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  • 1. Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Cooper, Angela
    McDonald, James
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Patients’ Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2017In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 54, no 2, 175-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients’ in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients’ adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients’ immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients’ in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 2. Aaltonen, Olli
    et al.
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peltola, Maija S.
    Savela, Janne
    Tamminen, Henna
    Lehtola, Heidi
    Brain responses reveal hardwired detection of native-language rule violations2008In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 444, no 1, 56-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a neural correlate of the preattentive detection of any change in the acoustic characteristics of sounds. Here we provide evidence that violations of a purely phonological constraint in a listener's native language can also elicit the brain's automatic change-detection response. The MMN differed between Finnish and Estonian listeners, conditions being equal except for the native language of the listeners. We used two experimental conditions: synthetic vowels in isolation and the same vowels embedded in a pseudo-word context. MMN responses to isolated vowels were similar for Finns and Estonians, while the same vowels in a pseudoword context elicited different MMN patterns depending on the listener's mother tongue.

  • 3. Aarne, Päivikki
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Parent-rated socio-emotional development in children with language impairment in comparison with typically developed children2014In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 11, no 3, 279-291 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with language impairment (LI) and children with typical development (TD) were assessed by their respective parents using The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (Swedish version SECDI) and Greenspan Socio Emotional Growth Chart (GSEGC). The aim was to investigate socio-emotional and language development in children with LI and TD with respect to possible differential patterns and relations between the groups. The results highlight a clear association between language and socio-emotional development. Children with LI were rated similar to young language-matched children with TD, but significantly lower relative to age-matched TD children, particularly concerning symbolic stages of development: the use of linguistic symbols as well as related areas such as symbol play and symbolic mental ability. The results are discussed in light of presumable background factors and possible consequences for children or sub-groups of children with LI.

  • 4.
    Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term cognitive outcome of childhood traumatic brain injury2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge of cognitive outcome extending beyond 5 years after childhood traumatic brain injury, CTBI. The main objectives of this thesis were to investigate cognitive outcome at 6-14 years after CTBI, and to evaluate if advancements in the neurosurgical care, starting 1992, did influence long-term outcome and early epidemiology. An additional aim was to study the relationship between early brain injury parameters and early functional outcome. Study 1 evaluated cognitive progress during 14 years after CTBI, over three neuropsychological assessments in 8 patients with serious CTBI. Study 2 used patient records to investigate early epidemiology, received rehabilitation and medical follow up in two clinical cohorts, n=82 and n=46, treated neurosurgically for CTBI before and after 1992. An exploratory cluster analysis was applied to analyse the relation between early brain injury severity parameters and early functional outcome. In Study 3, participants in the two cohorts, n=18 and n=23, treated neurosurgically for CTBI before and after 1992, were subject to an extensive neuropsychological assessment, 13 and 6 years after injury, respectively. Assessment results of the two cohorts were compared with each other and with controls. Data were analysed with multivariate analyses of variance. Results and discussion. There were significant long-term cognitive deficits of similar magnitude and character in the two cohorts with CTBI, treated before and after the advancements in neurosurgical care. At 6-14 years after injury, long-term deficits in verbal intellectual and executive functions were found, and were discussed in terms of their late maturation and a decreased executive control over verbal memory-functions after CTBI. Visuospatial functions had a slightly better long-term recovery. The amount of rehabilitation received was equally low in both cohorts. The length of time spent in intensive care and the duration of care in the respirator may have a stronger relationship to early outcome than does a single measure of level of consciousness at admission. Main conclusions are that cognitive deficits are apparent at long-term follow up, 6-13 years after neurosurgically treated CTBI, even after advancements in the neurosurgical care in Sweden. Measures of verbal IQ, verbal memory and executive functions were especially low while visuospatial intellectual functions appear to have a better long-term recovery.

  • 5. Aaro Jonsson, Catherine C.
    et al.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid M.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Variability in quality of life 13 years after traumatic brain injury in childhood2014In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 37, no 4, 317-322 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of describing variability in the long-term outcome of quality of life after neurosurgically treated pediatric traumatic brain injury, mostly self-reports of 21 individuals with mild or moderate/severe injury were gathered using Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory in telephone interviews 13 years aftyer injury. A majority of the participants reported brain injury-related problems. The median outcome on Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory was mild to moderate limitations. The variation within the moderate/severe group varied between relatively good outcome and moderate/severe limitations. Concentration, irritability, fatigue, and transportation were reported as the most problematic areas, whereas self-care was reported as well functioning. Societal participation appeared to be the best functional domain in this Swedish study. Examples of individual reports of the life-situation at various outcome levels were provided. Variability in outcome is large within severity groups, and research may gain by addressing both outcomes of the individuals and groups. Objective questions of outcome should be accompanied by questions of actual functioning in everyday life. To ensure long-term support for quality of life for those with remaining dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury, healthcare systems should implement systematic routines for referral to rehabilitation and support.

  • 6. Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    et al.
    Catroppa, Cathy
    Godfrey, Celia
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Anderson, Vicki
    Cognitive Recovery and Development after Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood: A Person-Oriented, Longitudinal Study2013In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 30, no 2, 76-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cognitive recovery and subsequent development is poorly understood. In this longitudinal study we used cluster analysis to explore acute stage individual profiles of injury age and cognition in 118 children with traumatic brain injury. Repeated measures of cognitive function were conducted at 30 months, indicating recovery, and 10 years post-injury, indicating development. Nine clusters were identified. Recovery was evident in three clusters, two of them with low functioning profiles. Developmental gains occurred for three clusters and an acute profile of higher freedom from distractibility (FFD) and lower processing speed (PS) was related to positive differences. One cluster, average low functioning and especially low verbal comprehension, demonstrated a slower development than peers. This suggests that developmental change after TBI in childhood takes place on a continuum, with both chance of long-term catching up, and risk of poor development. An acute profile of higher FFD and lower PS seemed to reflect injury consequences and were followed by developmental gains. These results challenge previous findings, and warrant further investigation.

  • 7.
    Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Horneman, Göran
    Department of Psychology, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid
    Institute for the Health of Women and Children, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg.
    Neuropsychological progress during 14 yearsafter severe traumatic brain injury in childhoodand adolescence2004In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301x, Vol. 18, no 9, 921-934 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the impact of time since injury on  neuropsychological and psychosocial outcome after serious TBI in childhood or adolescence. Methods: The subjects were eight patients with serious TBI sustained at a mean age of 14 years who had been assessed neuropsychological at one, seven and 14 years after TBI. A retrospective longitudinal design was chosen to describe the development in six neuropsychological domains on basis of the assessments. Psychosocial data were gathered from clinical knowledge and a semi-structured interview at 14 years after TBI. Results: Performance of verbal IQ shows a declining trend over the three assessments, that the performance of attention and working memory is low and that verbal learning is the cognitive domain, which exhibits the largest impairments. The main psychosocial result is that three of the eight subjects go from a school situation with no adjustments to adult life with an early retirement. Conclusions: Time since insult is an important factor when assessing outcome after TBI in childhood and adolescence and that assessment of final outcome should not be done before adulthood.

