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  • 1.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Justice needs a blindfold: Effects of defendants’ gender and attractiveness on judicial evaluation2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender and appearance affect our judgments regarding an individual’s personality, profession, and morality, and create a reference frame within which to act toward that person. The main question of the present thesis is whether these kinds of stereotypical conceptions have implications for the judicial process: how professionals within the judicial process evaluate and judge a defendant, and how and what eyewitnesses remember. Expressed in other words: Is justice blind or do gender and appearances affect the treatment we receive in a judicial process?

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to study the effects of gender and attractiveness on evaluations of defendants accused of crimes of varying seriousness and type. The second theme was to study under what circumstances these effects are particularly strong; emotionality, retention interval, as well as gender and profession of evaluators, were controlled for.

    Study 1 aimed at investigating “pure” gender and attractiveness effects, with psychology students as participants. Study II added the variable of emotionality, as well as six groups of evaluators. Emotionality was studied by including emotional photographs of crime victim injury as well as two levels of vividness in the written description the evaluator was to read. The evaluators were professionals working within the judicial process in Sweden–judges, jury members, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and police officers–as well as law students. Study 1 showed that a male defendant was evaluated more negatively than a female. Study II showed two main tendencies: (i) “same-sex penalty effect”: Sentencing evaluators (judges, jurors) evaluated a defendant of their own gender more harshly than one of the opposite gender; (ii) “male penalty effect”: Nonsentencing evaluators (police officers, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and law students) evaluated and judged a male defendant more harshly than a female. Study III focused on exploring effects of violence (emotionality) and retention interval in the context of gender differences to investigate under which circumstances gender differences might be especially strengthened. Violence was manipulated using two acts: one neutral (walking in a store) and one violent (robbing the same store). Retention interval was of two lengths: 10 minutes and 1-3 weeks. Results revealed a gender-stereotype-enhancement effect, in which the evaluator evaluated the male defendant more harshly with the longer retention interval as well as in the violent act condition. The results of the present studies may have practical implications for the functioning of the judicial process; on the eyewitness hearing level (Study III) as well as on the evidence evaluation-, guilt-, and punishment assessment levels (Studies I and II).

  • 2. Airaksinen, Eija
    et al.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Kognitiv psykologi.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Low episodic memory performance as a premorbid marker of depression:: Evidence from a 3-year follow-up2007In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 115, no 6, 458-465 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine low episodic memory scores as a potential risk factor for depression.

    Method: A population-based sample of non-depressed individuals (20–64 years) were re-examined 3 years after an initial screening (n ¼ 708). At baseline, information on episodic memory scores, demographic and socioeconomic factors, alcohol use and anxiety diagnoses was collected. The data for depression diagnoses were collected at both baseline and follow-up.

    Results: Logistic regressions, conducted on three separate study groups that were defined according to three assessments of episodic memory (i.e. free + cued recall, free recall, cued recall) among individuals who scored in the 25 lowest or highest percentiles in the memory tests, revealed that low episodic memory performance defined as the sum of free and cued recalls of organizable words constitutes a risk of depression diagnosis 3 years later.

    Conclusion: Low episodic memory performance predated depressive diagnosis and might be considered as a premorbid marker of depression.

  • 3.
    Allertz, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att motivera och/eller manipulera: En begreppsutredande litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to theoretically investigate the concepts of the interpersonal actions 'to motivate' and 'to manipulate' and also to examine possible differences and similarities between the two. The method used is a conceptual review based on the Self-Determination Theory, related to the concept of motivation, and Machiavellianism, related to the concept of manipu-lation. The results show that 'to motivate', according to Self-Determination Theory, concerns influencing the intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, where intrinsic motivation is related to the feeling of self-determination, inner locus of causality, being or feeling competent and exercise activities for the pleasure of it, whilst extrinsic motivation is related to external locus of cau-sality, external pressure and engaging in activities for the purpose of reaching a goal or re-ward. 'To manipulate' is according to Machiavellianism based on the manipulator doing whatever it takes to reach a certain goal and gain something for himself with no regard of what methods being used. The comparative analysis showed that the crucial difference in how an behaviour is interpreted as either, or both, motivating and manipulative is based on who is doing the interpretation, what information she has and which aspects that are focused on.

  • 4.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Goals and values in school: A model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments2010In: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928, Vol. 13, no 2, 207-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence; they are hypothesised to be structured in a circular model. The contents are defined and related to existing theories and research in education, special education, educational psychology and sociology, on the basis of reviews of literature. The model underlies the Goals, Attitudes and Values in School questionnaire, developed to assess the characteristics ofeducational settings. The model can be a practical tool in understanding and appreciating differences between learning environments in research and assessment and it could represent a guideline for interventions aimed to analyse and improve the social climate of learning environments.

  • 5.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in outdoor living spacesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perspectives on wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor environments: Studies of masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An acoustic environment contains sounds from various sound sources, some generally perceived as wanted, others as unwanted. This thesis examines the effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in acoustic environments, with regard to masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility.

