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  • 1.
    Andisheh, Bahram
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Bitaraf, Mohammad Ali
    University of Tehran.
    Mavroidis, Panayiotis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Brahme, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Lind, Bengt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Vascular structure and binomial statistics for response modeling in radiosurgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations2010In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 2057-2067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has a slow and progressive vaso-occlusive effect. Some studies suggested the possible role of vascular structure in this process. A detailed biomathematical model has been used, where the morphological, biophysical and hemodynamic characteristics of intracranial AVM vessels are faithfully reproduced. The effect of radiation on plexiform and fistulous AVM nidus vessels was simulated using this theoretical model. The similarities between vascular and electrical networks were used to construct this biomathematical AVM model and provide an accurate rendering of transnidal and intranidal hemodynamics. The response of different vessels to radiation and their obliteration probability as a function of different angiostructures were simulated and total obliteration was defined as the probability of obliteration of all possible vascular pathways. The dose response of the whole AVM is observed to depend on the vascular structure of the intra-nidus AVM. Furthermore, a plexiform AVM appears to be more prone to obliteration compared with an AVM of the same size but having more arteriovenous fistulas. Finally, a binomial model was introduced, which considers the number of crucial vessels and is able to predict the dose response behavior of AVMs with a complex vascular structure.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hagström, Katja
    Department of Environmental Science, Örebro University, Örebro.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    HPLC/neg-ESI-MS determination of resin acids in urine from Swedish wood pellets production plants workers and correlation with air concentrations2012In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Brinson, Robert G.
    et al.
    Marino, John P.
    Delaglio, Frank
    Arbogast, Luke W.
    Evans, Ryan M.
    Kearsley, Anthony
    Gingras, Genevieve
    Ghasriani, Houman
    Aubin, Yves
    Pierens, Gregory K.
    Jia, Xinying
    Mobli, Mehdi
    Grant, Hamish G.
    Keizer, David W.
    Schweimer, Kristian
    Ståhle, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zartler, Edward R.
    Lawrence, Chad W.
    Reardon, Patrick N.
    Cort, John R.
    Xu, Ping
    Ni, Feng
    Yanaka, Saeko
    Kato, Koichi
    Parnham, Stuart R.
    Tsao, Desiree
    Blomgren, Andreas
    Rundlof, Torgny
    Trieloff, Nils
    Schmieder, Peter
    Ross, Alfred
    Skidmore, Ken
    Chen, Kang
    Keire, David
    Freedberg, Daron I.
    Suter-Stahel, Thea
    Wider, Gerhard
    Ilc, Gregor
    Plavec, Janez
    Bradley, Scott A.
    Baldisseri, Donna M.
    Sforca, Mauricio Luis
    de Mattos Zeri, Ana Carolina
    Wei, Julie Yu
    Szabo, Christina M.
    Amezcua, Carlos A.
    Jordan, John B.
    Wikström, Mats
    Enabling adoption of 2D-NMR for the higher order structure assessment of monoclonal antibody therapeutics2019In: mAbs, ISSN 1942-0862, E-ISSN 1942-0870, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 94-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased interest in using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as a platform for biopharmaceuticals has led to the need for new analytical techniques that can precisely assess physicochemical properties of these large and very complex drugs for the purpose of correctly identifying quality attributes (QA). One QA, higher order structure (HOS), is unique to biopharmaceuticals and essential for establishing consistency in biopharmaceutical manufacturing, detecting process-related variations from manufacturing changes and establishing comparability between biologic products. To address this measurement challenge, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) methods were introduced that allow for the precise atomic-level comparison of the HOS between two proteins, including mAbs. Here, an inter-laboratory comparison involving 26 industrial, government and academic laboratories worldwide was performed as a benchmark using the NISTmAb, from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), to facilitate the translation of the 2D-NMR method into routine use for biopharmaceutical product development. Two-dimensional H-1,N-15 and H-1,C-13 NMR spectra were acquired with harmonized experimental protocols on the unlabeled Fab domain and a uniformly enriched-N-15, 20%-C-13-enriched system suitability sample derived from the NISTmAb. Chemometric analyses from over 400 spectral maps acquired on 39 different NMR spectrometers ranging from 500 MHz to 900 MHz demonstrate spectral fingerprints that are fit-for-purpose for the assessment of HOS. The 2D-NMR method is shown to provide the measurement reliability needed to move the technique from an emerging technology to a harmonized, routine measurement that can be generally applied with great confidence to high precision assessments of the HOS of mAb-based biotherapeutics.