  • 8.
    Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leis Ljungmark, Mia
    Institution for clinical sciences, Dept. of pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid
    Institution for clinical sciences, Dept. of pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury2009In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301x, Vol. 23, no 13-14, 1008-1016 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore the cognitive long term outcome of two cohorts of patients neurosurgically treated for childhood traumatic brain injury (CTBI), either in 1987-1991 according to an older concept, or 1997-2001 with a stronger emphasis on volume targeted interventions. Research design and methods: Participants in the two cohorts were subject to an extensive neuropsychological assessment, 13.2 and 6.1 years post injury, respectively. In a between group design, assessment results of the two cohorts, n 18 and n 23, were compared to each other and to controls. Data were analyzed with multivariate analyses of variance. Results: Long-term cognitive deficits for both groups of similar magnitude and character were observed in both groups. Abilities were especially low regarding executive and memory function and verbal IQ. The cognitive results are discussed in terms of  vulnerability of verbal functions and decreased executive control over memory-functions. Conclusions: There is a definite need for long term follow up of cognitive deficits after neurosurgically treated CTBI, also with the newer neurosurgical concept. Verbal learning and the executive control over memory functions should be addressed with interventions aimed at restoration, coping and compensation.

  • 9. Aarts, Alexander A.
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Zuni, Kellylynn
    Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 349, no 6251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.

  • 10. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Town, Joel
    On Paolo Migione's "What Does Brief Mean?"2014In: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, ISSN 0003-0651, E-ISSN 1941-2460, Vol. 62, no 5, NP18-NP22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Town, Joel
    Ogrodniczuk, John
    Joffres, Michel
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Trial Therapy Effectiveness and Role of Unlocking the Unconscious2017In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 205, no 6, 453-457 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of trial therapy interviews using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy with 500 mixed sample, tertiary center patients. Furthermore, we investigated whether the effect of trial therapy was larger for patients who had a major unlocking of the unconscious during the interview compared with those who did not. Outcome measures were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP), measured at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. Significant outcome effects were observed for both the BSI and the IIP with small to moderate preeffect/posteffect sizes, Cohen's d = 0.52 and 0.23, respectively. Treatment effects were greater in patientswho had a major unlocking of the unconscious comparedwith thosewho did not. The trial therapy interview appears to be beneficial, and its effects may relate to certain therapeutic processes. Further controlled research is warranted.

  • 12. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Coping Style as a Moderator of Perfectionism and Suicidal Ideation Among Undergraduate Students2017In: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0894-9085, E-ISSN 1573-6563, Vol. 35, no 3, 223-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a serious and growing public health problem and remains an unnecessary cause of death globally. In Iran, the highest prevalence of acute and chronic suicidal ideation is among young people aged 16-24. This study investigates the relationship between coping style, two types of perfectionism, and suicidal ideation among undergraduates, and examines coping style as a moderator of the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was employed to recruit 547 undergraduate students aged 19-24 years from the Islamic Azad University of Karaj. Structural Equation Modelling indicated that suicidal ideation was negatively associated with adaptive perfectionism and task-focused coping but positively associated with emotion-focused coping, avoidance coping, and maladaptive perfectionism. Coping style (including the three styles of task-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance coping) was found to moderate the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. The study advances understanding of the importance of coping style in this context and explains how perfectionism affects suicidal ideation.

  • 13. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Khanbani, Mehdi
    Abdollahi Ghahfarokhi, Shahyar
    Emotional intelligence moderates perceived stress and suicidal ideation among depressed adolescent inpatients2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 102, 223-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because it remains one of the third leading causes of death among adolescents around the world, suicide is a major public health concern. This study was designed in response to this concern by examining the relationships among perceived stress, emotional intelligence, and suicidal ideation and to test the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation. A sample of depressed adolescents (n = 202) was recruited from five hospitals in Tehran, Iran, and then asked to complete measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, perceived stress, and emotional intelligence. Structural Equation Modeling showed that depressed adolescent in-patients with high levels of perceived stress and low levels of emotional intelligence were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multi-group analysis indicated that depressed in-patients high in both perceived stress and emotional intelligence had less suicidal ideation than others. The findings support the notion that perceived stress acts as a vulnerability factor that increase suicidal ideation among depressed inpatients. Suicidal history moderated the relationship between emotional intelligence and suicidal ideation. These findings also highlight the importance of emotional intelligence as a buffer in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation.

  • 14. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    LeBouthillier, Daniel M.
    Najafi, Mahmoud
    Asmundson, Gordon J. G.
    Hosseinian, Simin
    Shahidi, Shahriar
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Kalhori, Atefeh
    Sadeghi, Hassan
    Jalili, Marzieh
    Effect of exercise augmentation of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of suicidal ideation and depression2017In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 219, 58-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicidal ideation and depression are prevalent and costly conditions that reduce quality of life. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for suicidal ideation and depression among depressed individuals.

    Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 54 mildly to moderately depressed patients (54% female, mean age=48.25) were assigned to a combined CBT and exercise group or to a CBT only group. Both groups received one weekly session of therapy for 12 weeks, while the combined group also completed exercise three times weekly over the same period. Self-reported suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living were measured at the beginning and the end of treatment.

    Results: Multilevel modelling revealed greater improvements in suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living in the combined CBT and exercise group, compared to the CBT only group.

    Limitations: No follow-up data were collected, so the long-term effects (i.e., maintenance of gains) is unclear.

    Conclusions: The findings revealed that exercise adjunct to CBT effectively decreases both depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in mildly to moderately depressed individuals.

  • 15. Abubakar, Amin
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Social connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement: moderating role of ethnic minority status on resilience processes of Roma youth2016In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 13, no 3, 361-376 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of connectedness on school engagement and life satisfaction among Roma (n = 121) and Bulgarian (n = 143) mainstream adolescents (mean age 15.89, SD = 1.18). A set of measures on family, peer, school and neighbourhood connectedness were administered alongside life satisfaction and school engagement scales. Multigroup path analysis indicated that while the relationship between connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement was largely the same across groups, the strength of such relationship differed among groups. A closer inspection of the model indicated that when it comes to school engagement, there was a salient difference in the role of different forms of connectedness between Roma and mainstream adolescents. For Roma adolescents, familial connectedness was especially salient for school engagement. The practical and theoretical implications of our findings for strengths and adaptive processes among Roma adolescents in Bulgaria are discussed.