    In urban settings, masking of unwanted sounds by sounds from water structures has been suggested as a way to improve the acoustic environment. However, Study I showed that the unwanted (road traffic) sound was better at masking the wanted (water) sound than vice versa, thus indicating that masking of unwanted sounds with sounds from water structures may prove difficult. Also, predictions by a partial loudness model of the auditory periphery overestimated the effect of masking, indicating that centrally located informational masking processes contribute to the effect. Some environments have also been shown to impair stress recovery; however studies using only auditory stimuli is lacking. Study II showed that a wanted (nature) sound improve stress recovery compared to unwanted (road traffic, ambient) sounds. This suggests that the acoustic environment influences stress recovery and that wanted sounds may facilitate stress recovery compared to unwanted sounds. An additional effect of unwanted sounds is impeded speech communication, commonly measured with speech intelligibility models. Study III showed that speech intelligibility starts to be negatively affected when the unwanted (aircraft sound) masker have equal or higher sound pressure level as the speech sound. Three models of speech intelligibility (speech intelligibility index, partial loudness and signal–to–noise ratio) predicted this effect well, with a slight disadvantage for the signal–to–noise ratio model. Together, Study I and III suggests that the partial loudness model is useful for determining effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor acoustic environments where variations in sound pressure level are large. But, in environments with large variations in other sound characteristics, models containing predictions of central processes would likely produce better results.

    The thesis concludes that wanted and unwanted characteristics of sounds in acoustic environments affect masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility, and that auditory perception models can predict these effects.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Grabell, Adam
    Department of clinical and developmental psychology, University of Michigan, MI, United States.
    Chang, Hyein
    Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lovén, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Olson, Sheryl
    Department of clinical and developmental psychology, University of Michigan, MI, United States.
    The Contribution of Hot and Cool Self-Regulation in Early Childhood to Later Academic AchievementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of hot (emotional/motivational) and cool (cognitive) self-regulation in early childhood to lateracademic achievement in kindergarten (math) and late elementary school (math andlanguage). In a sample of 235 preschoolers, higher levels of cool self-regulation predicted better math achievement in kindergarten and this head-start effect persisted into late elementary school. In contrast, higher levels of hot self-regulation predicted better language but not math achievement in late elementary school. These findings support the notion that cool self-regulation is important for the development of academic skills already inkindergarten, whereas the effects on academic achievement of hot self-regulation are delayed, which may be a result of increasing demands through elementary school.

  • 8.
    Andersson Konke, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Multilingual Multitaskers2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that managing two languages enhances creativity, cognitive flexibility, and divergent thinking. As demands on these and related higher cognitive functions are accentuated in multiple task performance, this study tested the hypothesis that bilinguals are better mulitaskers than monolinguals. Bilinguals were expected to show more efficient executive functioning and spatial ability than monolinguals, which in turn were expected to mediate individual differences in multitasking. A total of 19 bilingual and 18 monolingual undergraduates completed computerized tests of multitasking, executive functioning and spatial ability. Supporting the main hypotheses, bilinguals were better multitaskers than monolinguals (p < .01) and these effects were in part mediated by their superior spatial ability (p < .05).

  • 9.
    Andersson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attribution and judgment: examining the relation between attributing capacities and moral judgments about killing animals2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new operationalization was used to model a schema-based approach to moral judgment, as well as compare it to predictions based on the Social Intuitionist Model. Judgments were made about the moral wrongness of killing different animals. At Time 1, only moral judgments were made. At Time 2 judgments were made again, with questions and scales relating to attributing morally relevant cognitive capacities also included; further, two randomized conditions varied the presentation order of the scales. Differences between Time 1 and 2 indicated a reversed perspective-taking effect, with animals of lower capacities rated less empathically at Time 2. Affective ratings and attributed capacities were compared as different predictors, showing attributed capacities being more powerful. A group comparison was also made between active animal rights proponents and non-proponents, showing differences on several factors. These and other findings are discussed with relation to the Social Intuitionist Model and a schema-based account of morality.

  • 10.
    Anna, Bengtsson
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johan, Krogh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Upplevelse av anställningsbarhet på PAO-programmet - samt sambanden med kompetens, självkänsla, extraversion och självförmåga2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om det fanns en skillnad i upplevd anställningsbarhet mellan studenter som läser PAO-programmet termin ett och sex på Stocholms Universitet samt undersöka om det förelåg något samband mellan anställningsbarhet, kompetens, självförmåga, självkänsla och extraversion för respektive termin. En enkät delades ut till samtliga tillgängliga studenter på termin ett och sex. Enkäten undersökte de fem olika variablerna med hjälp av tidigare testade frågor. Resultatet visade att det inte fanns någon signifikant skillnad i upplevd anställningsbarhet mellan de båda grupperna. Variablerna kompetens, självkänsla, självförmåga och extraversion hade alla ett signifikant samband med anställningsbarhet för båda undersökningsgrupperna. Stora delar av resultatet bekräftar tidigare teorier angående vad som påverkar anställningsbarhet. Det finns dock delar i resultatet som ifrågasätter tidigare teori så som att den upplevda anställningsbarheten inte ökade trots utbildning. Det kan bero på att studenternas upplevda anställningsbarhet påverkades mer av deras personliga egenskaper än av den kunskap som erhölls under utbildningen. En liknande studier bör genomföras i form av en longitudinell undersökning för att bevisa dessa spekulationer.

