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  • 1.
    Ahlbeck Bergendahl, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Salvanes, Anne Gro V.
    Braithwaite, Victoria A.
    Determining the effects of duration and recency of exposure to environmental enrichment2016Ingår i: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 176, s. 163-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience can help animals adapt their behaviour to fit the environment or conditions that they find themselves in. Understanding how and when experience affects behaviour is important for the animals we rear in captivity. This is particularly true when we rear animals with the intent of releasing them into the wild as part of population rehabilitation and conservation efforts. We investigated how exposure to a changing, more complex environment promotes behavioural development in juvenile trout. Four groups of fish were compared; (i) fish that were maintained without enrichment, (ii) fish that were exposed to an early period of enrichment, but were then returned to a plain environment, (iii) fish that were maintained in plain conditions, but were then exposed to enrichment towards the end of the rearing phase, (iv) a group that were kept in enriched conditions throughout the 12 week rearing period. We then assessed fish anxiety levels, their spatial learning ability, and the capacity of the fish to find their way through a barrier where different routes were presented across 4 different trials. Fish that experienced enriched conditions for the longest duration had superior spatial learning abilities, and they were better at finding the correct route to get past the barrier than fish from the remaining three treatments. Positive effects on behaviour were, however, also found in the fish that only experienced enrichment in the last part of the rearing period, compared to the control, or fish exposed to early enrichment. No effect of enrichment was found on levels of anxiety in any of the groups.

  • 2.
    Arama, Charles
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut. University of Sciences Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Mali.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    The path of malaria vaccine development: challenges and perspectives2014Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 275, nr 5, s. 456-466Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus. In many parts of the world, the parasites have developed resistance to a number of antimalarial agents. Key interventions to control malaria include prompt and effective treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies, use of insecticidal nets by individuals at risk and active research into malaria vaccines. Protection against malaria through vaccination was demonstrated more than 30years ago when individuals were vaccinated via repeated bites by Plasmodium falciparum-infected and irradiated but still metabolically active mosquitoes. However, vaccination with high doses of irradiated sporozoites injected into humans has long been considered impractical. Yet, following recent success using whole-organism vaccines, the approach has received renewed interest; it was recently reported that repeated injections of irradiated sporozoites increased protection in 80 vaccinated individuals. Other approaches include subunit malaria vaccines, such as the current leading candidate RTS,S (consisting of fusion between a portion of the P.falciparum-derived circumsporozoite protein and the hepatitis B surface antigen), which has been demonstrated to induce reasonably good protection. Although results have been encouraging, the level of protection is generally considered to be too low to achieve eradication of malaria. There is great interest in developing new and better formulations and stable delivery systems to improve immunogenicity. In this review, we will discuss recent strategies to develop efficient malaria vaccines.

  • 3. Ekstrand, Carl
    et al.
    Sterning, Marie
    Bohman, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Edner, Anna
    Lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia as a complement to dissociative anaesthesia during scrotal herniorrhaphy of livestock pigs in the field2015Ingår i: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 57, artikel-id 33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, scrotal or inguinal herniorrhaphy of livestock pigs in the field has traditionally been an important part of the surgical skills training of veterinary students. Few substances meet the legal requirements for field anaesthesia of production animals in the European Union but a protocol based on azaperone-detomidine-butorphanol-ketamine does. Unfortunately the anaesthesia is characterised by unpredictable duration and depth and of abrupt awakenings which is not acceptable from an animal welfare perspective and impedes surgical training. Lumbo-sacral epidural analgesia is proven to provide sufficient analgesia to allow abdominal surgery, but there are few reports on the field use of this loco-regional technique. The study aim was to evaluate whether lumbo-sacral anaesthesia can be safely and successfully used in the field by a veterinary student and whether the combination of dissociative and lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia improves analgesia and anaesthesia to guarantee animal welfare during herniorrhaphy in livestock pigs, enabling surgical skills training. Results: Pigs in the control-group (placebo) responded significantly stronger to surgery, with five out of 11 requiring additional doses of detomidine and ketamine. There were no significant differences between groups in respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, SpO(2) or blood gases. SpO(2) levels <94 % were recorded in several pigs in both groups. No post-injection complications were reported at follow-up. Conclusions: The results from this study showed that lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia with lidocaine could successfully be administered during dissociative anaesthesia of livestock pigs by a veterinary student and without reported post-injection complications. It improved analgesia and anaesthesia during herniorrhaphy of sufficient duration to enable surgical skills training. The risks and consequences of hypoxaemia and hypoventilation should be considered.

