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  • 1.
    Ahlbeck Bergendahl, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Salvanes, Anne Gro V.
    Braithwaite, Victoria A.
    Determining the effects of duration and recency of exposure to environmental enrichment2016In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 176, p. 163-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience can help animals adapt their behaviour to fit the environment or conditions that they find themselves in. Understanding how and when experience affects behaviour is important for the animals we rear in captivity. This is particularly true when we rear animals with the intent of releasing them into the wild as part of population rehabilitation and conservation efforts. We investigated how exposure to a changing, more complex environment promotes behavioural development in juvenile trout. Four groups of fish were compared; (i) fish that were maintained without enrichment, (ii) fish that were exposed to an early period of enrichment, but were then returned to a plain environment, (iii) fish that were maintained in plain conditions, but were then exposed to enrichment towards the end of the rearing phase, (iv) a group that were kept in enriched conditions throughout the 12 week rearing period. We then assessed fish anxiety levels, their spatial learning ability, and the capacity of the fish to find their way through a barrier where different routes were presented across 4 different trials. Fish that experienced enriched conditions for the longest duration had superior spatial learning abilities, and they were better at finding the correct route to get past the barrier than fish from the remaining three treatments. Positive effects on behaviour were, however, also found in the fish that only experienced enrichment in the last part of the rearing period, compared to the control, or fish exposed to early enrichment. No effect of enrichment was found on levels of anxiety in any of the groups.

  • 2.
    Jeppsson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Purebred Dogs and Canine Wellbeing2013In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 417-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breeders of purebred dogs usually have several goals they want to accomplish, of which canine wellbeing is one. The purpose of this article is to investigate what we ought to do given this goal. Breeders typically think that they fulfil their wellbeing-related duties by doing the best they can within their breed of choice. However, it is true of most breeders that they could produce physically and mentally healthier dogs if they switched to a healthier breed. There are a few breeds that are healthier than other breeds as well as mutts; we could maximize wellbeing for the next generations by focusing all our breeding resources on those. However, in the long run such a strategy would severely deplete the canine gene pool. If we are to breed for wellbeing in the long run, we must thus weigh the benefits of selection against physical and mental problems against the benefits of genetic diversity. The optimal breeding strategy for canine wellbeing is to preserve many breeds, though not all of them. Furthermore, we ought to combine strict health programs with looser barriers between breeds. Such a policy conflicts with the goal of breed preservation, at least if we think of breeds as populations registered within kennel clubs rather than types of dogs, but not with the goal of producing good working dogs capable of performing various tasks.

  • 3. Reimert, Inonge
    et al.
    Fong, Stephanie
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Rodenburg, T. Bas
    Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth
    Emotional states and emotional contagion in pigs after exposure to a positive and negative treatment2017In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 193, p. 37-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After-effects of events that elicit an emotional state on both the animals that experienced these events and on their group members have only scarcely been studied. We investigated effects of a positive vs. negative treatment on the behaviour and emotional state of pigs and their naive pen mates afterwards. Behaviour of 96 pigs was observed in the home pen for 5 min on two different days (day 2 and 18), directly after two pigs per pen (N = 16) had been subjected to a positive or negative treatment in a test room. On day 2, treated pigs lay down more (30.78 +/- 4.07 vs. 15.25 +/- 3.74% of time, P = 0.01), walked less (17.91 +/- 2.82 vs. 26.87 +/- 2.32% of time, P = 0.02) and explored the pen less (12.30 +/- 1.34 vs. 18.29 +/- 1.71% of time, P = 0.01) after the negative compared to the positive treatment. Naive pigs simultaneously also lay more (45.67 +/- 6.00 vs. 18.79 +/- 5.88% of time, P = 0.003), walked less (6.33 +/- 0.80 vs. 12.83 +/- 1.74% of time, P < 0.001) and explored the pen less (6.80 +/- 1.23 vs. 13.47 +/- 2.34% of time, P = 0.02) after their pen mates' negative treatment. After their pen mates' positive treatment, in contrast, naive pigs showed more nosing behaviour, nose nose (0.83 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.40 +/- 0.06 freq./min, P = 0.004) and nose-body contact (0.73 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.47 +/- 0.06 freq./min, P = 0.02), and tended to play more (0.10 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.01 +/- 0.01 freq./min, P = 0.09). On day 18, treated pigs were only found to eat longer after the negative than the positive treatment (10.75 +/- 3.73 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.79% of time, P = 0.02), whereas their naive pen mates, similar to day 2, lay more (45.01 +/- 5.16 vs. 22.59 +/- 5.52% of time, P = 0.006), stood (40.73 +/- 3.84 vs. 57.32 +/- 4.29% of time, P = 0.007) and walked less (7.00 +/- 1.21 vs. 10.88 +/- 1.04% of time, P = 0.01). After their pen mates' positive treatment, at day 18, they still nosed the nose (0.52 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.21 +/- 0.04 freq./min, P < 0.001) and body of their pen mates more (0.68 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.29 +/- 0.05 freq./min, P = 0.002) than after their pen mates' negative treatment, and they tended to wag their tails more (2.30 +/- 0.95 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.41% of time, P = 0.08). Thus, pigs still appeared to be in a negative emotional state for some time after the negative treatment had ended. Furthermore, their pen mates also seemed to be (emotionally) affected even though they were not subjected to the treatment themselves. Negative and positive events may thus have consequences that extend beyond the duration of these events, for both the welfare of the exposed animals and their group members.