  • 11.
    Appelbom, Sophia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nordin, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kvinnor i ledande positioner i organisatorisk motgång - chefers syn på glasklippan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Glasklippan symboliserar fenomenet att kvinnor oftare befordras till ledande positioner i motgång än framgång. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att hos chefer i Sverige undersöka upplevelser och förhållningssätt till glasklippan, vad den tros bero på samt hur kvinnor anses påverkas av den i arbetslivet. Semistrukturerade intervjuer där ett scenario om glasklippan diskuterades utfördes med 12 chefer. Induktiv tematisk analys användes. Några intervjupersoner hade själva hamnat på glasklippan utan att ha verkat medvetna om det. Deltagarna förde ofta motstridiga resonemang och deras uppfattningar var inte samstämmiga. Det lyftes även hur kvinnors situation ser ut på organisationer idag, varför det är viktigt att medvetandegöra fenomenet, och förklaringar till glasklippan. Trots glasklippans närvaro i organisationer verkar den vara svår att se och förstå. Olika förväntningar som ställs på kvinnor skapar en svårhanterlig situation för dem på glasklippan. Att fenomenet förekommer i Sverige men är svårupptäckt visar på vikten av att uppmärksamma glasklippan.

  • 12.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Soundscape assessment.2005In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 117, no 4, 2591-2592 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the quality of the soundscape it is necessary to know its descriptive and evaluative properties, and the relationships between these properties. This was explored in a listening experiment with 100 participants (48 women, 52 men; mean age 25,6 years). Each participant scaled 5 out of 50 soundscapes with regard to 116 single verbal attributes, using a visual analogue scale of agreeableness. In addition, acoustical properties of the soundscapes were assessed. A principal component analysis identified two major evaluative components, labeled Hedonic Tone and Eventfulness. Furthermore it was found that the mere presence of common sound sources, regardless of sound level, correlated significantly with these evaluative components. Technological sounds (e.g., traffic noise) were negatively associated with both Hedonic Tone and Eventfulness, while a positive association was found between Hedonic Tone and sounds of nature (e.g., bird song), and a positive association was found between Eventfulness and human sounds (e.g., human voices). These relationships lead to the hypothesis that introduction of nature and human sounds, in combination with the reduction of technological sounds may improve the quality of soundscapes considerably.

  • 13.
    Bak, Krzysztof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Literature and History of Ideas, History of Literature.
    Psykologi och moral i Andreas Bjerres kriminalstudier2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bak, Krzysztof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Literature and History of Ideas, History of Literature.
    Psykologi och moral i Andreas Bjerres kriminalstudier2014In: Arche - tidskrift för psykoanalys, humaniora och arkitektur, ISSN 2000-7817, Vol. 46-47, no 1, 220-231 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Becker, Nina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany.
    Laukka, Erika J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Kalpouzos, Gregoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany.
    Structural brain correlates of associative memory in older adults2015In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 118, 146-153 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associative memory involves binding two or more items into a coherent memory episode. Relative to memory for single items, associative memory declines greatly in aging. However, older individuals vary substantially in their ability to memorize associative information. Although functional studies link associative memory to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), little is known about how volumetric differences in MTL and PFC might contribute to individual differences in associative memory. We investigated regional gray-matter volumes related to individual differences in associative memory in a sample of healthy older adults (n = 54; age = 60 years). To differentiate item from associative memory, participants intentionally learned face-scene picture pairs before performing a recognition task that included single faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Gray-matter volumes were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. To examine volumetric differences specifically for associative memory, item memory was controlled for in the analyses. Behavioral results revealed large variability in associative memory that mainly originated from differences in false-alarm rates. Moreover, associative memory was independent of individuals' ability to remember single items. Older adults with better associative memory showed larger gray-matter volumes primarily in regions of the left and right lateral PFC. These findings provide evidence for the importance of PFC in intentional learning of associations, likely because of its involvement in organizational and strategic processes that distinguish older adults with good from those with poor associative memory.

  • 16.
    Berg, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bildandet av det psykologiska kontraktet: upplevelser hos nyanställda inom IT2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett psykologiskt kontrakt hos en nyanställd börjar bildas i interaktionsprocessen vid den första anställningsintervjun. Ibland tidigare, redan vid en perception av kommunikation från företaget om hur detta är som arbetsgivare. Den subjektiva upplevelsen av löften mellan arbetsgivare och arbetstagare utgör det psykologiska kontraktet. IT-avdelningar växer som en viktig funktion på moderna företag och denna undersökning syftade till att genom intervjuer undersöka frågan om hur det psykologiska kontraktet bildas hos IT-anställda. Fem nyanställda på ett reseföretag i Sverige intervjuades för studien. En tematisk analys gav ett resultat med fyra teman som återger fyra källor till signaler inom det psykologiska kontraktet; företagets image, habituering, den närmaste chefen och jämförelse. Förslaget till framtida forskning är att väga in andra påverkansfaktorer än bara relationen mellan nuvarande arbetstagare och arbetsgivare; d.v.s. jämförelse med tidigare arbetsgivare.

