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  • 1.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

  • 2.
    Byerley, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    'The Frightened Land: Land,Landscape and Politics in South Africa in the twentieth Century': Book Review2009In: Urban Studies, Vol. 46, no 1, 235-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Skogslandskapets sammansättning - en ekologisk tillämpning av en 1800-talskarta2007In: Kartlagt land: Kartan som källa till de arella näringarnas geografi och historia / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Kungliga Skogs- och Lantbruksakademin , 2007, 193-204 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Hammer, Monica
    Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Södertörns högskola.
    The challenge of combining timber production and biodiversity conservation for long-term ecosystem functioning - A case study of Swedish boreal forestry2006In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 237, no 1-3, 208-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study of Swedish boreal forestry, we analyze the implementation in practical management of a sustainable forest management that includes the continued capacity of ecosystems to also provide non-timber services. In the Swedish national forest policy, the equal goals of timber production and biodiversity conservation have increased the responsibility of landowners and managers to modify practical management. We compiled written information from three larger FSC-certified forestry companies combined with semi-structured interviews with forest management personnel at regional offices to map what data and information the companies collect and use. We examined to what extent obtainable information from the forest companies captures composition, structure, and function of boreal ecosystems at patch, stand and landscape scale. This was done using 47 indicators compiled from literature and grouped into five categories based on nationally identified deficiencies in the managed boreal forest compared to unmanaged forest. We found that the recording of data describing different aspects of the forest ecosystem were separated in two largely uncoordinated systems, Ecological Landscape Plans and stand registers. While there is a need for conservation-oriented data across scales, collected statistics was largely production-oriented and related to the stand scale. We also identified information gaps regarding different ecosystem structures and their spatial distribution such as dead wood and habitat networks. The knowledge base available to future management decisions also seems to lack information on connectivity in the landscape, habitat at smaller spatial scales and the effectiveness of reserved areas. To reach the ecological goals of sustainable forest management, there is a need to further coordinate existing data and information but also to fill gaps in particular regarding cross-scale information.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Lönn, Mikael
    Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Södertörns högskola.
    Historical perspepctives on landscape representation and forest composition in Woodland Key Habitats compared to formally protected forest in boreal SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitats of Swedish conservation interests are in general small and fragmented following the extensive and intensive forest management history. This study covering 71 000 ha of boreal Sweden investigates how history influences present-day distribution and composition of forests identified as high conservation value habitats and how they are protected. We also investigated if the habitat criteria used to describe reservations differed between reservation types and if habitat criteria were associated with the size of Woodland Key Habitats. The results show strong effects from historical ownership and historical forest type on the probability of an area being set aside as formally protected or as voluntary protected Woodland Key Habitats. We also found that both formal reservations and Woodland Key Habitats primarily cover coniferous forest in the age interval 70-110 years but not the presumably most valuable oldest coniferous category >110 or deciduous forests, which are as common in reservations as in other areas. Old deciduous forests (>110 years) are significantly more rare in formal reservations compared to the forest matrix. When viewed in a context of fragmentation and edge effects the results underline the importance of evaluating reserved areas and Woodland Key Habitats in a wider temporal and larger spatial perspective to optimize conservation management efforts. Maximal representation and biodiversity can be better achieved if new reservations are chosen to represent different ownership and forest history, and if they are selected in a landscape context related to present reservations and the present surrounding production forest.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Lönn, Mikael
    Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Södertörns högskola.
    Interactions between historical forest composition and ownership affect present composition of older forest in boreal SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we reconstruct forest composition during the 1860s for a 71000 ha area in southern boreal Sweden. The aim is to show how historical ownership and associated anthropogenic disturbances act as a source of heterogeneity in the present-day distribution and composition of coniferous and deciduous forest within the commercial production forest. We use older (>110 years) and mature (70-110 years) forest as response variables in generalized linear models with a binominal error distribution. The explanatory variables include size of zone, historical type of ownership zone (village, company, and farm), amount of forest, and forest type. We focus in particular on investigating effects from interacting explanatory variables. The significant statistical associations in the study indicate that patterns of deciduous and coniferous older patches differ, and that deciduous patches differ in relation to age interval. The oldest deciduous patches, for example, are today more likely on areas that had deciduous cover also in the past and stood on forestland managed by farmers, but less likely on the same habitat managed by companies. We show that there are strong effects on present forest composition from historical ownership and forest composition. We argue that by including local data on past ownership combined with knowledge on use patterns management could be better adapted to local landscape dynamics compared to the application of overly generalized patterns or models of boreal dynamics that excludes interactions with management.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Addressing semantics and historical data heterogeneities in cross-temporal landscape change analyses2010In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 139, no 139, 516-521 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of recreating historical land cover dynamics, needed to understand trends and transient states in ecosystems, includes difficulties such as the sensitivity of applied spatial analyses to heterogeneities in historical material. This paper compares the handling of quantitatively dominating categories in two matrix analyses of land cover change within a Swedish boreal landscape (1725–1859). The focus is on how inconsistencies between historical maps can be handled without violating the inherent semantic potential. The study shows that analyses of land cover support different indications of change depending on the treatment of dominating categories. The type of landscape and research questions in focus should therefore be part of choosing matrix method and classification scheme. The observed patterns need to be evaluated against drivers of change and semantic plasticity in classification schemes to separate ecological change from semantic confusion. This paper recommends aggregated classification schemes with maintained original relationships between categories in comprehensive analyses. However, no pathway is persistent over time and categories should be allowed to disappear and new to appear. Analysis of historical dynamics with extended transition matrixes is recommended to account for the dynamics of small categories in relation to dominating categories within a landscape.