  • 4. García-Sanchez, Marta
    et al.
    Jiménez-Pelayo, Laura
    Horcajo, Pilar
    Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier
    Ólafsson, Einar B.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Bhandage, Amol K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Barragan, Antonio
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Werling, Dirk
    Miguel Ortega-Mora, Luis
    Collantes-Fernández, Esther
    Differential Responses of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to Infection by Neospora caninum Isolates of High and Low Virulence2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, artikel-id 915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, represents one of the main causes of abortion in cattle. Macrophages (Mempty sets) are mediators of the innate immune response against infection and likely one of the first cells encountered by the parasite during the host infection process. In this study, we investigated in vitro how high or low virulent isolates of N. caninum (Nc-Spain7 and Nc-Spain1H, respectively) interact with bovine monocyte-derived Mempty sets and the influence of the isolate virulence on the subsequent cellular response. Both isolates actively invaded, survived and replicated in the Mempty sets. However, Nc-Spain7 showed a higher invasion rate and a replication significantly faster, following an exponential growth model, whereas Nc-Spain1H presented a delayed replication and a lower growth rate without an exponential pattern. N. caninum infection induced a hypermigratory phenotype in bovine Mempty sets that was characterized by enhanced motility and transmigration in vitro and was accompanied by morphological changes and abrogated extracellular matrix degradation. A significantly higher hypermotility was observed with the highly virulent isolate Nc-Spain7. Nc-Spain1H-infected Mempty sets showed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and IL12p40 expression, which also resulted in increased IFN-gamma release by lymphocytes, compared to cells infected with Nc-Spain7. Furthermore, IL-10 was upregulated in Mempty sets infected with both isolates. Infected Mempty sets exhibited lower expression of MHC Class II, CD86, and CD1b molecules than uninfected Mempty sets, with non-significant differences between isolates. This work characterizes for the first time N. caninum replication in bovine monocyte-derived Mempty sets and details isolate-dependent differences in host cell responses to the parasite.

  • 5. Jones, Bernt
    et al.
    Norrgran Engdahl, Jessica
    Weiss, Jana
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Are persistent organic pollutants important in the etiology of feline hyperthyroidism? A review2019Ingår i: Acta veterinaria scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 61, nr 1, artikel-id 45Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feline hyperthyroidism is a rather new disease, first reported from the North American east coast in 1979. The prevalence is increasing, especially in older cats, and hyperthyroidism is now reported worldwide as the most common feline endocrinopathy. Several studies have been performed trying to identify important etiological factors such as exposure to persistent organic pollutants, and especially brominated flame retardants, have been suggested to be of importance for the development of the disease. Recent studies have shown higher concentrations of these contaminants in serum of hyperthyroid cats in comparison to cats with normal thyroid status. However, other still unknown factors are most probably of importance for the development of this disease.

  • 6.
    Mellroth, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins: Major Regulators of Drosophila Immunity2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    All eukaryotic organisms have an innate immune system characterized by germ-line encoded receptors and effector molecules, which mediate detection and clearance of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and parasites. VertebrateDrosophila as a genetically tractable organism with a

    This thesis concerns the peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) gene family in the fruit fly. The family consists of thirteen genes, of which a few have been reported to be part of the signaling pathways that regulates immune

    Data presented show that the putative receptors have affinity for peptidoglycan, but not for lipopolysaccharide, or the fungal cell wall polymer beta-glucan. PGRP-SA, receptor of the Toll pathway, has a preference for

    In a search for novel PGRP receptors I found two PGRP proteins that instead displayed enzymatic activity towards peptidoglycan. They are of the N-actylmuramoyl L-alanine amidase type, which degrades peptidoglycan by splittingStaphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan looses its immune elicitor capacity. This is in contrast to lysozyme-degraded peptidoglycan, which isDrosophila PGRPs to be potential enzymes. PGRP-SB1 is the other enzymatic PGRP described within this thesis. It has a moreBacillus megaterium.