  • 17.
    Berglund, B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, M.E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On a tool for measuring soundscape quality in urban residential areas.2006In: Acta Acustica united with Acustica, no 92, 938-944 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On a tool for measuring soundscape quality in urban residential areas An attribute-profiling tool, customized for 106 residents’ structured listening walks, was developed for measuring "soundscape quality" in 24 kinds of listening places representing four urban residential areas exposed to road-traffic noise. The tool’s 12 attributes were matched to the soundscape on a scale from 0 to 100%. The attributes were: soothing, pleasant, light, dull, eventful, exciting, stressful, hard intrusive, annoying, noisy and loud. In total, the soundscape quality of 636 unique 30-s soundscapes was measured. For good soundscape quality (pleasant and soothing) to predominate outdoors, the overall sound level of soundscapes had to be below ca. 50 dB LAeq,30s. Indoor soundscapes (closed windows) at exposed sides of buildings were found to be of inferior quality compared to outdoor soundscapes at shielded sides. This was true although the former soundscapes were 14 dB LAeq,30s lower than the latter. A PCA analysis of the 12-attribute profiles of the 24 kinds of listening places shoed that residents actually perceived "signature" of soundscape quality linked to the origin of the soundscapes, whether indoor or outdoors. All soundscapes at shielded sides indoors with closed windows clustered together with the indoor and outdoor soundscapes in the low road-traffic noise exposed residential area. Conversely, at buildings ides with high traffic-noise exposure, all soundscapes, outdoors or indoors with open window, clustered together with their outdoor soundscapes at the shielded d sides. The new attribute-profiling tool is promising because it measures soundscape quality beyond unwanted sounds and mere sound level of predominant noise.

  • 18.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    From the WHO Guidelines for community noise to healthy soundscapes.2006In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 2006., 2006, 1-9 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Community noise destroys environments which otherwise could have been quiet and restorative, such as court yards, gardens, parks and other green urban and suburban areas. Wide gaps exist between current sound levels and those adopted in the WHO guidelines for community noise. A wide gap also exists between current long-term goals and the goals that would constitute good sound environments. Thus far, community-noise pollution has in principle been viewed as a pure engineering problem, not a health problem. The objective of the WHO guidelines and the EC environmental noise directive, is to protect people from the harmful effects of noise. Both also recommend education and information as noise management measures, besides the legal and engineering measures. However, in practice there is an inbuilt conflict which abuses the health goals. WHO guideline values are based on different critical health effects which are linked to the “all-noise” immission in specific environments and sensitive time periods for sensitive groups during specific activities. In contrast, noise maps and remedial actions against noise are concerned with sound levels of a specific noise source. It is not enough to protect and prevent against the predominating noise. The way forward is to promote and support the development of healthy soundscapes. One goal of long-term city planning must be to provide soundscapes supportive to health.

  • 19.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measurement in psychology2011In: Measurement with persons: Theory, methods and implementation areas / [ed] B. Berglund, G.B. Rossi, J.T. Townsend & L.R. Pendrill, New York and London: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis Group , 2011, 27-50 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In psychology, there are two main schools of metrology: psychophysics and psychometrics, which are grounded in physics and statistics, respectively. In both schools, reliable and valid measurement would require well-designed studies involving persons, that is, persons as measuring instruments or as objects for measuring their own characteristics e.g., personality or emotions. Originally, psychophysical experiments were set up to measure sensory perception and performance particularly malfunctions such as specific color blindness or hearing deficits. This would involve identification/recognition, discrimination and perceived intensity measured in physical quantities. At least three psychophysical ‘laws’ were established: that of Weber, Fechner and Stevens. Mathematics and statistics relevant to theory in decision-making were soon applied e.g., signal detection theory and choice theory. For intensive continua, the methods of quantification were divided into the direct and indirect scaling methods; the direct ones strived towards fundamental measurement, whereas the indirect ones were grounded in statistical theory. Because of cumbersome data collection, the indirect scaling methods are seldom applied outside the research laboratory. Direct scaling methods do fulfill requirements from comparability to calibration: absolute magnitude estimation, magnitude matching, constrained scaling, Borg’s category-ratio estimation, and Berglund’s master scaling. Several statistically base methods are applied in measuring complex psychological phenomena, such as descriptor profiling, cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling, individual differences scaling, and correspondence analysis.

  • 20.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Towards supportive residential soundscapes, indoors and outdoors: Abstract S54.12006In: Abstract Guide of the 26th International Congress in Applied Psychology., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health-supportive soundscapes can best be accomplished if noise pollution is abated in harmony with creative city planning. In order to design better soundscapes in residential areas, outdoors and indoors, we have to know what sounds are discerned and what kinds of soundscapes are adverse (e.g., disturbance) or positive (e.g., tranquillity). Today regulation is limited to energetic time-averages for specific traffic (road, rail & air) and industrial noise. No information is conveyed on sound components, on structure of their composite, or the acoustic soundscape. Also the WHO health-based guideline values are grounded in longterm equivalent continuous sound levels. Such averages, based on the amount of traffic and short-term sound-levels, allow for worst-noise component approximations, but do not characterize the soundscape per se. Alternatively, a strategy is here proposed which aims at delivering prognostic design tools for perceived soundscapes. Recent research results will be presented from our residential soundscape database. It includes a dualistic soundscape similarity approach for differentiating various perceptual and acoustic qualitative aspects of soundscapes as well as a diagnostic system for soundscape certification, which builds on a neural network classifier. Both tools may be used in soundscape design and mitigation psychophysics.

  • 21.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A dualistic psychoacoustic research strategy for measuring soundscape quality: Paper 034.2006In: Inter-Noise 2006–Engineering a Quieter World.: Engineering a Quieter World., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to be able to design future soundscapes, tools are needed by which soundscape quality can be measured. For this purpose a “dualistic psychoacoustic research strategy” has been developed. The main goal of this strategy is to identify new ways to characterize soundscapes acoustically. The core question is how soundscapes should be measured on the one hand acoustically, on the other perceptually, such that the acoustic soundscapes that are similar (or dissimilar) would be identical to the perceived soundscapes that are similar (or dissimilar). A top down approach is favored in which tools for measuring perceived soundscape quality are first developed, and followed by developing models of measurement for acoustic soundscapes. Our multidimensional tool for measuring perceived soundscapes includes (perceived) similarity analysis for finding basic underlying dimensions and corresponding similarity analysis of acoustic (waterfall) soundscape quality. This means that this tool measures soundscape quality beyond loudness of unwanted sounds or mere sound level of predominant noise. Research on neural network models is in progress for finding appropriate acoustic measures of soundscapes.