  • 16. Abubakar, Amina
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Tair, Ergyul
    Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults Across 23 Cultural Contexts2016In: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 34, no 1, 28-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of configural and partial measurement weights invariance models, indicating similar patterns and strengths in factor loading for both adolescents and emerging adults across various countries. We found insufficient evidence for scalar invariance in both the adolescents’ and the emerging adults’ samples. A multi-level confirmatory factor analysis indicated configural invariance of the structure at country and individual level. Internal consistency, evaluated by alpha and omega coefficients per country, yielded acceptable results. The translated BMSLSS across different cultural contexts presents good psychometric characteristics similar to what has been reported in the original scale, though scalar invariance remains problematic. Our results indicate that the BMSLSS forms a brief measure of life satisfaction, which has accrued substantial evidence of construct validity, thus suitable for use in cross-cultural surveys with adolescents and emerging adults, although evaluation of degree of invariance must be carried out to ensure its suitability for mean comparisons.

  • 17.
    Addo, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Luktfunktion hos vuxna med diagnos inom Autismspektrumet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that individuals with a diagnosis within the autism spectrum

    (ASD) experience a greater sensory sensitivity, but few studies have investigated the olfaction

    sensitivity. The aim of the present study is to gain a deeper understanding of the olfactory

    functions in adults with ASD.16 participants with ASD (14 controls) participated in the study

    where sniffin sticks were used to evaluate the differences between the groups. All participants

    answered a questionnaire about perceived olfaction sensitivity and the adult spectrum quotient;

    AQ. Olfactory discrimination and identification (with and without cue) did not differ

    between the groups, as for olfaction sensitivity, perceived pleasantness, intensity and edibility.

    When it came to self-assessed olfactory sensitivity, differences were found. However, this

    self-rated sensitivity did not appear in the standardized odor tests, where no significant differences

    between ASD and controls odor features were detected.

  • 18.
    Addo, Rebecka N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nord, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olfactory Functions in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders2017In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, no 3-4, 530-537 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyperor hyporeactivity) although evidence is scarce regarding olfactory abilities in ASD; 16 adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age: 38.2, SD: 9.7) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 42.0 years, SD: 12.5) were assessed in odor threshold, free and cued odor identification, and perceived pleasantness, intensity, and edibility of everyday odors. Although results showed no differences between groups, the Bayes Factors (close to 1) suggested that the evidence for no group differences on the threshold and identification tests was inconclusive. In contrast, there was some evidence for no group differences on perceived edibility (BF01 = 2.69) and perceived intensity (BF01 = 2.80). These results do not provide conclusive evidence for or against differences between ASD and healthy controls on olfactory abilities. However, they suggest that there are no apparent group differences in subjective ratings of odors.

  • 19.
    Adelöf Herner, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att aldrig kunna räcka till - Personalens upplevelser av krisbistånd på barnhemmet L.L.C.C.M i Rwanda2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur personalen på barnhemmet L.L.C.C.M. påverkas emotionellt av att arbeta med psykiskt traumatiserade barn. Studien belyser forskning kring olika kristeorier och krisbistånd samt vilka risker som kan förekomma för en biståndsperson. Sex kvalitativa semi-strukturerade intervjuer har analyseras genom teoristyrd tematisk analys. Fyra respondenter är rwandier, och två är utländska volontärer.  Resultatet visar att personalen blir påverkad av barnens livsvillkor, men inte i så hög grad att den egna psykiska hälsan blir lidande. Religion, gemenskap eller fysisk aktivitet hjälper respondenterna att bearbeta sina egna reaktioner och motverkar att egna kriser skulle uppstå. En möjlig tolkning till detta resultat är att de har god kunskap om kriser samt en stark förankring i sitt eget liv.

  • 20.
    Adiels, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Where did technology go?2011In: Positioning Technology Education in the curriculum / [ed] Marc J. de Vries, Rotterdam: Information Age Publishing, 2011, 1, 53-60 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Adler, Ingmarie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Finns det ett samband mellan olika föräldrastilar och individers framtida känsla av sammanhang?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet känsla av sammanhang (KASAM) kan ses som en livshållning som är relaterad till människors förmåga att hantera problem som uppstår i livet. En individs KASAM utvecklas genom socialiseringsprocessen, där föräldrarnas samspel med barnet vanligtvis är central. Hur en förälder förhåller sig till ett barn kan därför ses om en viktig del i barnets utveckling där olika uppfostringsstilar kommer att påverka barnets utveckling gällande olika förmågor. En förälders förhållningssätt till ett barn kan beskrivas i form av olika uppfostringsstilar. Dessa antas relaterade till hur barnet utvecklar olika förmågor, däribland KASAM. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka sambanden mellan tre olika föräldrastilar (auktoritär, auktoritativ, tillåtande) och KASAM i vuxen ålder. Undersökningsdeltagarna (N=88) som kontaktades via öppna förskolor, besvarade en enkät om uppfostringsstilar och KASAM. Resultaten visar på ett svagt men signifikant samband mellan olika föräldrastilar och några av KASAM:s delkomponenter (hanterbarhet, r = .33, begriplighet, r = .22, r = -.27) ), men inget signifikant samband erhölls mellan föräldrastil och individens totala KASAM poäng. Mot bakgrund av att en individs KASAM visat sig avgörande för hälsa och ohälsa hos vuxna individer, visar resultatet av föreliggande studie att vidare forskning om hur olika föräldrastilar påverkar en individs KASAM är av relevans.

  • 22. Adler, Niclas
    et al.
    Glassér, Charlotte
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    A collaborative research effort to bridge boundaries and support deviant youths in contemporary welfare systems.2005In: European Management Review, ISSN 1740-4754, Vol. 2, no 1, 88-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the challenges of introducing new approaches to the care of deviant youths in contemporary welfare systems. The specific study of early intervention programs within the area of psychosocial disturbances will be used to explore the interplay between emerging research results and the introduction of new approaches in different functionally specialized welfare carrying organizations. This paper is based on a collaborative research effort between researchers from education, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, economics and business administration and key actors from schools, police, criminal care, social security administrations, municipal health care and municipal politicians and administrative managers. The paper demonstrates that successful introduction of new coping strategies necessitates significant efforts to support the bridging of boundaries, the challenging of legacies and the learning from evidence to change established structures.