  • 4. Chen, Tian-Jiao
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Ji, Cheng-Ye
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Regional, socioeconomic and urban-rural disparities in child and adolescent obesity in China: a multilevel analysis2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 12, p. 1583-1589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To study socio-demographic patterns of obesity in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods:  Data came from the 2005 cycle of the Chinese National Survey on Student's Constitution and Health. In all, 231 326 subjects aged 7-18 years, distributed across 622 schools and 30 provinces, were analysed. Multilevel modelling was used to estimate variations at individual, school area and province levels. Results:  The prevalence of obesity varied enormously across different areas. Young people living in high socioeconomic and urban areas had higher body mass index (BMI) and higher odds of overweight and obesity than those living in lower socioeconomic and rural areas. Subjects living in provinces with a higher standard of living, as indicated by less perinatal mortality, lower Engel coefficient, and higher personal expenditure on health had higher BMI and higher odds of overweight and obesity than those living in less affluent provinces. An interaction between gender and urbanicity revealed that boys in urban areas were especially prone to obesity. Conclusion:  In contrast to most present-day high income countries, obesity among young people in China is associated with affluence and urban residence. Intervention and strategy for obesity prevention should be targeting high socioeconomic families in urban areas, perhaps with particular focus on boys.

  • 5. Ekström, Andreas
    et al.
    Eng-Larsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Isaksson, Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Kurland, Lisa
    Nordberg, Martin
    Changes in Emergency Department Patient Inflow after a Terrorist Attack in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the impact the terrorist attack in downtown Stockholm had on the inflow of patients to the emergency departments of Stockholm's hospitals. Controlling for the initial shock to infrastructure, we find that the inflow was reduced by 8% over two weeks following the attack. After two weeks the inflow returned to pre-attack levels, without any "rebound effect". The results indicate that many emergency department visits are not urgent, and that these patients may self-select to cancel service under certain circumstances.

  • 6.
    Elihn, Karine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cronholm, Pontus
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Midander, Klara
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    Möller, Lennart
    Cellular doses of partly soluble Cu particle aerosols at the air-liquid interface using an in vitro lung cell exposure system2013In: Journal of Aerosol Medicine, ISSN 1941-2711, E-ISSN 1941-2703, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is currently a need to develop and test in vitro systems for predicting the toxicity of nanoparticles. One challenge is to determine the actual cellular dose of nanoparticles after exposure.

    Methods: In this study, human epithelial lung cells (A549) were exposed to airborne Cu particles at the air–liquidinterface (ALI). The cellular dose was determined for two different particle sizes at different deposition conditions, including constant and pulsed Cu aerosol flow.

    Results: Airborne polydisperse particles with a geometric mean diameter (GMD) of 180nm [geometric standarddeviation (GSD) 1.5, concentration 105 particles/mL] deposited at the ALI yielded a cellular dose of 0.4–2.6 lg/cm2 at pulsed flow and 1.6–7.6 lg/cm2 at constant flow. Smaller polydisperse particles in the nanoregime (GMD80 nm, GSD 1.5, concentration 107 particles/mL) resulted in a lower cellular dose of 0.01–0.05 lg/cm2 at pulsedflow, whereas no deposition was observed at constant flow. Exposure experiments with and without cells showed that the Cu particles were partly dissolved upon deposition on cells and in contact with medium.