    In conclusion, receptor PGRP proteins binds bacterial peptidoglycan and triggers immune gene pathways and enzymatic PGRPs have the capacity to reduce the elicitor property of peptidoglycan.

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Anders S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Phage therapy-constraints and possibilities2014Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 119, nr 2, s. 192-198Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, causing intractable infections, has resulted in an increased interest in phage therapy. Phage therapy preceded antibiotic treatment against bacterial infections and involves the use of bacteriophages, bacterial viruses, to fight bacteria. Virulent phages are abundant and have proven to be very effective in vitro, where they in most cases lyse any bacteria within the hour. Clinical trials on animals and humans show promising results but also that the treatments are not completely effective. This is partly due to the studies being carried out with few phages, and with limited experimental groups, but also the fact that phage therapy has limitations in vivo. Phages are large compared with small antibiotic molecules, and each phage can only infect one or a few bacterial strains. A very large number of different phages are needed to treat infections as these are caused by genetically different strains of bacteria. Phages are effective only if enough of them can reach the bacteria and increase in number in situ. Taken together, this entails high demands on resources for the construction of phage libraries and the testing of individual phages. The effectiveness and host range must be characterized, and immunological risks must be assessed for every single phage.

  • 8.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot tekniska, estetiska och praktiska kunskapstraditioner. Yrkeskunnande och lärande.
    OM FRISKVÅRDSPEDAGOGIK I ARBETSLIVET.: EN O/RÄTTVIS BETRAKTELSE.1993Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I fokus för detta arbete står friskvård inom arbetslivet som pedagogisk praktik med hälsoprofilsbedömning, en metod för undersökning och påverkan av människors hälsostatus och hälsovanor, som konkret exempel. En bakgrund till detta är framväxten av insatser för folkhälsa och den ökade betoning av friskvård inom arbetslivet som skett inom såväl privat som offentlig sektor. Friskvård handlar om människors levnadsvanor när det gäller kost, motion, stress, alkohol, tobak m.m.

    Hälsoprofilsbedömning och friskvårdspedagogik inom arbetslivet ses här ur två olika perspektiv. Ur det ena perspektivet behandlas verksamheten på dess egna villkor - som en metod att inom ramen för arbetslivet få till stånd ner hälsosamma livsstilar genom kontrakt mellan självständiga parter. Det andra perspektivet kan ses som kritiskt granskande. Här ifrågasätts premissema för hälsoprofilsbedömningen utifrån begrepp som makt och disciplinering. En inspirationskälla har därvid bland annat Michel Foucaults arbeten varit. Som empiriskt material för analysen används två avhandlingar som presenterar hälsoprofilbedömningen som metod.

    Ur dessa båda perspektiv erhålles två olika betraktelser om hälsoprofilsbedömning och friskvårdspedagogik inom arbetslivet - en rättvis och en orättvis. På basis av en kritisk pragmatisk ansats diskuteras möjligheten till ett samtal baserad på relationen mellan de båda betrakelserna.

  • 9. Rêgo, Mariana G.
    et al.
    Araujo, Maria Lucia G.
    Barros, Maria Edna G.
    D'Andrade Aires, Lorena
    Oliveira, Paulo G.
    Hazin, Fábio H.
    Fitzpatrick, John L.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim
    Morphological description of ovary and uterus of the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) caught off at the Fortaleza coast, Northeast Brazil2019Ingår i: Pesquise Veterinaria Brasileira, ISSN 0100-736X, E-ISSN 1678-5150, Vol. 39, nr 12, s. 997-1004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1778) is one of the most studied species of elasmobranchs. However, the knowledge of their reproductive biology is still relatively rare, particularly in the western South Atlantic. This study aimed to describe the morphology of the uterus and the ovary of G. cirratum, based on specimens caught off at the Fortaleza/CE coast, northeast Brazil. Samples were collected from September 2012 to June 2013, from regular landings of artisanal fishing, which commercialize this species freely. A total of ten females were collected. The methodologies followed for analyzing the ovaries and uterus of those females included both macroscopic and histological analysis. G. cirratum has internal type ovary morphology, with invaginations of connective tissue, which defines compartments and separate oocyte groups in ovigerous lots. The epithelium lining the ovary changes from simple columnar ciliated in the area without ovigerous lots, which turns into a simple cubic epithelium in the coating portion of the epigonal organ where ovarian tissue is absent. The uterine mucosa has secretory cells denoted by Alcian Blue staining, indicating the production of mucopolysaccharides, even in immature individuals. This lecithotrophic shark has a uterine vascularized mucosa that is one characteristic of viviparous elasmobranch species.