  • 22.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are similar acoustic soundscapes perceived as similar?: Paper SS29-355.2006In: EuroNoise 2006: Advanced Solutions for Noise Control., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health guidelines are concerned with soundscapes as coherent wholes (emissions from all sounds) and everyday life also takes place in soundscapes. Current noise control focuses on sound level change for singular sources, isolated from invariant background and other component sounds. By applying a dualistic similarity approach to data sets of perceptual soundscapes and acoustic soundscapes, it was possible to meaningfully differentiate properties of acoustic soundscapes of relevance for improving urban and suburban soundscapes. Apart from the mere presence of common sounds (e.g., birds, sounds of nature or technological sounds), meaningful differentiations of soundscapes include: (1) the relative proportion of direct and shielded sounds in background soundscapes, (2) the modification of loudness/softness and eventfulness/uneventfulness by acoustic quality, and (3) the “sound signatures” traceable to the relative foreground-background character of perceived soundscapes. Acoustically similar soundscapes (evolutionary spectra) were not always perceived similar, because the reasons for the two types of similarities differ. This fact calls for new ways to assess the acoustic soundscapes such that adequate design tools for coherent soundscapes can be developed.

  • 23.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The soundscape explicated.2005In: Archives of Acoustics, ISSN 0137-5075, Vol. 30, no 4 (Supplement), 127-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscapes but not soundscapes are planned. Today’s noise control is based on traffic noise prognosis and is confined to average sound level of traffic noise. However, the heterogeneous soundscape embraces many component sounds, background sound inclusive. Prognostic design tools are needed by which “quiet” and pleasing soundscapes can be ensured. In a psychoacoustic experiment, promising properties of soundscapes were retrieved from similarities among evolutionary spectra. These were meaningfully differentiated in accord with features of perceived soundscapes extracted by multi-dimensional scaling: (a) position and slope of loudness functions due to qualitative differences (road-traffic exposed or shielded sides of buildings), (b) clusters of shielded soundscapes relative to two types of sound-exposed soundscapes, and (c) relative contribution of direct sound to background in soundscapes. The dualistic similarity approach conveys useful knowledge for soundscape design and mitigation psychophysics.

  • 24.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindvall, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Noise. In The National Board of Health and Welfare: Environmental Health Report 2005. Extended Summary.2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Community noise is a widespread environmental problem in Sweden and is the form of disturbance that affects the highest number of both children and adults. Twelve-year-olds are disturbed by the same noise sources as adults, but, for children, loud music is the most annoying source, whereas road-traffic noise is most annoying source for adults. One child in every seven is annoyed by noise in or near the home and one in four is annoyed by noise in or near the school/kindergarten. One in every five report that after listening to loud music or other loud sounds. They experience ringing, squeaking, howling or buzzing in their ears, this being slightly more frequent among boys than girls. Just over one in ten report that their hearing is sometimes worse after listening to loud music. Children are exposed to hearing-impairing noise to a larger extent than in the past. Sound levels measured in kindergartens and schools exceed the limit for when ear protectors must be worn according to legislation governing health and safety at work. It is important that children’s noise exposures in kindergartens, schools and leisure environments are reduced as well as children's exposure to excessively loud music.

  • 25.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Soundscape perception.2006In: Joint Baltic-Nordic Acoustics Meeting 2006.: 8-10 November 2006, Gothenburg, Sweden., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Annoyance research typically focuses on single sources and on adverse effects of noise. In contrast, soundscape research focuses on the total sound environment, including all its positive and negative aspects. A major challenge in soundscape research is to develop methods for measuring the perceived soundscape. In the research program “Soundscape Support to Health”, we have developed new methods for this purpose, including listening tests in the laboratory, listening walks in the field and questionnaire studies targeted on the soundscape. We have thus identified major perpetual dimensions of soundscapes (pleasantness and eventfulness), linked these features to important acoustical and informational properties of soundscapes (type of sources), and explored the effect of noise mitigation on soundscape perception. Our research show (a) that pleasantness of soundscapes is related to the presence of natural sounds, whereas eventfulness is related to the presence of sounds from humans, (b) that traffic noise should be reduced to below 50 dBA, in order to have a chance to create good outdoor soundscapes in urban residential and recreational areas, and (c) that mitigation efficiency in sound level of various barriers and facades may overestimate corresponding perceptual mitigation efficiency. Based on these findings, new tools for ‘green labelling’ of soundscapes are being developed.