  • 8. Erixon, Hanna
    et al.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Challenging dichotomies - exploring resilience as an integrative and operative conceptual framework for large-scale urban green structures2013In: Planning Theory & Practice, ISSN 1464-9357, E-ISSN 1470-000X, Vol. 14, no 3, 349-372 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balancing interests of urban growth and development against the need to safeguard socially equitable and ecologically functional green space is a core urban planning issue. These urban needs are still commonly seen through a modernist lens where green areas are viewed as an antithesis to the city, creating a polarized landscape seemingly free from cross-scale social and ecological interactions.

    This study aims to challenge this polarisation by using the concept of resilience both as a theoretical umbrella and applied to a case study. More operative and integrative planning approaches to large-scale urban green structures are here explored and discussed. The study reports on a trans-disciplinary work process designed by the authors as a sequence of workshops attended by ecologists, urban planners, architects, landscape architects and environmental historians and outreach meetings set in comprehensive planning and policy contexts. The explorations took the form of design experiments based in a suburban stretch of Stockholm (Sweden) which served as a basis for the discussions. This approach aimed to bring questions from a theoretical and general level and to discuss these in relation to a specific, local context in order to explore key points of conflict and possible alternatives.

    Three recurring themes upholding dichotomist views on the urban landscape were identified: 1) large size and scale mismatches, 2) problems of artificial borders; and 3) static views of urban nature leading to a lack of interest in future potential. The resilience concept was useful for highlighting options and opening up for innovation and change, but at the same time it was identified as in need of complementary approaches to identify goals and to bring people on board. Through our design experiments, we show how synergies and social-ecological resilience can encourage creative solutions rather than polarizing positions. Drawing on recent practice-based discourse on large parks, we suggest the adoption of legibility, i.e. to work with people's perceptions and understanding of their surroundings through design, within the resilience framework. There is a clear need to further explore how such approaches can complement the resilience concept in social-ecological systems governance.

  • 9.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 4, 28- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden—allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas—and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 10.
    Folkesson, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Towards a Sustainable Fisheries Management: How to address uncertainty in order to achieve a sustainable development of regional fisheries management2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management is not only about managing the resource fish, but also includes managing the social system. Aquatic ecosystems and the social system are both complex and change continuously. It is important to address what types of uncertainty the combination of both systems, complex socio-ecological systems leads to, their consequences and how these should be dealt with. Successful or unsuccessful management outcomes are difficult to address whether or not they are due to management efforts or natural changes. In addition, uncertainties often lead to a short-term management, since lack of knowledge makes it difficult to act in a long-term perspective. This thesis conceptualizes how to address different types of uncertainty prevalent in fisheries management, with focus on natural process uncertainty, measurement and estimation uncertainty, decision and implementation uncertainty, and institutional and regime uncertainty.  This was done by analyzing how three theoretical approaches, namely co-management, adaptive management and adaptive co-management address these uncertainties. In order to highlight how different types of uncertainty have been dealt with in practice, a case study on the fishery management in Lake Vättern has been made.