    Conclusions: Different cellular doses were obtained for the different Cu particle sizes (generated with different methods). Furthermore, the cellular doses were affected by the flow conditions in the cell exposure system and the solubility of Cu. The cellular doses of Cu presented here are the amount of Cu that remained on the cells after completion of an experiment. As Cu particles were partly dissolved, Cu (a non negligible contribution) was, in addition, present and analyzed in the nourishing medium present beneath the cells. This study presents cellular doses induced by Cu particles and demonstrates difficulties with deposition of nanoparticles at the ALI and of partially soluble particles.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hagström, Katja
    Department of Environmental Science, Örebro University, Örebro, .
    Axelsson, Sara
    Örebro Univ Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med.
    Nylander-French, Leena
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA .
    Tape-stripping as a method for measuring dermal exposure to resin acids during wood pellet production2008In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 10, p. 345-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific method for quantifying dermal exposure to the resin acids 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-OXO), dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), abietic acid (AA), and pimaric acid (PA). In addition the method was evaluated in occupational settings during production of wood pellets. Tape-strips were spiked with the substances to evaluate the recovery of the acids from the tape. The removal efficiency of the tape was assessed by tape-stripping a specified area on a glass plate spiked with resin acids. The recovery of the acids from human skin in vivo was evaluated by applying acids in methanol onto the skin of volunteers. Occupational dermal exposure to the resin acids was assessed by tape-stripping the skin of workers involved in the production of wood pellets. The resin acids were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The limit of detection was 15 pg (7-OXO), 150 pg (DHAA), 285 pg (AA) and 471 pg (PA) per injection. The recovery from spiked tapes was in general 100%. The removal efficiency of the tape was 48–101%. Recovery tests from human skin in vivo showed a mean recovery of 27%. Quantifiable amounts of resin acids were observed on four different skin areas with an increase in exposure during a work shift. This study shows that occupational dermal exposure to resin acids can be assessed by tape-stripping and quantified by LC-MS.

  • 8.
    Hagström, Katja
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Örebro University, Örebro,Sweden.
    Axelsson, Sara
    Örebro University Hospital, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Helena
    Örebro University Hospital, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Örebro University Hospital, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Örebro University Hospital, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    University Hospital of Umeå, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå, Sweden.
    Exposure to Wood Dust, Resin Acids, and Volatile Organic Compounds During Production of Wood Pellets2008In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 5, p. 296-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study was to investigate exposure to airborne substances that are potentially harmful to health during the production of wood pellets, including wood dust, monoterpenes, and resin acids, and as an indicator of diesel exhaust nitrogen dioxide. In addition, area measurements were taken to assess background exposure levels of these substances, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon monoxide. Measurements were taken at four wood pellet production plants from May 2004 to April 2005. Forty-four workers participated in the study, and a total of 68 personal measurements were taken to determine personal exposure to wood dust (inhalable and total dust), resin acids, monoterpenes, and nitrogen dioxide. In addition, 42 measurements of nitrogen dioxide and 71 measurements of total dust, resin acids, monoterpenes, VOCs, and carbon monoxide were taken to quantify their indoor area concentrations. Personal exposure levels to wood dust were high, and a third of the measured levels of inhalable dust exceeded the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m 3 . Parallel measurements of inhalable and total dust indicated that the former were, on average, 3.2 times higher than the latter. The data indicate that workers at the plants are exposed to significant amounts of the resin acid 7-oxodehydroabietic acid in the air, an observation that has not been recorded previously at wood processing and handling plants. The study also found evidence of exposure to dehydroabietic acid, and exposure levels for resin acids approached 74% of the British OEL for colophony, set at 50 μg/m 3 . Personal exposure levels to monoterpenes and nitrogen dioxide were low. Area sampling measurements indicated that aldehydes and terpenes were the most abundant VOCs, suggesting that measuring personal exposure to aldehydes might be of interest. Carbon monoxide levels were under the detection limit in all area measurements. High wood dust exposure levels are likely to have implications for worker health; therefore, it is important to reduce exposure to wood dust in this industry.

  • 9. Henderson, Audrey J.
    et al.
    Lasselin, Julie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Immunobiology, Germany.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Powis, Simon J.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Perrett, David I.
    Skin colour changes during experimentally-induced sickness2017In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 60, p. 312-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skin colour may be an important cue to detect sickness in humans but how skin colour changes with acute sickness is currently unknown. To determine possible colour changes, 22 healthy Caucasian participants were injected twice, once with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, at a dose of 2ng/kg body weight) and once with placebo (saline), in a randomised cross-over design study. Skin colour across 3 arm and 3 face locations was recorded spectrophotometrically over a period of 8h in terms of lightness (L(∗)), redness (a(∗)) and yellowness (b(∗)) in a manner that is consistent with human colour perception. In addition, carotenoid status was assessed as we predicted that a decrease it skin yellowness would reflect a drop in skin carotenoids. We found an early change in skin colouration 1-3h post LPS injection with facial skin becoming lighter and less red whilst arm skin become darker but also less red and less yellow. The LPS injection also caused a drop in plasma carotenoids from 3h onwards. However, the timing of the carotenoid changes was not consistent with the skin colour changes suggesting that other mechanisms, such as a reduction of blood perfusion, oxygenation or composition. This is the first experimental study characterising skin colour associated with acute illness, and shows that changes occur early in the development of the sickness response. Colour changes may serve as a cue to health, prompting actions from others in terms of care-giving or disease avoidance. Specific mechanisms underlying these colour changes require further investigation.