  • 23.
    Adolfsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledin, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ”Terapi är något man måste göra hela tiden”: Hur psykoterapiklienter i KBT och PDT integrerar och använder sig av erfarenheter från terapin i sin vardag2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I psykoterapidebatten finns två läger, som hävdar gemensamma respektive specifika faktorers betydelse för utfallet i psykoterapi. I forskningen finns brist på studier som lyfter fram klientens subjektiva upplevelse av terapins nytta. Uppsatsens syfte var att undersöka hur psykoterapiklienter integrerar och använder erfarenheter från terapin i sin vardag, samt vilka faktorer som har underlättat terapiprocessen. Tretton klienter som genomgått psykodynamisk terapi (PDT) eller kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT) intervjuades. Data analyserades tematiskt och sammanställdes som fyra idealtyper. Resultaten visade att gruppen PDT-klienters breda problemformuleringar utvecklades via förändrade tankemönster till konkreta användningsområden. KBT-klienternas avgränsade problemformulering utvecklades via bemästrande av avgränsat problem till generaliserad användning av strategier. Viktiga gemensamma inslag i terapiprocessen var insikt, förmåga att se sig själv utifrån och möjlighet eller vilja till konkret applicering av nya erfarenheter. Underlättande faktorer var klientens beredskap och aktiva deltagande, i kombination med förtroende för terapeuten och tro på terapimodellen. Användning som alternativt utfallsmått diskuteras, liksom resultatens implikationer för terapeutisk verksamhet och synen på utvärdering av psykoterapi.

  • 24.
    af Ekenstam, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stressreaktioner i arbetet med traumatiserade människor - Handläggare på Migrationsverket och behandlare inom psykiatrin2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att i arbetet ta del av och överidentifiera sig med andras traumatiska lidande kan resultera i stressreaktionen compassion fatigue (CF), men i motsats kan stöd i arbetet med traumatiserade ge arbetstillfredsställelse, compassion satisfaction (CS). Utbrändhet är en arbetskontextuell stressreaktion som visat sig ha ett starkt samband med CF. Utifrån en kvantitativ enkätundersökning var syftet i denna studie att undersöka skillnader i CF, utbrändhet och CS och samvariationer begreppen emellan, för handläggare på Migrationsverket respektive behandlare inom psykiatrin. T-test visade att fler handläggare har utbrändhetssymptom och uppvisar lägre grad av CS jämfört med behandlare, och multipel regressionsanalys indikerade att CF till stor del predicerar utbrändhet för handläggare och behandlare. Andra faktorer såsom arbetsbelastning, stöd i arbetet, frekvensen av traumaberättelser i arbetet, samt personligt trauma efterfrågas i framtida forskning för djupare förståelse för stressreaktioner i arbetet med traumatiserade människor.

  • 25.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Department of Psychology.
    Lang, S.
    Freidenfelt, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Alm, P.-O.
    Risk indicators and stress situations as related to pursuant disinhibitory psychosocial disturbances: Personality and extreme stress2004In: Personality and extreme stress, Gdansk Psychology Publishing , 2004, 83-99 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new scale to assess pro-bullying attitudes, the Pro-Bullying Attitude Scale (PAS) was evaluated in 259 voluntarily recruited male juvenile delinquents in Russia. Exploratory factor analysis gave a two-factor solution: Callous Dominance (CD) and Manipulativeness/ Impulsiveness (MI). The subjects were divided into three groups (low, intermediate, high) according to their scores on PAS and its two factors. Low and high group Ss were compared and results indicated higher delinquent and aggressive behavior among high group Ss as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and violent behavior as assessed by the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC), as well as higher scores on the personality trait Novelty seeking and lower on Cooperativeness as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger et al., 1994). High PAS and CD groups displayed significantly higher scores on psychopathy traits as assessed by the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (Lynam, 1997) significantly related to registered violent crime. Probullying attitudes are discussed as a link between personality and psychopathy on the one hand and antisocial and violent behavior on the other. The PAS is also discussed in terms of usefulness in identifying high-risk individuals for violent behavior among incarcerated delinquents and in preventing violence and bullying tendencies in juvenile forensic institutions.

  • 26.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kopplingen mellan personlighet, biologi och social anpassning2013In: Att studera människors utveckling: Resultat från forskningsprogrammet IDA 1965-2013 / [ed] Anna-Karin Andershed, Henrik Andershed, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 171-185 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Tidiga problembeteenden2008In: Narkotikan i Sverige - Metoder för förebyggande arbete: En kunskapsöversikt / [ed] Sven Andréasson, Östersund: Statens Folkhälsoinstitut , 2008, , 11 p.107-117 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudpunkter i detta kapitel:

    • Impulsivitet är ett karaktärsdrag hos individer med ohämmat beteende, till exempel alkoholberoende, självmordsbenägenhet, hyperaktivitet och psykopatiska tendenser.

    • Hyperaktivt beteende, tidig impulsivitet och antisocialt beteende sammanfaller i stort med sårbarhetsindikatorer som man funnit i studier av antisocial personlighetsstörning (APD).

    • Psykopati och andra personlighetsstörningar, särskilt APD, har en hög frekvens av samtidigt missbruk.

    • Beteendeproblem och våld har visat sig starkt kopplat till riskbruk hos både pojkar och flickor.

    • Det finns ett väl etablerat samband mellan utagerande impulsiva och aggressiva handlingar och svagheter i serotoninmetabolismen i centrala nervsystemet (CNS).

    • Biologiska markörer utforskas i relation till olika beteendeproblem och personlighetsdrag för att dessa i sin tur ska kunna bli fokus i utformandet av effektiva och tidiga interventionsprogram.

    • Hela beroendekarriären ses som en dynamisk process över tid som därigenom också behöver utforskas longitudinellt.

    • Impulsivitet och andra psykopatirelaterade personlighetsdrag har betydelse för individens benägenhet att utveckla drogmissbruk.

  • 28.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Violent offending: Origins, development and consequences - some aspects.2006In: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, June, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the role of impulsivity and aggressiveness in psychosocial disturbances. Despite scientific efforts, several aspects of the relationships between these personality features and Personality Disorders and violence are still controversial. A relevant question concerns the reciprocal relationships between impulsivity and aggressiveness, and their interaction with other “action” personality traits or temperamental traits, e.g., sensation seeking. Another controversial topic is the identification of biological and neuropsychological markers of impulsivity and aggressiveness in order to get more objective measures of these personality traits than those produced by subjects' self-reports, and to obtain a deeper understanding of the phenotypic aspects underlying impulsive and aggressive behaviours as manifested in violence. Starting from these considerations, the present session aims at sheding some light on the implications and consequences of impulsivity for psychosocial disturbances, such as abuse and violence. The issue will be discussed in terms of development, possible underlying factors, attitudes and consequences, which can be particularly relevant from a clinical and forensic point of view.

  • 29.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Beijer, Ulla
    Karolinska institutet.
    Rydelius, Per-Anders
    Karolinska institutet.
    Family psychosocial characteristics influencing criminal behaviour and mortality - possible mediating factors: a longitudinal study of male and female subjects in the Stockholm Birth Cohort2011In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, 756- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Family psychosocial characteristics in childhood have been associated with children's development into criminal behaviour and mortality. This study explored these possible relationships and examined alcohol and/or drug use and mental problems as possible mediating factors, highlighting gender-specific patterns.