    A comparison between the literature study and this thesis’ case study shows that hypothesis-testing, cooperation, communication and transparency are corresponding factors on how to deal with uncertainties in fisheries management and that institutional and regime uncertainty is inadequately addressed in Sweden.

  • 11. Green, Tom L.
    et al.
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Insurance Value of Green Infrastructure in and Around Cities2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 6, 1051-1063 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of climate change and urbanization projected to occur until 2050 poses new challenges for land-use planning, not least in terms of reducing urban vulnerability to hazards from projected increases in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Interest in investments in green infrastructure (interconnected systems of parks, wetlands, gardens and other green spaces), as well as in restoration of urban ecosystems as part of such adaptation strategies, is growing worldwide. Previous research has highlighted the insurance value of ecosystems in securing the supply of ecosystem services in the face of disturbance and change, yet this literature neglects urban areas even though urban populations are often highly vulnerable. We revisit the insurance value literature to examine the applicability of the concept in urban contexts, illustrating it with two case studies: watersheds providing drinking water for residents of Vancouver, Canada; and private gardens ensuring connectedness between other parts of urban green infrastructure in London, UK. Our research supports the notion that investments in green infrastructure can enhance insurance value, reducing vulnerability and the costs of adaptation to climate change and other environmental change. Although we recommend that urban authorities consider the insurance value of ecosystems in their decision-making matrix, we advise caution in relying upon monetary evaluations of insurance value. We conclude by identifying actions and management strategies oriented to maintain or enhance the insurance value of urban ecosystems. Ecosystems that are themselves resilient to external disturbances are better able to provide insurance for broader social-ecological systems.

  • 12.
    Ihse, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Biodiversity in urban planning on landscape ecological basis- history and future2010In: What about urban nature: biodiversity and ecosystem services / [ed] Susanne Östergård et al, 2010, 20- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ihse, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Landskapets värdefulla våtmarker2009In: Värdefulla våtmarker: hur värdera och sköta? / [ed] Magnus Bergström, 2009, 1-6 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska IAlEs årliga konferens behandlade våtmarker från olika aspekter; historik och överblick, natur och kulturvärden och förvaltning och skötsel. Betydelsen av historisk kunskap för dagens skötsel belyses, olika aspekter av våtmarkernas natur- och kulturvärdensamt hur man kan bibehålla och skapa nya värden med olika modeller för skötsel o förvaltning.

  • 14.
    Ihse, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Vindkraft, javisst! Men inte alltid och inte överallt2010Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Ihse, Margareta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Oostra, Swantje
    SLU, inst för landskapsplanering.
    Regionala landskapsstrategier- ett rikt växt och djurliv: En kunskapssammanställning och fallstudier2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar landskapsekologiska tankesätt, teorier, idéer, modeller och fallstudier samt helhetstankar för landskapsplanering som kan användas vid genomförande av landskapsstrategier.

