (RR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9).

    Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the effect of social relationships on the incidence of obesity, with significant differences by sex.

  • 24.
    Pauter, Anna M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Fischer, Alexander W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany.
    Bengtsson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Asadi, Abolfazl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Talamonti, Emanuela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Jacobsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Synergistic Effects of DHA and Sucrose on Body Weight Gain in PUFA-Deficient Elovl2-/- Mice2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is implicated in the regulation of both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Thus, we questioned whether dietary DHA and low or high content of sucrose impact on metabolism in mice deficient for elongation of very long-chain fatty acids 2 (ELOVL2), an enzyme involved in the endogenous DHA synthesis. We found that Elovl2 -/- mice fed a high-sucrose DHA-enriched diet followed by the high sucrose, high fat challenge significantly increased body weight. This diet affected the triglyceride rich lipoprotein fraction of plasma lipoproteins and changed the expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism in a white adipose tissue. Our findings suggest that lipogenesis in mammals is synergistically influenced by DHA dietary and sucrose content.

  • 25.
    Shakersain, Behnaz
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Faxén-Irving, Gerd
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Xu, Wei-Li
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Tianjin Medical University, China.
    The Nordic Prudent Diet Reduces Risk of Cognitive Decline in the Swedish Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Appropriate dietary pattern for preserving cognitive function in northern Europe remains unknown. We aimed to identify a Nordic dietary pattern index associated with slower cognitive decline compared to the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, Mediterranean Diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Baltic Sea Diet indices. A total of 2223 dementia-free adults aged 60 were followed for 6 years. Mini-Mental State Examination was administrated at baseline and follow-ups. Dietary intake was assessed by 98-item food frequency questionnaire, and the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP) was identified. Data were analysed using mixed-effects and parametric survival models and receiver operating characteristic curves with adjustment for potential confounders. Moderate ( = 0.139, 95% CI 0.077-0.201) and high adherence ( = 0.238, 95% CI 0.175-0.300) to NPDP were associated with less cognitive decline compared to other four indices. High adherence to NPDP was also associated with the lowest risk of MMSE decline to 24 (HR = 0.176, 95% CI 0.080-0.386) and had the greatest ability to predict such decline (area under the curve = 0.70). Moderate-to-high adherence to the NPDP may predict a better-preserved cognitive function among older adults in Nordic countries. Regional dietary habits should be considered in developing dietary guidelines for the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  • 26.
    Shakersain, Behnaz
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Faxén-Irving, Gerd
    Prinelli, Federica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Institute of Biomedical Technologies - National Research Council, Italy.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Xu, Weili
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Tianjin Medical University, China.
    An Active Lifestyle Reinforces the Effect of a Healthy Diet on Cognitive Function: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The joint effect of diet and leisure activity on cognitive function remains unknown. We aimed to verify the hypothesis that an active lifestyle reinforces the effect of the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP) on cognitive function. A total of 2223 dementia-free Swedish adults aged 60 with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores 27 were followed for an average of 6 years. MMSE was tested during follow-ups. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. The NPDP index was calculated and tertiled (low, moderate, and high adherence). Participation in physical, mental and social activities was trichotomised (low, moderate, and intense). An active lifestyle was defined based on the participation in each activity. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models. Moderate-to-high adherence to NPDP was associated with a reduced decline in the MMSE score (: 0.19, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.14-0.24). This association became stronger when combined with moderate-to-intense physical (: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.2-0.45), mental (: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.21-0.37), or social (: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.19-0.34) activities. An active lifestyle strengthened the effect of NPDP on cognitive function by two times, and further lowered risk of MMSE decline by 30%. Thus, an active lifestyle reinforces the effect of a healthy diet on preserved cognitive function, and further decreases the risk of cognitive decline.

  • 27.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Lindh, Christian H.
    Wikström, Sverre
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Temporal trends and predictors of perfluoroalkyl substances serum levels in Swedish pregnant women in the SELMA study2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in numerous consumer products. They are persistent, bioaccumulating, and suspected to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A growing body of research has reported the association between PFAS exposure and adverse health effects. Concerns have been raised with special focus in childhood development. Methods Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS in serum from 1,616 pregnant women in the Swedish SELMA study. The serum samples were collected in the first trimester (median week 10). Least square geometric means (LSGM) of PFAS were estimated for each year period for, adjusted for potential determinants including parity, fish intake in the family, and mother's age. Results Six PFAS (PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOS) were detected above levels of detection (LOD) in more than 99% of the SELMA women, while PFHpA, and PFDoDA were detected above LOD in 73.4% and 46.7% respectively. Parity, maternal age, maternal smoking, and fish intake during pregnancy were found to be significantly associated (p<0.05) with serum PFAS levels in the pregnant women. Finally, serum concentration of six PFAS (PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, PFHpA, PFOA and PFOS) were significantly decreasing (range 14-31%) during the period of 30 months from 2007-2010. Conclusions Our analysis shows that six out of eight PFAS could be identified in serum of more than 99% of SELMA subjects with a significant slightly decreasing trend for five of these compounds. Furthermore, parity, higher fish intake and mothers age are determinants for serum levels of PFAS in pregnant women.