  • 10.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kaymakcalan, Hande
    Mäki, Pirjo
    Taanila, Anja
    Prenatal Health, Educational Attainment, and Intergenerational Inequality: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study2012In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 525-552Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Kjellmer, Liselotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Norrelgen, Fritjof
    Speech and language profiles in 4-to-6-year-old children with early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate speech and language profiles in a community-representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability (ID).

    Methods: The 83 participants, age 4-6 years, were a subgroup of a large research cohort of 208 Swedish preschool children diagnosed with ASD before age 4.5 years. After diagnosis they had obtained intervention at a specialized habilitation center. At a two-year follow-up, comprehensive research data on their speech and language abilities were collected by two speech-language pathologists.

    Results: Moderate to severe language problems were found in almost 60% of the children; only one in six had no such problems. Nearly half exhibited a combination of receptive and expressive language difficulties, of which a majority also had phonological difficulties, here defined as pronunciation problems and/or problems with phonological processing.

    Conclusions: The findings highlight that many children with ASD without ID face major language challenges similar to those seen in children diagnosed with language disorder. These coexisting speech and language problems in children with ASD without ID require specific assessments, interventions and follow-up to ensure an optimal and adapted school situation for the child.

  • 12.
    Lasselin, Julie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magne, E
    Beau, C
    Ledaguenel, P
    Sandra, D
    Aubert, A
    Layé, S
    Capuron, L
    Visceral adipose inflammation in obesity: relationship with circulating inflammation and bariatric surgery outcomes2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13. Ly, Kien Hoa
    et al.
    Truschel, Anna
    Jarl, Linnea
    Magnusson, Susanna
    Windahl, Tove
    Johansson, Robert
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Behavioural activation versus mindfulness-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: a randomised controlled trial2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 1, p. e003440-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of two smartphone-delivered treatments: one based on behavioural activation (BA) and other on mindfulness. Design Parallel randomised controlled, open, trial. Participants were allocated using an online randomisation tool, handled by an independent person who was separate from the staff conducting the study. Setting General community, with recruitment nationally through mass media and advertisements. Participants 40 participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder received a BA treatment, and 41 participants received a mindfulness treatment. 9 participants were lost at the post-treatment. Intervention BA: An 8-week long behaviour programme administered via a smartphone application. Mindfulness: An 8-week long mindfulness programme, administered via a smartphone application. Main outcome measures The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9). Results 81 participants were randomised (mean age 36.0years (SD=10.8)) and analysed. Results showed no significant interaction effects of group and time on any of the outcome measures either from pretreatment to post-treatment or from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up. Subgroup analyses showed that the BA treatment was more effective than the mindfulness treatment among participants with higher initial severity of depression from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 362.1)=5.2, p<0.05). In contrast, the mindfulness treatment worked better than the BA treatment among participants with lower initial severity from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 69.3)=7.7, p<0.01); BDI-II: (F(1, 53.60)=6.25, p<0.05). Conclusions The two interventions did not differ significantly from one another. For participants with higher severity of depression, the treatment based on BA was superior to the treatment based on mindfulness. For participants with lower initial severity, the treatment based on mindfulness worked significantly better than the treatment based on BA. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01463020.

  • 14.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Danderyds Hospital, Sweden.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Introducing WCM-SE: The word complexity measure phonetically justified and adapted to Swedish2018In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 1042-1053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Word Complexity Measure for Swedish (WCM-SE), an adaptation of the original WCM developed for English by Stoel-Gammon. These measures are used to calculate the phonological complexity of words or vocalizations, based on a number of phonological complexity parameters. Each production receives a complexity score based on how many of the parameters are present in the production.Using phonological complexity scores to measure expressive phonology is suitable for assessing very young children, children with early phonology and children with phonological deficits. It is useful forboth relational and independent analyses and enables comparisons between children and across development.The original WCM uses eight phonological complexity parameters in three domains: word patterns, syllable structures and sound classes. The parameters selected are phonological characteristics that are acquired late in development among English-speaking children.In the WCM-SE, complexity parameters in the domain sound classes were modified or added according to Swedish or universal patterns of phonology development. The parameters' complexity is accounted for in terms of language-general phonetic characteristics.