    Methods: Data from Swedish subjects born in 1953 (n = 14,294) from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were examined. Several indicators of adverse family factors and individual problems were included in the present study. The information was derived from various data sources, covering different periods. Gender-specific associations with incidence of criminality (1966-1980) and mortality (1981-2009) were analysed using logistic regression. Furthermore, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for all variables in the fully adjusted models which were positively related to the outcome.

    Results: Overall incidence of criminality and mortality was (m/f 32.3/6.6) and (m/f 6.1/3.5), respectively. The results showed that all aspects of family psychosocial and individual problems studied were associated with criminality for both genders. Among males, individual problems seemed to partly mediate these relations, but the associations remained statistically significant. Interestingly, the PAF analysis revealed a reduction in criminality of 17.5% when individual problems with alcohol and/or drug use were considered. Among females, a significant impact of alcohol and/or drug use on the association between family psychosocial characteristics and subsequent criminality was obtained. Inclusion of father's occupational class only somewhat reduced the estimates for the genders. Concerning male mortality, father's alcohol abuse was significantly related to an increased risk. When individual criminality was accounted for, the association was substantially reduced but remained statistically significant. Among females, when adjusting for family psychosocial factors, only the association between parents' mental problems and females' mortality was significant. None of the individual problem variables managed to explain this association.

    Conclusions: Family psychosocial characteristics were associated with both subsequent criminal behaviour and mortality. These connections were partly explained by individual risk factors, especially by alcohol and/or drug use. The practical implications of the findings point to the importance of addressing the individual's alcohol and/or drug use in reducing criminal behaviour, which would also lower the mortality rates.

  • 30.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Gacono, Carl
    Alm, Per Olof
    Projective risk variables in early adolescence and subsequent disinhibitory psychopathology2008In: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, Vol. 31, no 3, 210-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to examine early adolescent projective risk indicators for the development of antisocial behaviour as related to adult personality traits, psychopathy, and violent behaviour over the life span. Assessment data included Rorschach (Rr) ratings (at age 11–14 years), personality inventories (EPQ-I and KSP scales), and a shortened Psychopathy Check List (PCL) (administered at age 32–40 years), obtained from a group of 199 male subjects; and smoking habits (at age 36–44 years) obtained from 125 of those subjects. Results, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups, as determined by level of total Rr risk scores, were (1) significantly higher on self-rated IVE Impulsiveness, the anxiety-related KSP Muscular Tension, and nonconformity traits, as compared to the low Rr risk group — the very high risk group also scoring significantly higher on the EPQ Psychoticism scale, related to aggressiveness and cruelty; (2) higher on clinically rated PCL total sum and factor scores; and (3) they were overrepresented among Ss with subsequent violent offence, and Ss with heavy smoking habits. The results are discussed in terms of the possible usefulness of psychodynamic oriented cognitive-emotional indicators in the search for underlying mechanisms in the development of disinhibitory psychopathology.

  • 31.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, 71-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 32. Agdal, Maren Lillehaug
    et al.
    Raadal, Magne
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skaret, Erik
    Quality-of-life before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with intra-oral injection phobia2012In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, Vol. 70, no 6, 463-470 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To evaluate quality-of-life (QoL), before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients diagnosed with intra-oral injection phobia according to DSM-IV and to compare with the general population. This study also aimed to evaluate if QoL was associated with self-reported injection anxiety, dental anxiety, time since last dental treatment and oral health. Materials and methods. Subjects were 55 patients (mean age 35.5 +/- 12.2, 78.2% women) who participated in a treatment study in which 89% managed an intra-oral injection at 1 year follow-up. The patients completed a set of questionnaires including Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety, Dental Anxiety Scale and a single-item question assessing self-perceived oral health. Objective measures of oral health and treatment needs were based on clinical examination. QOLI-scores from a non-clinical sample were used for comparison. Results. Before treatment the general and health specific QoL were lower among intra-oral injection phobics than in the non-clinical sample. At 1 year follow-up the QoL in general had improved significantly and was similar to that of the non-clinical sample. Poor self-reported oral health and long-term avoidance of dental treatment were associated with lower general and health-specific QoL. Self-reported injection anxiety and dental anxiety were not associated with QoL. Conclusions. Patients with intra-oral injection phobia report lower QoL compared with a general population. Phobia treatment seems to increase QoL to normative levels. Self-perceived poor oral health is associated with reduced QoL in these patients.

  • 33.
    Agebäck, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    HUR LÄR MAN SIG OM SIN SVENSKA IDENTITET I ETT INTERKULTURELLT MÖTE?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Eftersom det i dagens samhälle blivit allt vanligare att bosätta sig utomlands ökar behoven av kunskap om kulturella möten och kontraster. Möten med andra kulturer är sällan oproblematiska då alla individer är färgade av sin ursprungskultur. En stor fördel för integrering i en ny kultur är dock att ha kunskap om sig själv och sin egna kulturella identitet. Denna kunskap kan förvärvas innan kulturmötet men uppstår även som en konsekvens av det. Syftet med denna studie var att klargöra hur man lär sig om sin svenska identitet i ett interkulturellt möte. Femton svenskar bosatta i Norge, Kina och Israel intervjuades med den situationsbeskrivande metoden ”Critical incident”. Resultatet visade att lärande uppstod efter möten med bl.a. kulturkontraster och likhetssituationer. Reflektionerna kring dessa upplevelser följde vissa mönster så att reaktionerna var starkast i början och sedan avtog med tid. Öppenhet, erfarenhet, kön och ålder verkade påverka graden av lärande.

  • 34.
    Agnaou, Fatima
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    SJUKHUS SOM HÄLSOFRÄMJANDE ARBETSPLATS: MER ÄN BARA FRISKVÅRD?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har hälso- och sjukvårdens intresse för det hälsofrämjande arbetet ökat. Studiens syfte var att kontrastera hur det hälsofrämjande arbetet gentemot medarbetarna beskrivs mellan olika hierarkiska nivåer på ett medelstort sjukhus. Vidare var syftet att beskriva hur nyckelpersonerna på central nivå går tillväga för att nå ut till hela verksamheten, relaterat till teori om förändringsarbete. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med fem nyckelpersoner på central nivå. Vidare genomfördes en skriftlig kartläggning som besvarades av 58 deltagare beståendes av chefer, hälsoombud, HFS-deltagare och kaizenkonsulter på lokal nivå. Resultaten, som tolkades utifrån en tematisk analys, indikerade att ett medelstort sjukhus arbetar hälsofrämjande gentemot medarbetarna genom friskvård och hälsoombud, samt genom att försöka få med alla delar av hälsa och via systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete. Vidare visar resultaten att användandet av mänskliga resurser förekommer för att informera hela verksamheten. Slutsatsen av studien är att ett hälsofrämjande sjukhus bör ha ett helhetstänk kring hälsa samt använda sig av metoder som inom förändringsarbetet visat sig effektiva. Detta genom exempelvis tydligare och mätbara mål. Bättre målformulering kan även lösa problemet med bristfällig utvärdering och feedback.