  • 10.
    Sanchez Crespo, Alejandro
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Medicinsk strålningsfysik (tills m KI).
    Novel computational methods for image analysis and quantification using position sensitive radiation detectors2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The major advantage of position sensitive radiation detector systems lies in their ability to non invasively map the regional distribution of the emitted radiation in real-time. Three of such detector systems were studied in this thesis, gamma-cameras, positron cameras and CMOS image sensors. A number of physical factors associated to these detectors degrade the qualitative and quantitative properties of the obtained images. These blurring factors could be divided into two groups. The first group consists of the general degrading factors inherent to the physical interaction processes of radiation with matter, such as scatter and attenuation processes which are common to all three detectors The second group consists of specific factors inherent to the particular radiation detection properties of the used detector which have to be separately studied for each detector system. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was devoted to the development of computational methods to enable quantitative molecular imaging in PET, SPET and in vivo patient dosimetry with CMOS image sensors.

    The first task was to develop a novel quantitative dual isotope method for simultaneous assessments of regional lung ventilation and perfusion using a SPET technique. This method included correction routines for photon scattering, non uniform attenuation at two different photon energies (140 and 392 keV) and organ outline. This quantitative method was validated both with phantom experiments and physiological studies on healthy subjects.

    The second task was to develop and clinically apply a quantitative method for tumour to background activity uptake measurements using planar mammo-scintigraphy, with partial volume compensation.

    The third stage was to produce several computational models to assess the spatial resolution limitations in PET from the positron range, the annihilation photon non-collineairy and the photon depth of interaction.

    Finally, a quantitative image processing method for a CMOS image sensor for applications in ion beam therapy dosimetry was developed.

    From the obtained phantom and physiological results it was concluded that the methodologies developed for the simultaneous measurement of the lung ventilation and perfusion and for the quantification of the tumour malignancy grade in breast carcinoma were both accurate. Further, the obtained models for the influence that the positron range in various human tissues, and the photon emission non-collinearity and depth of interaction have on PET image spatial resolution, could be used both to optimise future PET camera designs and spatial resolution recovery algorithms. Finally, it was shown that the proton fluence rate in a proton therapy beam could be monitored and visualised by using a simple and inexpensive CMOS image sensor.

  • 11.
    Sjøvold, Torstein
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    Hufthammer, Anne Karin
    Costal cartilage fractures among artiodactyles and perissodactyles2008Ingår i: Veterinarija ir Zootechnika, Vol. 43(65), s. 84-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In artiodactyles and perissodactyles the interior of the costal cartilages ossify, forming a spongy, osseous tissue. Recently, it has been discovered that such ossifications frequently display visible lines perpendicular to the cur-vature of the ossification. Such lines are not rare, and often several lines along the same costal cartilage are observed. Macerated ossified costal cartilages frequently, but not always, split into short, bony stabs with straight, cutoff ends, sometimes retaining organic matter encircled within a bony periphery. In archaeological materials such bony stabs areoccasionally observed, and are just denoted “costal cartilages” if recognized. The cause of these structures is not clear. Some may be regarded as transverse splits of the ossifications along a weakness zone, but in other cases the cause isobviously a fracture with more or less extensive callus formation. The smooth surfaces are typical and cannot be con-fused with a secondary fracture, which occur after deposition or maceration. The smooth ends of a healed fracture al-ways display a thin layer of compact tissue, while a secondary fracture is irregular and displays the spongy tissue. Thus, they may be considered as healed micro or macro fractures, where fusion of the fractured ends had occurred along theperiphery of the ossification. In other cases, however, healing may involve dislocation prior to the healing process, ex-tensive callus formation, lipping or formation of pseudoarthroses. How such an injury affected the animal is not gener-ally known. However, in the cases of dislocation and extensive bony reaction to the fracture, it is highly probable that the wellbeing of the animal was influenced by the injury.