  • 16.
    Ihse, Margareta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Characteristics of the Swedish agro-pastoral: an approach for landscape analysis integrating natural and cultural values2008In: Nordic Landscapes: Regional and belonging on the Northern Edge of Europe, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, London , 2008, 251-280 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Ihse, Margareta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    The Swedish Agropastoral Hagmark Landscape: An Approach to Integrated Landcape Analysis2008In: Nordic Landscapes: Region and belonging on the northern edge of Europe / [ed] Michael Jones, Kenneth R Olwig, University of Minnesota Press , 2008, , 588 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Ihse, Margareta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Vasari, Yrjö
    Helsingfors Universitet, Botaniska institutione.
    Dammängarna i Kuusamo, Finland: natur- och kulturvärde2009In: Värdefulla våtmarker: - hur värdera och sköta. / [ed] Magnus Bergström, Stockholm: Svenska IALE , 2009, 23-24 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Käyhkö, Niina
    et al.
    Dept of geography, University of Turku, Finland.
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Change trajectories and key biotopes:  Assessing landscape dynamics and sustainability2006In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 75, no 3-4, 300-321 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a methodological synthesis of two congruent approaches into a common landscape change trajectory analysis and the assessment of landscape dynamics and sustainability. The emphasis of the analysis is on the retrospective relationship between the past and the present-day landscape patterns and associated key biotopes. The example key biotopes, oak woodlands and grasslands, represent valuable habitats in the hemiboreal landscapes of Finland and Sweden. The paper presents a conceptual stepwise approach for change trajectory analysis utilising multiple spatio-temporal data and techniques available in image processing and geographical information systems (GIS) including the following steps: (I) specification of spatio-temporal data and their representation of target objects, (II) the choice of direct or indirect change trajectory analysis, (III) hierarchical structuring of landscape information, (IV) compilation of landscape information into a GIS database, and (V) identification of paths for landscape change trajectory analysis. In this case study, we have focused on three interlinked trajectory analysis approaches, and their role in the assessment of landscape sustainability from a potential biodiversity perspective. We conclude that proposed landscape change trajectory analysis can improve the assessment of the key biotopes as well as present day landscape characteristics, in maintaining biodiversity and related ecological values by providing information on landscape stability, continuity, change processes and boundary dynamics. This approach can be useful in the assessment of natural capital, but requires data-specific and context sensitive data processing and analysis solutions. The results should be interpreted as an approximation and generalisation of the spatio-temporal complexity of landscape reality and therefore be used in conjunction with additional habitat function measures.

  • 20.
    Käyhkö, Niina
    et al.
    dept of Geography, University of Turku, Finland.
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Retrospective land cover/land use change trajectories as drivers behind the local distribution and abundance patterns of oaks in south-western Finland2008In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 88, 12-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuable cultural landscapes are challenging to sustain. They are usually rare and reflect unique histories of nature–human interactions. We have studied the influence of environmental factors on the present distribution, age and abundance of oaks in a unique forest site in south-western Finland. The Landscape Change Trajectory Analysis (LCTA) approachwas tested to improve management strategies at a local level. We used geospatial analysis in GIS on existing data from a recent forest inventory, a multi-temporal land cover/land use analysis, and a digital elevation model. The results show that mature Pendunculate oaks (Quercus robur) are restricted to the eastern parts of Ruissalo island and their present abundance patterns can be linked with change trajectories as opposed to physical conditions. While the prevailing strategy of strict protection seems to lead to an increasing amount of dead wood, the lack of management hampers the regeneration of oaks. We suggest four principles for future management of these sites that could be applied throughout the hemiboreal region of Europe with similar historical development: (1) management regimes should be spatially explicit in terms of land cover history instead of treating valuable oak biotopes as one homogenous unit; (2) management units should be determined by biotope dynamics and development rather than present status and distribution; (3) management should allow strict protection of sites with long duration of protection and high abundance of decaying oak wood to support biodiversity; (4) alternative management regimes should be introduced in sites with high potential for re-establishment of light-abundant favourable conditions.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Mats
    et al.
    Fjärranalys, SLU Umeå.
    Granholm, Ann-Helen
    Fjärranalys, SLU Umeå.
    Nordqvist, Karin
    SLU, Umeå.
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Computer classification of General Habitat Categories by combining LiDAR and SPOT data2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    General Habitat Categories (GHC) is a classification scheme developed in BioHab1, 2 and a central concept in EBONE3. A characteristic of GHC is plant height, which can be derived using Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data. Computer classification of GHCs might be improved by combining spectral information in optical satellite data with LiDAR. The aim of this pilot study was to investi­gate to which degree airborne LiDAR improves SPOT data based classification of a selection of GHCs in a for­est area in southern Sweden. Lat. 58° 30’ N Long 13° 40’ E. Managed forest with Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea Abies) and birch (Betula spp). A SPOT 5 HRG XS scene. Airborne LiDAR data with an average point density of 26 returns/m2. Photo interpretation of GHCs, 585 sample plots, in aerial DMC images. Combining LiDAR and SPOT data shows promise, considering the restrictions to this study. In a similar study, using the same dataset for classifying CORINE land cover types, overall accuracy increased from 67.1% to 77.6% when add­ing LiDAR data4. This means that there is potential, though the methods need improvement and further tests should include a larger test area providing adequate amounts of sample plots per GHC.