  • 35.
    Agoes, Shanty
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Unga killars upplevelser av faktorer i kamratgruppen som förstärker deras brottsliga beteende2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ungdomsbrottsligheten ökar och en allmän uppfattning i samhället råder, att ungdomar begår brott i sällskap av kamrater. Undersökningens syfte var att söka förståelse och kunskap för upplevda bidragande faktorer inom kamratgruppen som gör att vissa unga killar begår brott. Kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med sju killar mellan 16 och 25 år, alla med erfarenhet av brottslighet. Råmaterialet analyserades utifrån tematisk analysmetod. Resultatet visade att gruppen uppfyllde individernas identitetsskapande behov. Likaså var grupptillhörigheten en faktor där individerna sökte sig till en fristad med likasinnade personer att känna gemenskap med. Lojalitet var även ett framträdande begrepp, som bottnade i oviljan att svika kamratgruppen liksom hederskodexet att inte ”gola”. Resultatet vittnar om att upplevelsen av sitt egenvärde, bilden av vad vänskap är samt strävan efter gemenskap kan dras till det yttersta och därmed leda till brottsligt beteende, allt för att passa in – ”jag gjorde ju bara som alla andra”.

  • 36.
    Ahangaran, Reyhaneh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykologer inom BUP - hur talar de om sexualitet med ungdomar?2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sexualitet är en viktig del av varje människas liv. För ungdomar utgör sexualiteten en tydlig del i vuxenblivandet och i skapandet av en identitet. Då sexologi saknas som ämne på psykologutbildningen och utifrån mitt intresse för ungdomar aktualiserades frågeställningen för denna undersökning - hur talar psykologer som jobbar inom BUP om sexualitet med ungdomar i terapi? En kvalitativ intervjustudie med nio psykologer genomfördes och analyserades enligt tematisk metod. Svaren visade att de flesta intervjuade psykologerna känner en osäkerhet kring att prata om sexualitet. Detta beror främst på att de har en bristande utbildning och kunskap om ämnet. Visserligen finns goda undantag från detta men de psykologerna är just undantag. Detta väcker tankar om att sexologi måste införas på psykologutbildningen för att kunna garantera såväl ungdomar som vuxna patienter en god psykiatrisk vård där alla aspekter av livet bemöts på ett professionellt och respektfullt sätt.

  • 37.
    Ahlbeck Bergendahl, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Salvanes, Anne Gro V.
    Braithwaite, Victoria A.
    Determining the effects of duration and recency of exposure to environmental enrichment2016In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 176, 163-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience can help animals adapt their behaviour to fit the environment or conditions that they find themselves in. Understanding how and when experience affects behaviour is important for the animals we rear in captivity. This is particularly true when we rear animals with the intent of releasing them into the wild as part of population rehabilitation and conservation efforts. We investigated how exposure to a changing, more complex environment promotes behavioural development in juvenile trout. Four groups of fish were compared; (i) fish that were maintained without enrichment, (ii) fish that were exposed to an early period of enrichment, but were then returned to a plain environment, (iii) fish that were maintained in plain conditions, but were then exposed to enrichment towards the end of the rearing phase, (iv) a group that were kept in enriched conditions throughout the 12 week rearing period. We then assessed fish anxiety levels, their spatial learning ability, and the capacity of the fish to find their way through a barrier where different routes were presented across 4 different trials. Fish that experienced enriched conditions for the longest duration had superior spatial learning abilities, and they were better at finding the correct route to get past the barrier than fish from the remaining three treatments. Positive effects on behaviour were, however, also found in the fish that only experienced enrichment in the last part of the rearing period, compared to the control, or fish exposed to early enrichment. No effect of enrichment was found on levels of anxiety in any of the groups.

  • 38.
    Ahlberg-Hultén, Gunnel
    Stockholm University.
    Psychological Demans and Decision Latitude Within Health Care Work: Relation to Health and Significance1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific evaluation of the psychosocial work environment for health care personnel. The theoretical basis is the demand-control model developed by Karasek and Theorell. The model consists of the dimensions psychological demands and decision latitude, the latter is a combination of intellectual discretion and authority over decision.

    The results in study I indicated that there are strong relationships between job strain, high psychological demands and low decision latitude, and blood pressure during work among health care personnel. In study II, symptoms from the low back were associated with all three dimensions psychological demands, skill discretion and decision authority while symptoms from the neck were related to lack of work support. The results in study III indicated that the combination of somatic and psychiatric care could be associated with higher levels of job strain and psychological symptoms.

    Study IV showed that substantial changes in working conditions had been frequent in the public sector during the period 1988-1996 and that registered nurses and nurse assistants had very different developments. Registered nurses had got a more intense work environment with increased skill utilization but also increased hindrances to perform work. Nurse assistants on the other hand had experienced decreased skill utilization. Temporary employment and part time work, common among health care personnel with low education, were the factors that explained the greatest part of deterioration of skill utilization and possibility to take part in planning of work. These different trends may negatively influence social climate as these two occupational groups often work together.

    Study V is a qualitative validation of the demand-control model. The findings showed that the model is equally relevant for women as for men and also relevant for health care personnel. Compared to occupational groups working with either "things" or "symbols" health care personnel experienced higher levels of psychological demands and lower levels of decision latitude.

    It is concluded that the demand-control scale is relevant for use in studies of psychosocial work environment in health care, possibly supplemented with the effort-reward scale. In order to reach a more solid understanding of the psychosocial work environment, questionnaire data should be combined with qualitatively analyzed interviews. The indications of a deteriorated psychosocial work environment for health care personnel in this and other studies calls for radical changes that promote less psychological demands and more decision latitude within this occupational sector.