  • 12. Svensson, E. M.
    et al.
    Hasler, S.
    Nussbaumer, M.
    Rehazek, A.
    Omrak, Ayca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur. Uppsala University.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Medieval cattle in Bern (Switzerland): An archaeozoological, genetic and historical Approach2014Ingår i: Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, ISSN 0036-7281, E-ISSN 1664-2848, Vol. 156, nr 1, s. 17-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with genetic analyses of an assemblage of mediaeval (1361 century) cattle metapodials from Bern that had previously been osteometrically examined regarding sex, shape and wither height. The results from the genetic sexing of these small (height 100 to 120 cm) cattle correlate well with the osteometric interpretations. Some few exceptions we interpreted as cows used as draft animals with stouter bones and thus osteometrically determined as males. Two morphologically different groups of cow metatarsals however, we took as proof of the historical fact that Bern relied on livestock from different geographical origins: the town's vicinity and the alpine pastures with their favourable grazing conditions. It was not possible to distinguish them genetically. An analysis of one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) showed that predominant coat colour most likely was red-brown. Furthermore, an analysis of the SNP in the Y-chromosomal intron UTY19 that divide modern taurine cattle in two major haplogroups (Y1 and Y2) showed that the mediaeval cattle belonged to the haplogroup Y2 with one single exception of a Yl.

  • 13. Wahlström, Helene
    et al.
    Carpenter, Tim
    Giesecke, Johan
    Andersson, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Matematisk statistik.
    Englund, Lena
    Vågsholm, Ivar
    Herd-based monitoring for tuberculosis in extensive swedish deer herds by culling and meat inspection rather than by intradermal tuberculin testing.2000Ingår i: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 103-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of random slaughter and meat inspection as a tool to detect or eradicate tuberculosis in large, extensive deer herds in Sweden was evaluated. A computer spreadsheet model based on the Reed-Frost method was developed. Numbers of new infections and of infected deer slaughtered as well as probability of detecting tuberculosis or slaughtering all infected deer in a herd, were simulated. The model predicted that, given a 20% annual slaughter and that disease was introduced with one infected deer, the infection would be detected or eliminated in most herds (90%) after 15 years.

  • 14.
    Wergård, Eva-Marie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Westlund, Karolina
    Spångberg, Mats
    Fredlund, Helene
    Forkman, Björn
    Training success in group-housed long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) is better explained by personality than by social rank2016Ingår i: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 177, s. 52-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using training to prepare laboratory animals for biomedical research is one important behavior management task. With increased knowledge about factors influencing training success, training programs may be optimized, resulting in a refinement of primate husbandry. Even when animals are trained under the same conditions there are individual differences in how they respond to training. The current paper focuses on two of the factors potentially influencing training success: social rank and personality. Five observers rated the personality and the social rank of 34 long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in an observer trait rating survey. Training success was measured in 22 of these individuals and from four of their shaping protocols; hand-feeding, target training, presenting hands and presenting feet. From the factor analysis four personality traits could be identified: 'Emotionality', 'Activity', 'Sociability', and 'Tolerance'. A Multiple linear regressions with backward elimination showed that the personality trait 'Activity' was associated with training success (adj.R-2 = 0.71, p < 0.0005), and unexpectedly, social rank had less influence (adj.R-2 = 0.30, p = 0.005) on training success in group-housed long-tailed macaques. We propose that training success can be conceptualized as consisting of two components: access to the trainer and problem solving. In the case of personality, the two components combine to promote training success: curious animals gain access to trainers, and playful animals are good problem solvers; both these adjectives were present in the trait 'Activity'. In contrast, with regards to rank, qualities that increase access to the trainer (dominance) and traits that promote problem solving (subordinance) counteract one another, potentially explaining why in this study, training was better explained by personality than by rank. We discuss the importance of successfully training different types of personalities in order for the selection of animals in biomedical research to remain random and non-biased, rather than excluding those that do not respond well to training.

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