  • 28.
    Xu, Weili
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Tianjin Medical University, China.
    Zhang, Hua
    Paillard-Borg, Stephanie
    Zhu, Hong
    Qi, Xiuying
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Adults: Role of Adiposity Indicators and Age2016In: Obesity Facts, ISSN 1662-4025, E-ISSN 1662-4033, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The role of different body fat indicators and age in assessing the prevalence of obesity is unclear. We aimed to examine to what extent different body fat indicators including BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) affect the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese adults taking age into account. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included a random sample of 7,603 adults aged 20-79 years across entire Tianjin, China. BMI, WC, and WHR were used to define overweight and obesity following standard criteria. Prevalence rates were calculated and standardized using local age-and gender-specific census data. Logistic regression was used in data analysis. Results: Using the combination of BMI, WC, and WHR, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 69.8%, and increased with age till the age of 60 and a decline thereafter. The prevalence of overweight assessed by BMI was higher than that assessed by WC and WHR, while the prevalence of obesity defined by BMI was much lower than that defined by WC or WHR. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is about 70% among Chinese adults. Adiposity indicators and age play an important role in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  • 29. Yin, Z.
    et al.
    Fei, Z.
    Qiu, C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Brasher, M. S.
    Kraus, V. B.
    Zhao, W.
    Shi, X.
    Zeng, Y.
    Dietary diversity and cognitive function among elderly people: A population-based study2017In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1089-1094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore associations of dietary diversity with cognitive function among Chinese elderly. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011-2012, data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and logistic regression models. community-based setting in the 23 provinces in China. 8,571 elderly participants, including 2984 younger elderly aged 65-79 and 5587 oldest old aged 80+ participated in this study. Intake frequencies of food groups was collected and dietary diversity (DD) was assessed based on the mean of DD score. Cognitive function was assessed using the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and cognitive impairment was defined using education-based cutoffs. Information about socio-demographics, lifestyles, resilience and health status was also collected. Poor dietary diversity was significantly associated with cognitive function, with beta (95% CI) of -0.11(-0.14, -0.08) for - log (31-MMSE score) and odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.29 (1.14, 1.47) for cognitive impairment. Interaction effect of age with DD was observed on cognitive impairment (P interaction=0.018), but not on-log (31-MMSE score) (P interaction=0.08). Further separate analysis showed that poor DD was significantly associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment in the oldest old (p < 0.01), with odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.34 (1.17, 1.54), while not in the younger elderly (p > 0.05), with OR (95% CI) being 1.09 (0.80, 1.47) in the fully adjusted model. Similar results were obtained when DD was categorized into four groups. Poor dietary diversity was associated with worse global cognitive function among Chinese elderly, and particularly for the oldest old. This finding would be very meaningful for prevention of cognitive impairment.

  • 30. Zarina, Gunita
    et al.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Tichinin, Alina
    Rudovica, Vita
    Viksna, Arturs
    Engizere, Austra
    Muiznieks, Vitolds
    Bartelink, Eric J.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. UCLA/Getty Conservation Programme, UCLA, United States.
    Cribra orbitalia as a potential indicator of childhood stress: Evidence from paleopathology, stable C, N, and O isotopes, and trace element concentrations in children from a 17th-18th century cemetery in Jekabpils, Latvia2016In: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0946-672X, E-ISSN 1878-3252, Vol. 38, p. 131-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cribra orbitalia (CO), or porotic hyperostosis (PH) of the orbital roof, is one of the most common pathological conditions found in archaeological subadult skeletal remains. Reaching frequencies higher than 50% in many prehistoric samples, CO has been generally attributed to a variety of factors including malnutrition (e.g., megaloblastic anemia) and parasitism. In this study, we tested the relationship between CO, trace element concentrations, and stable isotope values (delta C-13, delta N-15, delta O-18) in subadult skeletons from a 17th to 18th century cemetery in the historic town of Jekabpils, Latvia. A total of 28 subadults were examined, seven of which (25%) showed evidence of CO. Bioarchaeological evidence indicated high mortality for children in this cemetery: half of the burials were subadults under the age of 14, while a third were under the age of four. Life expectancy at birth was estimated to have been only 21.6 years. Trace element concentrations measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed no relationship between presence or absence of CO and levels of manganese, zinc, strontium, barium, copper, cadmium, or lead in the bones (p>0.05). However, a significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between the presence of CO and decreased levels of iron. The correlations between CO and decreased levels of copper and lead approached significance (p=0.056 for both elements). Individuals with CO furthermore displayed significantly lower delta N-15 isotope values, suggesting greater consumption of lower trophic level food resources than those unaffected by CO; delta C-13 and delta O-18 values, in contrast, showed no significant differences. These results suggest that the prevalence of CO may be related to dietary deficiencies. In this case, low iron levels may also signify a diet low in other key vitamins (e.g., B-g and B-12), which are known to cause megaloblastic anemia.

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