  • 22.
    Nilsson, Mats
    et al.
    Fjärranalys, SLU Umeå.
    Holm, Sören
    Fjärranalys, SLU Umeå.
    Allard, Anna
    Institutionen för Skoglig Resurshushållning .
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Integration of earth observation data and in situ data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS)2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of in situ data and earth observation (EO) data for estimating the occurrence of different habitat or classes can be achieved using different approaches. In this study, the approach used is to post-stratify in situ data using existing land cover maps derived from satellite data. Photo-interpreted landscape elements and biotopes from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS; http://nils.slu.se/) were used as in situ data. The mapped landscape elements and biotopes were classified into General Habitat Categories (GHCs). Five of the GHCs were selected to exemplify how the precision of their area estimates was affected by using post-stratification, as compared to area estimates of the GHCs based on the photo-interpreted data alone. The stratification was made using the Swedish version of Corine land cover (SMD) which includes more classes and has a higher spatial resolution (1-25 ha minimum mapping unit depending on the class) than the European version of Corine land cover (CLC). The results show that the standard error was reduced substantially for all tested GHCs using post-stratification in comparison to the errors obtained without post-stratification. This shows the potential to derive improved area statistics of habitat categories by integrating in situ data with existing land cover maps.

  • 23.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of the History of Art.
    Den trädgårdshistoriska forskningens metodologi: utmaningar och möjligheter2008In: Konsthistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0023-3609, Vol. 77, no 4, 136-145 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Drottningholms slottspark från Gustav IV Adolf till Gustaf V2010In: Drottningholms slott (band II): Från Gustav III till Carl XVI Gustaf / [ed] Göran Alm, Rebecka Millhagen, Karlstad: Votum , 2010, 1, 296-313 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of the History of Art.
    En svensk lustgårdskonst.: Lars Israel Wahlman som trädgårdsarkitekt2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lars Israel Wahlman var en av de stora förnyarna av den svenska trädgårdskonsten i början av 1900-talet, manifesterat i villaträdgårdar och parker, begravningsplatser och en rad parker. Denna verksamhet, som länge stått i skuggan av välkända byggnadsverk som Tjolöholms slott i Halland och Engelbrektskyrkan i Stockholm, liksom villorna Trefnan och Trotzgården i Hedemora, presenteras nu för första gången. Med sina mångskiftande och konsekvent genomförda arbeten framstår Wahlman som en av de viktigaste förmedlarna av en trädgårdsstil i Arts and Crafts-rörelsens anda till Sverige. Ingen annan svensk arkitekt ritade så många trädgårdar under denna period. Wahlman ville att det yttre av hans byggnader och deras interiörer tillsammans med omgivningarna skulle fungera som väl sammanlänkade helheter. Att även skapa trädgårdar var en självklar del i denna helhetstanke.

  • 26.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Koloniträdgårdsrörelsen i Stockholm – dess förutsättningar och uppkomst vid 1900-talets början2003In: Stadens odlare / [ed] Christina Westergren, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 2003, 9-39 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of the History of Art.
    Lulu Salto Stephensen: Garden Design in Denmark. G. N. Brandt and the early decades of the twentieth century2008In: Bulletin för Forum för trädgårdshistorisk forskning, ISSN 1652–2362, no 21, 62–63- p.Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Parks in Gothenburg and Jönköping. Secluded idylls for Swedish townsfolk2004In: Garden History, ISSN 0307-1243, Vol. 32, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Stockholm's urban parks: meeting places and social contexts in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries2006In: The European City and Green Space: London, Stockholm, Helsinki and St Petersburg, 1850–2000 / [ed] Peter Clark, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Till stadsbornas nytta och förlustande2005Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of the History of Art.
    Till stadsbornas nytta och förlustande: Den offentliga parken i Sverige under 1800-talet1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to study the public parks in Sweden during the nineteenth century. It focuses on three general factors – decision process, design, and function – and is to a great extent based on previously unstudied material including town councils' minutes, drawings, and other contemporary sources. The dissertation considers a selection of the approximately one hundred public parks laid out in Sweden during the period.