  • 39.
    Ahlesten, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykometriska egenskaper hos Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykologisk inflexibilitet är ett centralt begrepp inom Acceptance and committment therapy (ACT). I enlighet med teorin bakom ACT är människor psykiska lidande starkt sammankopplat med komponenterna som utgör psykologisk inflexibilitet; upplevelsemässigt undvikande och kognitiv fusion. Det psykiska måendet bland barn och ungdomar tenderar att försämras och behovet av psykologiska vårdinsatser ökar. I det sammanhanget är det viktigt med fungerande skattningsinstrument som möjliggör bedömningar och utvärderingar av vårdbehov och vårdinsatser. I uppsatsen undersöktes psykometriska egenskaper hos självskattningsinstrumentet Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) i en grupp ungdomar som vårdas av Statens institutionsstyrelse. Av resultaten framgick att såväl reliabilitet som validitet var god i de utvalda måtten, faktorstrukturen tolkades som endimensionell. Även graden av psykologisk inflexibilitet i gruppen undersöktes. Bland undersökningsdeltagarna hade flickorna signifikant högre AFQ-Y-resultat jämfört med normpopulationen. Pojkarna avvek inte från normpopulationen.

  • 40.
    Ahlquist, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vad orsakar ilska?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilka situationer som vanligen orsakar ilska hos vuxna individer, och att ur dessa försöka härleda vilka faktorer som i dessa situationer orsakat ilskan. Genom en enkätundersökning fick 55 psykologistudenter vardera beskriva två situationer som gjort dem arga, samt vad det var som gjort dem arga. På detta material utfördes en induktiv tematisk analys, vilket visade på fem olika huvudorsaker till ilska. Dessa var: Hot mot ens (eller signifikant annans) välbefinnande; Normbrytande beteende och orättvisa; Bristande kontroll över relevant situation samt förhindrelse att uppnå mål; Ens förväntningar bryts till det negativa; Negativa tillstånd. I en vidare diskussion behandlas att dessa teman förefaller passa väl in i ett evolutionistiskt synsätt på emotioner. Ilska förefaller vara en handlingsmotiverande emotion som huvudsakligen fyller funktionen som mobiliserande kraft gentemot negativa utvecklingar.

  • 41. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Anund, Anna
    Hallvig, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Video-based observer rated sleepiness versus self-reported subjective sleepiness in real road driving2015In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, no 4, 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Observer-rated sleepiness (ORS) based on video recordings of the driver's face is often used when analysing naturalistic driving data. The aim of this study is to investigate if ORS ratings agree with subjective self-reported sleepiness (SRS). Methods: Forty raters assessed 54 video-clips showing drivers with varying levels of sleepiness. The video-clips were recorded during a field experiment focusing on driver sleepiness using the same cameras that are typically used in large-scale field studies. The weak results prompted a second test. Ten human factors researchers made pairwise comparisons of videos showing the same four participants in an alert versus a very sleepy condition. The task was simply to select the video-clip where the driver was sleepy. Results: The overall average percentage of video segments where ORS and SRS matched was 41 % in Test 1. ORS 0 (alert) and ORS 2 (very sleepy) were easier to score than ORS 1 and it was slightly harder to rate night-time drives. Inter-rater agreement was low, with average Pearson's r correlations of 0.19 and Krippendorff's alpha of 0.15. In Test 2, the average Pearson's r correlations was 0.35 and Krippendorff's alpha was 0.62. The correspondence between ORS and SRS showed an agreement of 35 %. Conclusions: The results indicate that ORS ratings based on real road video recordings correspond poorly with SRS and have low inter-rater agreement. Further research is necessary in order to further evaluate the usefulness of ORS as a measure of sleepiness.

  • 42.
    Ahlström, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hörselskadade barn i kommunikation och samspel2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Ahocheshm, Arash
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Radikala och extrema grupper: Anslutning, kontinuitet och urkoppling i ljuset av social identitetsteori2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier om engagemang i extrema och radikala grupper har begränsats till en grupp åt gången. Djupare psykologisk förståelse för fenomenet har efterfrågats. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att utforska likheter mellan föredetta medlemmar av olika radikala och extrema grupper, beträffande faktorer bidragande till anslutning, kontinuitet och urkoppling, samt hur processen bakom anslutning, kontinuitet och urkoppling kan förklaras med hjälp av social identitetsteori (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Intervjumaterialet (N=7) analyserades med en blandning av induktiv och deduktiv tematisk analys. Anslutning associeras med utanförskap, dysfunktionella familjeförhållanden, emotionell belastning och manipulation. Kontinuitet associeras med familjeliknande förhållanden, betydelsefulla roller, ökad självsäkerhet, tydliga mål och aspiration, ökade aktiviteter, polariserade föreställningar och motsättningar. Urkoppling associeras med personlig utveckling, distans och psykisk ohälsa. Ett förslag till förklaringsmodell presenteras. Negativ social identitet leder till anslutning, positiv social identitet leder till kontinuitet, hotad social identitet kan leda till eller ifrån kontinuitet, negativ social identiet leder till urkoppling.

  • 44.
    Ahola, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How reliable are eyewitness memories? Effects of retention interval, violence of act, and gender stereotypes on observers' judgments of their own memory regarding witnessed act and perpetrator:  2012In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, Vol. 18, no 5, 491-503 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i) stimulus person's gender, (ii) type of act (neutral or violent), and (iii) retention interval (short or long) on observers' memory of a stimulus person. Participants were presented with one of two acts: neutral (walking around in a store) or violent (robbing a store). The retention interval was 10 minutes or one-three weeks. The dependent variables were questionnaire items concerning the participants' memory of (1) the stimulus person's appearance and (2) the event, and (3) rating scales where the participants were asked to evaluate the stimulus person's aggressiveness, insensitivity, and other personality traits as well as characteristics of the act. Results showed that when the act was violent, and a long retention interval was used, a female, but not a male, stimulus person was evaluated less harshly than with a short retention interval (enhancement of gender stereotype); a stimulus person was seen as behaving in a more masculine way when performing a violent rather than a neutral act; witnessing the violent act resulted in better self-rated memory of the stimulus person; and with increasing retention interval, the violent act was seen as less negative and the neutral act as more negative (regression toward the mean).

  • 45.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How reliable are eye witness memories?: Effects of retention interval, violence of act, and gender stereotypeson observers’ judgments of their own memory regarding witnessed act andperpetratorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i) stimulus person’s gender, (ii) type of act (neutral or violent), and (iii) retention interval (short or long) on observers’ memory of a stimulus person. Participants were presented with one of two acts; neutral (walking around in a store) or violent (robbing a store). The retention interval was 10 minutes or 1-3 weeks. The dependent variables were questionnaire items concerning the participants' memory of (1) the stimulus person’s appearance and (2) the event, and (3) rating scales where the participants were asked to evaluate the stimulus person’s aggressiveness, insensitivity, and other personality traits as well as characteristics of the act. Results showed that when the act was violent, and a long RI was used, a female, but not a male, stimulus person was evaluated less harshly than with a short RI (enhancement of gender stereotype); a stimulus person was seen as behaving in a more masculine way when performing a violent rather than a neutral act; witnessing the violent act resulted in better self-rated memory of the stimulus person; and with increasing retention interval, the violent act was seen as less negative and the neutral act as more negative (regression toward the mean).

