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  • 1. Batidzirai, B.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Energy Security, Agroindustrial Development, and International Trade: The Case of Sugarcane in Southern Africa2012In: Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Evidence from Developing Nations / [ed] Alexandros Gasparatos; Per Stromberg, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, p. 254-277Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For most of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries, energy security is a key developmental issue, given the limited capacity and supply of modern energy services. Fortunately, the region is bequeathed with abundant natural resources that can potentially be developed to support a thriving biomass energy industry. The development of modern biomass energy is likely to contribute to solving energy security concerns, improving rural livelihoods, and mitigating a number of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of current energy systems. This chapter explores the numerous opportunities and challenges associated with an expansion of biofuel production from the sugar industry as well as potential international trade implications. Current analysis shows that land is not a limiting constraint to bioenergy production from sugar resources. This chapter discusses possible implementation mechanisms to maximize the benefits of sugar resources through multiproduct strategies. One of the key issues to emerge from the analysis is the implementation of regional biofuel strategies to take better advantage of the complementarities in local, regional, and global biofuel markets.

  • 2. Kummu, Matti
    et al.
    Kinnunen, Pekka
    Lehikoinen, Elina
    Porkka, Miina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Roos, Elin
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Well, Charlotte
    Interplay of trade and food system resilience: Gains on supply diversity over time at the cost of trade independency2020In: Global food security, E-ISSN 2211-9124, Vol. 24, article id UNSP 100360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly increasing international food trade has drastically altered the global food system over the past decades. Using national scale indicators, we assess two of the resilience principles that directly reflect the effects of global trade on food systems - namely, maintaining diversity and redundancy, and managing connectivity. We perform our analysis for four nutritional components: dietary energy, proteins, fat, and quantity of vegetables & fruits the key pillars of the WHO dietary recommendations. Our results indicate that, between 1987 and 2013, food supply diversity increased significantly for most of the world's population at the cost of an elevated dependency upon food imports. Food production diversity, particularly in terms of dietary energy and vegetables & fruits, increased for a large proportion of the world population, with the exception being major exporting countries, where it decreased. Of particular note is our finding that, despite a growing number of people being heavily dependent upon imports, the number of import partners decreased more often than it increased, except for the case of vegetables & fruits. This combination of increased dependency on imports and a reduced number of import partners indicates a potential vulnerability to disruptions in linked food systems. Additionally, it is alarming that we found many countries where the studied resilience aspects systematically declined, elevating their exposure to future shocks in the food system.

  • 3. Sinkala, Thomson
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Small-Scale Production of Jatropha in Zambia and its Implications for Rural Development and National Biofuel Policies2012In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Rainer Janssen, Dominik Rutz, Dordrecht: Springer, 2012, p. 41-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about energy security and the need to promote rural development have been key factors in the promotion of biofuels in many developing countries in Africa. At the same time, the low cost of labour and plentiful land in some regions of Africa has motivated many foreign investors to set up biofuels schemes that are aimed at export markets. Small-scale production of biofuels in a Least Developed Country (LDC) such as Zambia offers a potentially more viable alternative, or in some cases a complement, to large-scale schemes. The lower capital investment required and the fact that households and communities can use by-products allows for value-added at the local level. The case of jatropha exhibits a number of benefi ts if there is a willingness to experiment with various production schemes and develop different products. In this chapter small-scale jatropha production in Zambia is assessed using a case study at Thomro farms. The relation of small-scale schemes to national priorities and policies is reviewed and the future role of jatropha at local and national levels is discussed.

  • 4. Smeets, Edward
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Ballard-Tremeer, Grant
    Keynote introduction: Traditional and improved use of biomass for energy in Africa2012In: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Rainer Janssen, Dominik Rutz, Springer, 2012, p. 3-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional biomass energy systems are widely used in Africa, mainly because of the low cost and lack of available alternatives in rural areas. Projections indicate that the (relative) contribution of traditional bioenergy will decrease, but that the total use of traditional biomass energy systems will increase during the coming decades. The effi ciencies of wood-fuel (fi rewood and charcoal) energy systems are usually low and the use of these systems has serious negative consequences, such as indoor air pollution and related health effects, deforestation and the labour intensive and sometimes dangerous process of fi rewood collection. Improvements in stoves, charcoal production effi ciency and switching fuels can increase the effi ciency by several tens of percent points and thereby reduce the demand for labour for the collection of fi rewood and the costs. Other advantages of improved traditional bioenergy systems are reduced greenhouse gas emissions, reduced indoor air pollution and reduced deforestation. Various initiatives have been successful in implementing the use of improved household stoves, although the results suggest that the success of improved traditional biomass systems depends on the local conditions and socio-economic impacts of these systems.

  • 5.
    Wicklein, Bernd
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry. Wallenberg Wood Science Center, KTH, Sweden.
    Salazar-Alvarez, German
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry. Wallenberg Wood Science Center, KTH, Sweden.
    Functional hybrids based on biogenic nanofibrils and inorganic nanomaterials2013In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 1, no 18, p. 5469-5478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This feature article reviews some of the recent work on the fabrication of functional hybrids based on biogenic nanofibers and inorganic nanomaterials with an emphasis on their functional properties and suggested potential applications. We also discuss some of the work oriented towards the formation of ordered materials in the pursuit of achieving a hierarchical construction. Besides the academic interest in biogenic nanomaterials, it is anticipated that the use of natural, abundant nanomaterials, e.g., cellulose, chitin, collagen, and silk, could provide affordable functional nanomaterials in developing countries.

  • 6. Yamba, Francis D.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Brown, Gareth
    Woods, Jeremy
    Implementation, strategies and policy options for sugar cane resources and bioenergy markets in Africa2012In: Bioenergy for sustainable development and international competitiveness / [ed] Francis X. Johnson and Vikram Seebaluck, New York: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 2012, p. 212-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
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