    From the beginning of the century the middle classes endeavoured to create meeting places and social customs of their own, and public parks had a role to play in their efforts. There, families could spend their leisure time together, meeting acquaintances and amusing themselves. The park was also an aesthetic element in the townscape. The study shows that the first public parks appeared in the 1820s, and that they were established several decades earlier than is generally acknowledged. During the decades following 1860, a large number of new parks were made. From now on, moral considerations began being put forward as grounds for creating public parks. They were promoted as more suitable social settings than the streets, squares, and pubs – for the middle classes as well as for the workers. In the 1890s, new parks were made whose design and function differed distinctly from their predecessors. They were planned for active use to a much greater extent, with features such as games and sport, and all surfaces open to the public. The study also shows that town councils from the beginning of the century were involved in creating the parks, and generally assumed full economic responsibility.

    Concerning the design, the parks changed during the century. From the initial decades, the essential design assumption was that parks would be perceived as art rather than nature. It should be obvious that the trees, bushes, and flowers did not grow natural on the spot, an impression emphasised by their varied colours, shapes, and ways of growing. Exotic plants were used extensively. From around 1870 the attempt to imitate nature as closely as possible, often using an existing natural area as a starting point and employing indigenous plants, gradually became common.

    Previous studies have often pointed to the public parks' role in improving the hygiene in the towns, locating them within an overall town planning perspective. However, the study shows that the belief that they might also improve the moral and general living conditions of urban dwellers has been an even more important factor. The park was envisaged as a place of education and general cultivation, but also as a place for amusement, which was reflected in the bandstands, monuments, and playgrounds, etc. Though the parks were often smaller than their counterparts abroad, Sweden was in step with the rest of Europe.

  • 32.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of the History of Art.
    Trädgård och park vid Skånelaholm2008In: Skånelaholm: ett gods i Uppland, Vitterhetsakademien, Stockholm , 2008, 96-111 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Trädgårdskonst och trädgårdsodling2003In: Rosendals slott / [ed] Christian Laine, Stockholm: Byggförlaget/Kultur , 2003, 258-297 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Trädgårdskonsten2002In: Signums svenska konsthistoria: [Bd 12], Konsten 1915-1950, Lund: Bokförlaget Signum, 2002, 597-635 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Nolin, Catharina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Bergström, Anders
    Arkitekturskolan, KTH.
    Millesgården: Arkitektur och trädgård2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Millesgården på Lidingö norr om Stockholm är ett av Sveriges mest välkända konstnärshem. Här uppförde skulptören Carl Milles från 1908 en kombinerad ateljé och bostad med anslutande trädgård. Trots att Milles var en mycket produktiv och framgångsrik skulptör, finns det skäl att framhålla Millesgården som hans främsta konstnärliga arbete. I denna rikt illustrerade bok skildrar författarna Millesgårdens tillkomst i nära anslutning till den samtida utvecklingen inom arkitektur och trädgårdskonst. Anläggningen fungerade inte bara som hem och ateljé utan även som utställningsmiljö.

  • 36.
    Olsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Risk för kontinuitetsglapp och förlust av biologisk mångfald i Solnas ekmiljöer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker kontinuiteten, vitaliteten, exponeringen och möjliga naturvårdsåtgärder i Solnas ekmiljöer. Enligt det 16:e miljökvalitetsmålet "ett rikt växt och djurliv" ska den biologiska mångfalden bevaras och nyttjas på ett hållbart sätt för nuvarande och framtida generationer. Gamla ekar har visat sig hysa en hög biologisk mångfald, men tyvärr minskar estånden av jätteträd kontinuerligt i Sverige samtidigt som föryngringen går långsamt eller i värsta fall helt avstannat. Åsikterna om jätteekarnas minskning verkar enstämmiga och bero på kontinuitetsglapp, upphörd hävd, igenväxning, plantering av gran på gamla odlingsmarker, brist på skötsel och ny bebyggelse i urbana miljöer. Kontinuiteten studerades genom att undersöka fördelningen mellan värdefulla ekar och ekefterträdare i hela Solnaområdet samt i fyra bestämda ektrakter. Kriteriet för god kontinuitet var 15 % värdefulla ekar och 85 % ekefterträdare. För att bedöma ekarnas vitalitet studerades andelen permanent döda grenar i trädkronan och för att bedöma ekarnas exponering struderades hur stor andel av trädkronan som täcktes av omgivande trädkronor. I varken hela Solnaområdet eller i trakterna observerades god ekkontinuitet. I hela Solnaområdet mår ekefterträdarna procentuellt sett sämre i samtliga vitalitetsklasser jämfört med de värefulla ekarna. För ekarnas exponeringstillstånd över hela Solnaområdet hade ekefterträdarna samma procentuella fördelning som de värdefulla ekarna när det gällde halvöppen exponering, men utöver det var ekefterträdarna jämförelsevis sämre exponerade. En viktig naturvårdsåtgärd för ekefterträdarna är att öka deras exponering, vilket kan göras med hjälp av frihuggning, slåtterhävd eller beteshävd.