  • 15.
    McGrath, Cormac
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Data sharing in qualitative research: opportunities and concerns2018In: MedEdPublish, ISSN 2312–7996, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data sharing is increasingly practiced by researchers and mandated by research funders as well as scientific journals. However, data sharing within qualitative research paradigms is less common, and sharing interview data has particular challenges. Earlier debate has pointed to the value of data sharing for discouraging research fraud and permitting critical scrutiny. We elaborate on this discussion by highlighting the value of data sharing for cumulative science, for re-use, and to maximise the value of the participants’ contribution. We review methods and possibilities for sharing interview data, and give concrete recommendations for mitigating risks to the participants. In conclusion, we find that sharing of interview data is possible, valuable, and ethical, and serves a purpose for both journals and researchers.

  • 16.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effects of sleep deprivation on emotional processing related to others’ emotional expression and experience2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17. Paciello Yamashita, Renata
    et al.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Granqvist, Svante
    Lohmander, Anette
    Reliability of Hypernasality Rating: Comparison of 3 Different Methods for Perceptual Assessment2018In: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, ISSN 1055-6656, E-ISSN 1545-1569, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 1060-1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare reliability in auditory-perceptual assessment of hypernasality for 3 different methods and to explore the influence of language background.

    Design: Comparative methodological study.

    Participants and Materials: Audio recordings of 5-year-old Swedish-speaking children with repaired cleft lip and palate consisting of 73 stimuli of 9 nonnasal single-word strings in 3 different randomized orders. Four experienced speech-language pathologists (2 native speakers of Brazilian-Portuguese and 2 native speakers of Swedish) participated as listeners. After individual training, each listener performed the hypernasality rating task. Each order of stimuli was analyzed individually using the 2-step, VISOR and Borg centiMax scale methods.

    Main Outcome Measures: Comparison of intra- and inter-rater reliability, and consistency for each method within language of the listener and between listener languages (Swedish and Brazilian-Portuguese).

    Results: Good to excellent intra-rater reliability was found within each listener for all methods, 2-step:kappa = 0.59-0.93; VISOR: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.80-0.99; Borg centiMax (cM) scale: ICC = 0.80-1.00. The highest inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for VISOR (ICC = 0.60-0.90) and Borg cM-scale (ICC = 0.40-0.80). High consistency within each method was found with the highest for the Borg cM scale (ICC = 0.89-0.91). There was a significant difference in the ratings between the Swedish and the Brazilian listeners for all methods.

    Conclusions: The category-ratio scale Borg cM was considered most reliable in the assessment of hypernasality. Language background of Brazilian-Portuguese listeners influenced the perceptual ratings of hypernasality in Swedish speech samples, despite their experience in perceptual assessment of cleft palate speech disorders.

  • 18.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Income differences in stroke mortality: a follow-up study of the Swedish working population2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 797-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study explored the association between income and stroke mortality in the total working population in Sweden and examined whether the associations differ by gender or for stroke subtypes intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) or brain infarction (BI).

    Methods: This was a register-based study among nearly 3 million working women and men (30–64 years in 1990) with a 12-year follow up (1991–2002) for mortality from stroke (4886 deaths). Income was measured as annual registered income from work in 1990. Gender-specific Cox regressions were applied with adjustments for sociodemographic covariates.

    Results: The age-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of lowest versus highest income quartile was 1.80 (1.482.19) for any stroke, 1.68 (1.292.17) for ICH and 2.23 (1.533.22) for BI in women, and the corresponding figures for men were 2.12 (1.922.34), 2.02 (1.772.31), and 2.09 (1.772.46). Adjustment for covariates attenuated these associations to 1.69 (1.332.15) for any stroke and 1.56 (1.142.14) for ICH in women and to 1.98 (1.742.24) for any stroke and 1.77 (1.442.19) for BI in men. In contrast, adjustment for covariates amplified the estimates to 2.36 (1.523.66) for BI in women and to 2.05 (1.732.44) for ICH in men.

    Conclusions: Risk of stroke mortality was highest in the lowest income group, with a gradient for the intermediate groups, in both women and men. The risk of mortality from BI was highest in women with the lowest income and the risk of ICH was highest in men with the lowest income. 