  • 26.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Perception och Psykofysik.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Perception och Psykofysik.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Perception och Psykofysik.
    Soundscape psychophysics in place2007In: Proc. Inter-Noise 2007, 2007, IN07–114- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rossi, Giovanni B.Townsend, James T.Pendrill, Leslie R.
    Measurement with persons: Theory, methods and implementation areas2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements with persons are those in which human perception and interpretation are used for measuring complex, holistic quantities and qualities, which are perceived by the human brain and mind. Providing means for reproducible measurement of parameters such as pleasure and pain has important implications in evaluating all kinds of products, services and conditions. This book inaugurates a new era for this subject: a multi- and inter-disciplinary volume in which world-renowned scientists from the psychological, physical, biological, and social sciences reach a common understanding of measurement theory and methods. In the first section, generic theoretical and methodological issues are treated, including the perceptual basis of measurement in the various fields involved; the development of formal, representational, and probabilistic theories; the approach to experimentation; and the theories, models and methods for multidimensional problems. In the second section, several implementation areas are presented, including sound, visual, skin , and odor perception, functional brain imaging, body language and emotions , and, finally the use of measurements in decision making. The book covers topics relevant to a range of sciences, including general psychology and psychophysics, measurement theory, metrology and instrumentation, neurophysiology, engineering, biology and chemistry.

  • 28.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rossi, Giovanni B.
    Wallard, A.
    Measurement across physical and behavioural sciences2011In: Measurement with persons: Theory, methods and implementation areas / [ed] B. Berglund, R.B. Rossi, J.T. Townsend & L.R. Pendrill, New York and London: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis Group , 2011, 1, 1-25 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement in physical and behavioral sciences has had an interactive development. Helmholz pointed out the analogy between measuring and counting (the amount of “something”), a prerequisite for measurability. Campbell established measurability by providing a characteristic” for the empirical order relation, either by a physical addition operation (reference measurement scale) or by finding a physical law (measure as a function of other quantities); i.e. fundamental or derived quantities, respectively. Stevens contributed methods for the direct measurement of sensory events and the classification of measurement scales (nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio). Krantz, Roberts, Suppes, and Luce provided the representational theory of measurement, which feasibility has gained support for all kinds of measurement among physicists and engineers. Numbers obtained through measurement represent empirical relations. This holds true for fundamental physical measurements, but also for Stevens “weaker” scales. Through cooperation among members of BIPN, the international system of metrology is continuously revised and contributes significantly to the overall progress of science and technology, i.a. by agreeing on a common language in metrology by publishing an International Vocabulary. The International System of Unites (SI, formerly MKSA system) presents quantities with units and their interrelations as well as accepted physical laws.

  • 29.
    Berglund et al, Brgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    CEC–WG HSEA: The Effectiveness of Noise Measures.2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Working Group Health and Socio-economic Aspects was set up by the European Commission in order to provide guidance on cost-effectiveness of noise reduction measures and the interaction between different such measures. Strong interactions were found between noise reduction measures taken at the EC level and at the local levels. Therefore, this research focused on finding additional knowledge on how to prioritize solutions. A model study was undertaken in order to predict the effects of noise abatement packages as regards their effectiveness. It was possible to demonstrate what constitutes an effective mix of noise measures for different sources (in scenarios). Ranking the solutions to noise problems was, in principle, guided by two criteria: effect reduction and cost-benefit ratio. Other considerations were equity (who pays the costs and who gets the benefits), the polluter pays principle and the time frame. Some measures have important consequences also in other areas, like air quality, safety, travel time, and energy. Based on the research results, the EC is advised: (a) To develop an ambitious strategy to achieve further noise reduction for road, rail and aircraft noise; (b) To carry out detailed analysis in the course of developing noise actions plans into the most cost-effective solution in their particular case; (c) To raise awareness of noise as a public health issue and to disseminate the knowledge on effective nose abatement.

  • 30.
    Bergman, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Anknytningsmönster, copingstrategier och psykisk hälsa hos brandmän2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns få tidigare studier som har undersökt vilka faktorer som påverkar brandmäns psykiska hälsa. Eftersom yrkeskategorin är särskilt stressutsatt är coping och anknytningsmönster intressanta fenomen att studera hos brandmän. Syftet med studien var att se om anknytningsmönster och copingstrategier har betydelse för den mentala hälsan hos denna grupp. En enkät delades till 42 brandmän, heltidsanställda vid en räddningstjänst i Sverige. Resultatet visade att anknytningsmönster har betydelse för den psykiska hälsan hos denna grupp brandmän, ett signifikant positivt samband fanns mellan otrygg anknytning och psykisk ohälsa. Även coping visade sig ha betydelse för det psykiska välmåendet, då det förelåg ett positivt signifikant samband mellan dysfunktionell coping och psykisk ohälsa. Analysen visade vidare att anknytningsmönster inte har någon betydelse för hur gruppen brandmän väljer att hantera stress. Studien bidrar till att öka förståelsen av effekterna av anknytning och coping som i framtida forskning kan visa sig vara viktigt för att förstå brandmäns stressutsatthet och behov.

  • 31.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zukauskiene, Rita
    Career outcomes of adolescents with below average IQ: Who succeeds against the odds?2015In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 52, 9-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The educational and vocational careers of adolescents with below average IQ were studied in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 1326), born in 1955 and followed from early adolescence to midlife. Compared to those with average IQ, the level of education and occupational status achieved by those with below average IQ were, generally, considerably lower. This was the case, in particular, for female participants in the lowest IQ group. No significant relationships were found between parents' socioeconomic status and educational level, income, or occupational status in midlife for adolescents with low IQ (lowest 20%). When those with a successful educational or vocational career were compared to others on a number of competence factors, own educational aspirations stood out as the factor that differed most within each IQ group between those who succeeded and those who did not. The differences were largest for those of low IQ (effect sizes 0.4–1.6). These findings were consistent with results from multiple regression analyses, which, for instance, showed that, within the low IQ group and controlling for confounders, the only significant predictor of career outcomes was educational aspirations.