  • 37. Padmanaban, Rajchandar
    et al.
    Bhowmik, Avit K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cabral, Pedro
    Zamyatin, Alexander
    Almegdadi, Oraib
    Wang, Shuangao
    Modelling Urban Sprawl Using Remotely Sensed Data: A Case Study of Chennai City, Tamilnadu2017In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 19, no 4, 163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sprawl (US), propelled by rapid population growth leads to the shrinkage of productive agricultural lands and pristine forests in the suburban areas and, in turn, adversely affects the provision of ecosystem services. The quantification of US is thus crucial for effective urban planning and environmental management. Like many megacities in fast growing developing countries, Chennai, the capital of Tamilnadu and one of the business hubs in India, has experienced extensive US triggered by the doubling of total population over the past three decades. However, the extent and level of US has not yet been quantified and a prediction for future extent of US is lacking. We employed the Random Forest (RF) classification on Landsat imageries from 1991, 2003, and 2016, and computed six landscape metrics to delineate the extent of urban areas within a 10 km suburban buffer of Chennai. The level of US was then quantified using Renyi's entropy. A land change model was subsequently used to project land cover for 2027. A 70.35% expansion in urban areas was observed mainly towards the suburban periphery of Chennai between 1991 and 2016. The Renyi's entropy value for year 2016 was 0.9, exhibiting a two-fold level of US when compared to 1991. The spatial metrics values indicate that the existing urban areas became denser and the suburban agricultural, forests and particularly barren lands were transformed into fragmented urban settlements. The forecasted land cover for 2027 indicates a conversion of 13,670.33 ha (16.57% of the total landscape) of existing forests and agricultural lands into urban areas with an associated increase in the entropy value to 1.7, indicating a tremendous level of US. Our study provides useful metrics for urban planning authorities to address the social-ecological consequences of US and to protect ecosystem services.

  • 38.
    Schlyter, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Stjernquist, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Regulatory challenges and forest governance in Sweden2010In: Environmental Politics and Deliberative Democracy: Examining the Promise of New Modes of Governance / [ed] Bäckstrand, K., Khan, J., Kronsell, A. & Lövbrand E., Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar , 2010, 180-196 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Skånes, Helle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Andersson, Anna
    Lantmäteriet i Luleå.
    Flygbildstolkningsmanual för Uppföljningsprojektet Natura 2000 version 4.0: UF 192010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppföljningsmanualen är indelad i fem kapitel.

    Kapitel 1.  Ger en kortfattad bakgrund som är gemensam för hela projektet och specifik för flygbildstolkningen.

    Kapitel 2.  Redovisar hur länsstyrelsen ska gå till väga för att på bästa sätt förbereda, planera och beställa uppföljning genom flygbildstolkning och vänder sig främst till länsstyrelsepersonalen. Flygbildstolkarna har god nytta av att känna till dessa rutiner för att på bästa sätt kunna utföra den beställda tolkningen. Här listas aktuella uppföljningsvariabler för denna manual samt ges en genomgång kring vilka naturtyper som finns föreslagna för uppföljning via flygbildstolkning i de olika uppföljningsmanualerna.

    Kapitel 3.  Vänder sig främst till flygbildstolkarna och redovisar rekommenderad arbetsgång för flygbildstolkning. Länsstyrelsen har god nytta av att känna till detta arbetssätt inför beställning och hantering av flygbildstolkade uppföljningsdata.