  • 4. Welderufael, B. G.
    et al.
    de Koning, D. J.
    Janss, L. L. G.
    Franzen, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Fikse, W. F.
    Simultaneous genetic evaluation of simulated mastitis susceptibility and recovery ability using a bivariate threshold sire model2016In: Acta agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal science, ISSN 0906-4702, E-ISSN 1651-1972, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 125-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop a new approach for joint genetic evaluation of mastitis and recovery. Two mastitis incidences (0.28 and 0.95) measured via somatic cell count and three between traits genetic correlations (0.0, 0.2, and -0.2) were simulated for daughter group sizes of 60 and 240. A transition model was applied to model transitions between healthy and disease state. The RJMC package in DMU was used to estimate (co)variances. Heritabilities were consistent with the simulated value (0.039) for susceptibility and a bit upward biased for recovery. Estimates of genetic correlations were -0.055, 0.205, and -0.192 for the simulated values of 0.0, 0.2, and -0.2, respectively. For daughter group size of 60, accuracies of sire EBV ranged from 0.56 to 0.69 for mastitis and from 0.26 to 0.48 for recovery. The study demonstrated that both traits can be modeled jointly and simulated correlations could be correctly reproduced.

  • 5.
    Wergård, Eva-Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Westlund, Karolina
    Spångberg, Mats
    Fredlund, Helene
    Forkman, Björn
    Training success in group-housed long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) is better explained by personality than by social rank2016In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 177, p. 52-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using training to prepare laboratory animals for biomedical research is one important behavior management task. With increased knowledge about factors influencing training success, training programs may be optimized, resulting in a refinement of primate husbandry. Even when animals are trained under the same conditions there are individual differences in how they respond to training. The current paper focuses on two of the factors potentially influencing training success: social rank and personality. Five observers rated the personality and the social rank of 34 long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in an observer trait rating survey. Training success was measured in 22 of these individuals and from four of their shaping protocols; hand-feeding, target training, presenting hands and presenting feet. From the factor analysis four personality traits could be identified: 'Emotionality', 'Activity', 'Sociability', and 'Tolerance'. A Multiple linear regressions with backward elimination showed that the personality trait 'Activity' was associated with training success (adj.R-2 = 0.71, p < 0.0005), and unexpectedly, social rank had less influence (adj.R-2 = 0.30, p = 0.005) on training success in group-housed long-tailed macaques. We propose that training success can be conceptualized as consisting of two components: access to the trainer and problem solving. In the case of personality, the two components combine to promote training success: curious animals gain access to trainers, and playful animals are good problem solvers; both these adjectives were present in the trait 'Activity'. In contrast, with regards to rank, qualities that increase access to the trainer (dominance) and traits that promote problem solving (subordinance) counteract one another, potentially explaining why in this study, training was better explained by personality than by rank. We discuss the importance of successfully training different types of personalities in order for the selection of animals in biomedical research to remain random and non-biased, rather than excluding those that do not respond well to training.

  • 6. Östlund, Pernilla
    Molecular changes in scrapie-infected neuroblastoma cells2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
1 - 6 of 6
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