  • 32.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marknadsorienterade relationer i arbetslivet: om känslan av att vara anställningsbar2011In: Arbetets marknad / [ed] Christina Garsten, Jessica Lindvert, & Renita Thedvall, Malmö: Liber, 2011, 1, 150-169 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokbeskrivning från förlaget

    Få saker i samhället engagerar oss så som arbete. Arbete är föremål för våra drömmar och visioner om framtiden när vi är unga. Arbete engagerar våra strävanden som vuxna. Det ger en plattform för gemenskap, såväl som möjlighet att forma vår identitet. Men arbete kan också vara något som stänger människor ute; från gemenskap och deltagande, och från att forma sin egen framtid.

    Den här boken är ett resultat av flera års forskning om de förändringar som har format arbetsmarknaden och som fortfarande pågår. Den beskriver hur arbetsmarknaden blivit just en marknad och lyfter fram centrala tendenser i denna omvandling. Såväl den som söker arbete som den som har ett arbete står inför nya utmaningar:

    • Hur gör jag mig anställningsbar?

    • Vilka förväntningar och krav ställs på mig som arbetssökande?

    • Hur är förmedlingen av arbete organiserad idag?

    Arbetsmarknadspolitiken kan få oförutsedda effekter på den enskilda människans liv. Vi måste granska, diskutera och ifrågasätta vad varje politisk inriktning och dess verktyg innebär. Den här boken ger underlag och inspiration för en sådan diskussion.

    Arbetets marknad vänder sig till studerande inom följande områden: arbetsvetenskap, personaladministration, samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen och socionomutbildningen. Den lämpar sig också för verksamma inom arbetsmarknads- och arbetslivsområdet och för politiker.

  • 33.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Employability and work-related health2010In: The dynamics of organizations and healthy work / [ed] Staffan Marklund & Annika Härenstam, Växjö: Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    About the book: Increasing international interdependency has intensified the need for organizational changes and changes in employment conditions in the private sectors in Sweden. For a number of reasons, economic as well as political, even the public sector has changed. Large shares of its services have been transformed into private and semi-private forms of ownerships. Economic restrictions and new management ideologies after the early 1990’s have forced many private enterprises and public administrations to initiate organizational reforms. Some of these changes and their consequences for working conditions and health of the employees are described in the different chapters of this publication. The publication is the result of a number of research projects that were initiated at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life in the early 2000’s. The main idea behind these projects was to empirically as well as theoretically capture the dynamics of a rapidly changing working life. This means that a range of different aspects were studied from multidisciplinary perspectives. Studies of changes in how individuals’ working conditions and health had changed were related to organizational factors as well as to structural conditions. Although some of the chapters are focusing on the individual level, the work place level or the structural level, the ambition has been to integrate the different levels and to develop research designs and theories that allow such integration.The book is suitable for everyone interested in how Swedish working life has changed in later years, but it can also be used in undergraduate teaching on courses dealing with occupational health, working life and research design.

  • 34.
    Björklid, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education(LHS).
    Nordström, Maria
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Environmental Child-Friendliness: Collaboration and Future Research2007In: Children, Youth and Environments, Vol. 4, no 17, 389-401 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important social aspect of sustainable development is that it offers children and youth opportunities for individual development based on influence and participation. Children’s possibilities to move around freely, to explore the natural and built environments, to meet others and to observe and try out roles in public places are all conditions for children’s participation. Two consequences of the intensified building and increased traffic now taking place in Swedish cities, particularly in inner city areas in the largest cities, are that children’s outdoor space has been reduced and children’s safe access to the outdoors is at risk. For children, having limited or no access to their nearby environment, important for their development in multiple ways, means they will have no environmental experiences of their own to communicate to others and on which to base their opinions. Our research projects show that traffic is the greatest obstacle to children’s independent mobility along with the lack of places for children to use.

  • 35.
    Blomqvist, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF AUDIOVISAL INTEGRATION IN EPISODIC MEMORY2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ­­­Recent brain scan research has found evidence of reactivation in brain regions that suggest a reactivation of the whole experience for the subject trying to remember. Such a reactivation is seen to represent a multimodal integration of the memory representation in the brain. The purpose of the study was to test the existence of audiovisual integration in episodic memory. This was done by comparing reaction times when audiovisual information was old, new or both old and new. Results indicated quicker rejection when there was both old and new information presented in comparison to when information was all new, indicating a reactivation of the whole experience of the presentation in the learning phase, i.e. a facilitation process based on audiovisual integration in episodic memory. An extension of the study could be to increase the retention interval testing for a different type of consolidation.