    Kapitel 4.  Går in på djupet kring de olika målindikatorer som kan beställas via flygbildstolkning och vänder sig främst till flygbildstolkarna. Länsstyrelsen har god nytta av att känna till detta arbetssätt inför såväl beställning som analys av flygbildstolkade uppföljningsdata.

    Kapitel 5.  Kort beskrivning av förfaranden kring leverans, kontroll och godkännande av flygbildstolkade data. Detta kapitel vänder sig till alla inblandade.

  • 40.
    Skånes, Helle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Glimskär, Anders
    Institutionen för ekologi, SLU Uppsala.
    Allard, Anna
    Institutionen för Skoglig Resurshushållning .
    Visual interpretation of key properties in vegetation structur from Lidar data: potential importance for physical, ecological and socio-economic monitoring2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses early findings from one of several projects within a recently launched research program devoted to environmental mapping and monitoring with airborne laser and digital images (EMMA) financed by the Swedish EPA. Policy makers and land managers along with the global community increasingly demand hard figures regarding the state and trends of biodiversity and habitat qualities of importance to nature conservation and international environmental quality goals. Although remote sensing and GIS based methods have greatly improved, there is still a lack of spatially detailed and consistent habitat data to meet these requirements. Key vegetation qualities are often hidden from visual and automatic classification in high resolution remote sensing imagery since they are typically covered by trees. Laser beams can partly penetrate through the canopy and the data derived from the reflected pulses will add crucial detail and consistency in vegetation mapping. The aim of the project is to visually explore LiDAR data focusing on habitats within agricultural and alpine environments for enhanced vegetation classification and registration of habitat qualities and structures. Initially a number of key variables (vertical and horizontal structure, influence of land use, and site conditions) have been explored through visual interpretation of two time sets of high resolution 3D laser point data (density>5 points/m²) and derivates processed to enhance objects of interest. The initial results from a wooded pasture indicate that key properties, such as ditches, field and shrub layer characteristics and distribution, fallen trees and various man made remnants are in fact detectable. The use of laser-generated high-quality bare earth models is crucial to distinguish the field layer and low shrubs from boulders and uneven ground surface. These bare earth models will as they become widely available enhance all types of habitat modeling and landscape analysis.

  • 41.
    Skånes, Helle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Glimskär, Anders
    Institutionen för ekologi, SLU Uppsala.
    Allard, Anna
    Institutionen för Skoglig Resurshushållning .
    Visuell tolkning av vegetationens strukturer och kvaliteter i laserskannade data2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Presentation av initiala resultat från projektets första år där nyckelegenskaper i vegetationens vertikala och horisontella struktur har formulerats och utforskats i laserskannade punktdata. Syftet är att utforska möjligheterna till visuell tolkning av nyckelgenskaper i vegetation enligt EU:s habitatdirektiv i laserdata och att undersöka i vilken utsträckning olika vegetationstyper kan skiljas genom enkla bearbetningar av laserpunktmolnet. Målet på sikt är att undersöka hur kombinationen av automatiserad och visuell tolkning av laserdata kan förbättra naturvårdsrelaterade bedömningar och automatiska vegetationsklassificeringar. Fokus ligger på habitat inom alpina miljöer, odlingslandskap och kustzonen.

  • 42.
    Sverdrup, Harald
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Belyazid, Salim
    Koca, Deniz
    Kemiteknik LTH/Lund University.
    Jönsson-Belyazid, Ulrika
    Schlyter, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Stjernquist, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Miljömål i fjällandskapet: En syntes av problemställningar knutna till förvaltningen av en begränsad resurs2010Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Tillberg, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Årstider – valda prosaimpressioner av Elena Guro i urval och översättning av Margareta Tillberg1994In: Park: ett idéprojekt om innerstadsparkernas framtida betydelse, användning och utformning / [ed] Leif Brodersen, Stockholm: Byggförlaget , 1994, 73-77 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Jansson, Johanna
    Arnberg, Wolter
    Moström, Jerker
    Nielsen, Michael
    Fjärranalys i kulturmiljövårdens tjänst2007Report (Other academic)
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