  • 46.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Justice needs a blindfold: Effects of defendants’ gender and attractiveness on judicial evaluation2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender and appearance affect our judgments regarding an individual’s personality, profession, and morality, and create a reference frame within which to act toward that person. The main question of the present thesis is whether these kinds of stereotypical conceptions have implications for the judicial process: how professionals within the judicial process evaluate and judge a defendant, and how and what eyewitnesses remember. Expressed in other words: Is justice blind or do gender and appearances affect the treatment we receive in a judicial process?

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to study the effects of gender and attractiveness on evaluations of defendants accused of crimes of varying seriousness and type. The second theme was to study under what circumstances these effects are particularly strong; emotionality, retention interval, as well as gender and profession of evaluators, were controlled for.

    Study 1 aimed at investigating “pure” gender and attractiveness effects, with psychology students as participants. Study II added the variable of emotionality, as well as six groups of evaluators. Emotionality was studied by including emotional photographs of crime victim injury as well as two levels of vividness in the written description the evaluator was to read. The evaluators were professionals working within the judicial process in Sweden–judges, jury members, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and police officers–as well as law students. Study 1 showed that a male defendant was evaluated more negatively than a female. Study II showed two main tendencies: (i) “same-sex penalty effect”: Sentencing evaluators (judges, jurors) evaluated a defendant of their own gender more harshly than one of the opposite gender; (ii) “male penalty effect”: Nonsentencing evaluators (police officers, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and law students) evaluated and judged a male defendant more harshly than a female. Study III focused on exploring effects of violence (emotionality) and retention interval in the context of gender differences to investigate under which circumstances gender differences might be especially strengthened. Violence was manipulated using two acts: one neutral (walking in a store) and one violent (robbing the same store). Retention interval was of two lengths: 10 minutes and 1-3 weeks. Results revealed a gender-stereotype-enhancement effect, in which the evaluator evaluated the male defendant more harshly with the longer retention interval as well as in the violent act condition. The results of the present studies may have practical implications for the functioning of the judicial process; on the eyewitness hearing level (Study III) as well as on the evidence evaluation-, guilt-, and punishment assessment levels (Studies I and II).

  • 47.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Justice Needs a Blindfold: Effects of Gender and Attractiveness on Prison Sentences and Attributions of Personal Characteristics in a Judicial Process2009In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 16, no 1, 90-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effect of gender and facial characteristics of criminal offenders on attributions of crime-relevant traits. The stimulus pictures portrayed women and men of varying attractiveness. Participants were presented with pictures of these female or male faces along with accompanying crime accounts. The crime account described the individual in the picture as a person who had committed one of the following crimes: theft, fraud, drug crime, child molestation, child abuse, or homicide. After reading one case account the participants were asked to evaluate the credibility and other crime-relevant personality traits of the offender. Results showed that female defendants were rated more favourably than were male defendants. Gender worked to the advantage of the female perpetrator. There were also slight tendencies towards more lenient appraisal of the more attractive women.

  • 48.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is Justice Really Blind?: Effects of Crime Descriptions, Defendant Gender and Appearance, and Legal Practitioner Gender on Sentences and Defendant Evaluations in a Mock Trial2010In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 17, no 2, 304-324 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate how sources of information can bias the judicial process. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of photographs of victims’ injury, and of vivid verbal victim injury description, on the evaluation and sentencing of a defendant in a mock criminal trial. The participants were presented with five different crime accounts: (a) vandalism, (b) arson, (c) child abuse, (d) child molestation, and (e) homicide, all committed by male perpetrators, and were asked to evaluate the trustworthiness, culpability, aggressiveness, guilt, and other crime-relevant personality traits of the defendant, and to set imprisonment sentences. Results of Experiment 1 showed that exposure to photographs of crime victim injuries as well as vivid crime descriptions had only weak and non-significant effects on defendant evaluations, but imprisonment terms tended to be longer in the Photo condition than in the No photo condition. To further investigate the possible effects of photographic information on judicial processes for different crimes (child molestation, child abuse, homicide), Experiment 2 was conducted with legal practitioners (judges, members of Swedish juries, law students, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, police officers) as evaluators. Results showed three tendencies: (a) a ‘‘same-sex penalty effect’’: sentencing evaluators (judges, jurors) evaluated a defendant of the same gender as the evaluator, more harshly than one of the opposite gender, (b) a ‘‘male penalty effect’’: non-sentencing evaluators (police officers, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and law students) evaluated and judged a male defendant more harshly than a female, and (c) for female non-sentencing evaluators, the male penalty effect was enhanced for the more attractive defendants. Overall, the results suggest that defendant gender, defendant appearance, evaluator gender, and evaluator profession can affect the outcome of a criminal trial.

  • 49.
    Ahrén, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Abstrakt eller konkret verklighet?: Om hur psykologisk distans inverkar på perception2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förståelsen för andra människor som krävs för lyckade interaktioner, förklaras i attributionsteorierna "Theory of Mind" och "Simulation Theory. Ett vanligt men ouppklarat fenomen är det fundamentala attributionsfelet, där beteende felaktigt attribueras till inre generella egenskaper. Fenomenet reflekterar en abstrakt mental konstruktion i enlighet med Construal Level Theorys antagande om hur psykologisk distans inverkar på perception. I en modifierad Attitude Attribution Paradigm modell undersöks om spatial distans påverkar det fundamentala attributionsfelet och om skillnader föreligger mellan kvinnor och män. Kort/lång spatial distans primades genom en kontroversiell text, via information om dess kompositionsplats, som fungerade som underlag för bedömning av skribentens åsikt. En variansanalys visade ingen signifikant effekt av spatial distans, inte heller någon skillnad mellan kvinnor och män. Resultaten kan ha påverkats av den modifierade undersökningsmodellen, vilken kan ha medlat en implicit antydan om en uttryckt åsikt.

  • 50.
    Ahrén, Jennie C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Psychosocial determinants and family background in anorexia nervosa: Results from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2012In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 45, no 3, 362-369 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between psychosocial factors and family background and incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a Swedish cohort.

    Method: The Stockholm Birth Cohort, SBC (N = 14,294) contains information on social background and general health in males and females, born in Stockholm 1953. Hospitalizations for AN, based on diagnoses from the ICD-8 through ICD-10, were recorded from 1969 to 2002. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to measure the association between psychosocial characteristics and family background and the risk of AN.

    Results: Higher maternal education was associated with a higher risk for hospitalization for AN. An increased risk for AN was also found among females who stated that they “often compare their future prospects with others.”

    Discussion: Although the study is based on a low number of cases, it confirms earlier findings of higher maternal education among individuals with eating disorders in similar cohorts.

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