  • 19.
    Tucker, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Byrne, Aidan
    The new junior doctors’ contract: an occupational health and safety perspective2016In: Occupational Medicine, ISSN 0962-7480, E-ISSN 1471-8405, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 686-688Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. van Raalte, A.
    et al.
    Kunst, A. E.
    Deboosere, P.
    Leinsalu, M.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Martikainen, P.
    Strand, P. H.
    Artnik, B.
    Wojtyniak, B.
    Mackenbach, J. P.
    More variation in lifespan in lower educated groups: evidence from 10 European countries2011In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 1703-1714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Whereas it is well established that people with a lower socio-economic position have a shorter average lifespan, it is less clear what the variability surrounding these averages is. We set out to examine whether lower educated groups face greater variation in lifespans in addition to having a shorter life expectancy, in order to identify entry points for policies to reduce the impact of socio-economic position on mortality.

    Methods We used harmonized, census-based mortality data from 10 European countries to construct life tables by sex and educational level (low, medium, high). Variation in lifespan was measured by the standard deviation conditional upon survival to age 35 years. We also decomposed differences between educational groups in lifespan variation by age and cause of death.

    Results Lifespan variation was higher among the lower educated in every country, but more so among men and in Eastern Europe. Although there was an inverse relationship between average life expectancy and its standard deviation, the first did not completely predict the latter. Greater lifespan variation in lower educated groups was largely driven by conditions causing death at younger ages, such as injuries and neoplasms.

    Conclusions Lower educated individuals not only have shorter life expectancies, but also face greater uncertainty about the age at which they will die. More priority should be given to efforts to reduce the risk of an early death among the lower educated, e.g. by strengthening protective policies within and outside the health-care system.

  • 21. Vogt, Hartmut
    et al.
    Lindström, Karolina
    Bråbäck, Lennart
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Preterm birth and inhaled corticosteroid use in 6- to 19-year-olds:  A Swedish national cohort study2011In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 127, no 6, p. 1052-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is associated with respiratory morbidity later in life, including asthma. Previous studies have mainly focused on asthma in early childhood in children born extremely preterm. In this study, we examined the risk of asthma in a national cohort of schoolchildren grouped according to degree of immaturity expressed as completed gestational weeks at birth.

    METHODS: This was a register study in a Swedish national cohort of 1 100 826 children 6 to 19 years old. Retrieval of at least 1 prescription of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) during 2006 was used as the main indicator for asthma. Logistic regression was used to test hypotheses, with adjustment for multiple socioeconomic and perinatal indicators.

    RESULTS: Degree of immaturity, expressed as completed gestational weeks at birth, had an inverse dose-response relationship with ICS use. Compared with children born between 39 and 41 weeks' gestation, the odds ratio for ICS use increased with the degree of prematurity, from 1.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.13) for children born in weeks 37 to 38, to 2.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.96–2.64) for children born in weeks 23 to 28, after adjustment for confounders. The increase in ICS use with decreasing gestational age at delivery was similar in boys and girls, and declined with older age.

    CONCLUSION: Preterm birth increased the risk of ICS use in these 6- to 19-year-olds by degree of immaturity, from extremely preterm to early term birth.

  • 22. Wallby, T.
    et al.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Child health care uptake among low-income and immigrant families in a Swedish county2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 11, p. 1495-1503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To study the uptake of child health care among low-income and immigrant families in the county of Uppsala, Sweden, to investigate whether these families received extra attention as proposed in the Swedish Child Health Services (CHS) state-of-the-art consensus document from the year 2000.

    Methods:  Data were collected for 25 024 infants born 1998–2006 from the database of statistics of the Child Health Care Unit in Uppsala and socio-demographic indicators from Swedish national registers. Disposable income was divided into quartiles. Country of birth of the mother was categorized into four regions with two subgroups each, mothers with or without a Swedish-born partner. Analysis was conducted by Cox regression and linear regression models.

    Results:  Small differences between Swedish vs. immigrant and high vs. low-income families were detected. Low-income mothers (RR 0.78) as well as mothers born in all country of birth regions with an immigrant partner (RR 0.28–0.95) had lower rates of participation in parental groups.

    Conclusion:  The CHS provided basic child health care to almost all infants including children in immigrant and low-income Swedish families. However, the results did not indicate that disadvantaged families received the extra attention proposed in the consensus document.

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