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  • 1. Ekstrand, Carl
    et al.
    Sterning, Marie
    Bohman, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edner, Anna
    Lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia as a complement to dissociative anaesthesia during scrotal herniorrhaphy of livestock pigs in the field2015In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 57, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, scrotal or inguinal herniorrhaphy of livestock pigs in the field has traditionally been an important part of the surgical skills training of veterinary students. Few substances meet the legal requirements for field anaesthesia of production animals in the European Union but a protocol based on azaperone-detomidine-butorphanol-ketamine does. Unfortunately the anaesthesia is characterised by unpredictable duration and depth and of abrupt awakenings which is not acceptable from an animal welfare perspective and impedes surgical training. Lumbo-sacral epidural analgesia is proven to provide sufficient analgesia to allow abdominal surgery, but there are few reports on the field use of this loco-regional technique. The study aim was to evaluate whether lumbo-sacral anaesthesia can be safely and successfully used in the field by a veterinary student and whether the combination of dissociative and lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia improves analgesia and anaesthesia to guarantee animal welfare during herniorrhaphy in livestock pigs, enabling surgical skills training. Results: Pigs in the control-group (placebo) responded significantly stronger to surgery, with five out of 11 requiring additional doses of detomidine and ketamine. There were no significant differences between groups in respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, SpO(2) or blood gases. SpO(2) levels <94 % were recorded in several pigs in both groups. No post-injection complications were reported at follow-up. Conclusions: The results from this study showed that lumbo-sacral epidural anaesthesia with lidocaine could successfully be administered during dissociative anaesthesia of livestock pigs by a veterinary student and without reported post-injection complications. It improved analgesia and anaesthesia during herniorrhaphy of sufficient duration to enable surgical skills training. The risks and consequences of hypoxaemia and hypoventilation should be considered.

  • 2.
    Sanchez Crespo, Alejandro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Novel computational methods for image analysis and quantification using position sensitive radiation detectors2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The major advantage of position sensitive radiation detector systems lies in their ability to non invasively map the regional distribution of the emitted radiation in real-time. Three of such detector systems were studied in this thesis, gamma-cameras, positron cameras and CMOS image sensors. A number of physical factors associated to these detectors degrade the qualitative and quantitative properties of the obtained images. These blurring factors could be divided into two groups. The first group consists of the general degrading factors inherent to the physical interaction processes of radiation with matter, such as scatter and attenuation processes which are common to all three detectors The second group consists of specific factors inherent to the particular radiation detection properties of the used detector which have to be separately studied for each detector system. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was devoted to the development of computational methods to enable quantitative molecular imaging in PET, SPET and in vivo patient dosimetry with CMOS image sensors.

    The first task was to develop a novel quantitative dual isotope method for simultaneous assessments of regional lung ventilation and perfusion using a SPET technique. This method included correction routines for photon scattering, non uniform attenuation at two different photon energies (140 and 392 keV) and organ outline. This quantitative method was validated both with phantom experiments and physiological studies on healthy subjects.

    The second task was to develop and clinically apply a quantitative method for tumour to background activity uptake measurements using planar mammo-scintigraphy, with partial volume compensation.

    The third stage was to produce several computational models to assess the spatial resolution limitations in PET from the positron range, the annihilation photon non-collineairy and the photon depth of interaction.

    Finally, a quantitative image processing method for a CMOS image sensor for applications in ion beam therapy dosimetry was developed.

    From the obtained phantom and physiological results it was concluded that the methodologies developed for the simultaneous measurement of the lung ventilation and perfusion and for the quantification of the tumour malignancy grade in breast carcinoma were both accurate. Further, the obtained models for the influence that the positron range in various human tissues, and the photon emission non-collinearity and depth of interaction have on PET image spatial resolution, could be used both to optimise future PET camera designs and spatial resolution recovery algorithms. Finally, it was shown that the proton fluence rate in a proton therapy beam could be monitored and visualised by using a simple and inexpensive CMOS image sensor.

  • 3. Wahlström, Helene
    et al.
    Carpenter, Tim
    Giesecke, Johan
    Andersson, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics. Matematisk statistik.
    Englund, Lena
    Vågsholm, Ivar
    Herd-based monitoring for tuberculosis in extensive swedish deer herds by culling and meat inspection rather than by intradermal tuberculin testing.2000In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 103-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of random slaughter and meat inspection as a tool to detect or eradicate tuberculosis in large, extensive deer herds in Sweden was evaluated. A computer spreadsheet model based on the Reed-Frost method was developed. Numbers of new infections and of infected deer slaughtered as well as probability of detecting tuberculosis or slaughtering all infected deer in a herd, were simulated. The model predicted that, given a 20% annual slaughter and that disease was introduced with one infected deer, the infection would be detected or eliminated in most herds (90%) after 15 years.

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