  • 36. Bluhm, Gösta
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosenlund, Mats
    Buller.2006In: Barns hälsa och miljö i Stockholms län 2006: Regional Miljöhälsorapport, 2006, Stockholms läns landsting, Stockholm , 2006, 113-126 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Noise is an environmental problem that affects children both at school and home. This chapter summarizes the results on noise disturbances from the “Children’s environment and health survey” conducted in Stockholm County in year 2003. It was found that children were most disturbed by noise at school. Thirty per cent of all 8- and 12 year old children in Stockholm County were annoyed by noise at school, mainly noise from other children. Children in Stockholm County were exposed to more noise in their homes than children in other parts of Sweden. Almost 50 % of children in inner city Stockholm and 20 % in the rest of the County were living in apartments with windows facing a major road, railway or industry. Eighteen per cent of all 8- and 12-year olds were disturbed by noise in their homes. Slightly less than 6 % reports that noise disturbed school homework or speech communication, whereas 4 % reported difficulties in falling asleep due to noise in the home. Approximately three per cent of parents to all 4-, 8- and 12-year old children reported that their children have reduced hearing, and three per cent of 8- and 12-year old children reported that they have tinnitus. It is concluded that noise in dwellings and schools should be reduced in order to provide good and healthy sound environments for children. Furthermore, the sound environment should be considered already at the planning stage, in order to minimize indoor and outdoor noise exposure in future dwellings and schools.

  • 37. Botteldooren, D
    et al.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lecher, P
    Perceived Noise Annoyance Caused by Maglev Trains: Final Scientific Report2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying study aimed at quantifying the impact of sound caused by high speed magnetic levitation transport systems on perceived noise annoyance in a realistic setting. An innovative system was implemented for selecting representative participants from the Dutch population, as regards age, gender, level of education noise sensitivity reported anxiety, pre-exposure to train and road traffic noise, general quality of the living environment, and general health. It was grounded in 1500 participants’ responses to a specifically constructed questionnaire, which contained items from a nation-wide Dutch and Eurobarometer surveys. Finally 80 (+21) representative participants were selected. During the experiment, which took place in a realistic setting (living room of holiday cottage), groups of 5-7 participants were asked to be seated, relax, reading a magazine or newspaper and were served refreshments. During their stay, traffic noise was reproduced in an ecologically valid way in outdoor loudspeakers. Every 10 min, the participants were asked to assess traffic noise annoyance. At the beginning and after at least 1 hour of the experiment, participants were also asked to scale the annoyance of a set of 7 reference sounds utilized for master scaling. Based on this study, we found that there is no evidence to expect a significant difference in noise annoyance caused by Maglev and TGV trains at the same average façade exposure. Noise annoyance caused by conventional trains was not found to be significantly lower than annoyance caused by these high-speed trains at the same average façade exposure (tested up to 65 dB(A) only). The latter conclusion is in contradiction with earlier work by Vos et al. A comparison to the work of Neugebauer at al. came out inconclusive: although these authors state there is a distinct difference between the two types of trains investigated, their actual results fall within the spread of annoyance levels due to distance to the track and vehicle speed that we observed. Field surveys have shown that for the same average sound level, railway noise causes less annoyance than dense road traffic noise, at least for certain interval of levels. Although our study included several of the factors that may contribute to this effect, we could not observe it, except when the results were limited to sounds recorded at a distance of over 100 m.

  • 38. Botteldooren, D.
    et al.
    De Coensel, B.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lercher, P.
    Modelling the role of attention in the assessment of environmental noise annoyance2008In: Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN), Foxwoods, CT, USA: ICBEN, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community noise effects in general and noise annoyance in particular are mostly studied by relating them to exposure through blind statistical analyses of large datasets. This paper reports on a specific part of a quite different approach. using mathematical simulation of basic perception and psychophysical mechanisms for a large synthetic population. Insight is sought into the mechanisms underlying the emergence of noise effects. This is achieved by comparing–in a phenomenological way–the statistics of the data gathered from the simulated synthetic population in that of the real population. This paper focuses on modeling the role of attention. Attention could play a role in two distinct aspects of the process: firstly, attention can be drawn away from other tasks by the environmental sound or tasks requiring sustained attention can suppress the noticing of the environmental sound; secondly, attention can jump between sounds in multisource sonic environments. In modeling this dual role of attention, care must be taken to simplify existing knowledge on theses aspects of perception in such a way that the model can be used to study long exposure times and large populations. Such modeling may support the assessment of real life situation where multiple environmental sounds interfere and cause noise annoyance. Example simulations involving exposure to railway noise, road traffic noise, and natural sound produced by the individual's own activity show the influence of attention on the model outcome.

  • 39. Botteldooren, D
    et al.
    De Coensel, B
    De Muer, T
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lercher, P
    Experimental investigation of noise annoyance caused by high-speed trains.2005In: ICSV 2005–Twelfth International Congress on Sound and Vibration: Paper 846, IIAV/CAPS-IST, Lissabon , 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The difference in perceived noise annoyance caused by train and highway noise at the same averaged noise level, has led to the introduction of the ’railway bonus’. This bonus has found its way to the noise legislation in many countries, leading to more relaxed restrictions on time averaged noise levels, LAeq. With the introduction of high-speed trains and train-like transportation systems based on magnetic levitation, the question has risen whether the railway bonus can still be applied. The paper reports on an experiment that was conducted to answer this question. The experiment that was performed was different from previous efforts in many ways. Most importantly, the experiment was conducted in a realistic setting, a holiday cottage, and participants were asked to engage in light daily activities such as reading a magazine during the tests. Traffic noise was reproduced in an ecologically valid way, using outdoor loudspeakers. Every ten minutes the participants were asked to judge noise annoyance. At the beginning of the experiment and after about 1.5 hours the participants were also asked to rate a set of 7 master scaling sounds. After this experiment, a more conventional listening test was conducted using 45-s excerpts. The experiment was also unique in the way that 100 participants were selected to be representative for the Dutch population. The selection procedure involved careful screening based on a survey that was administered at the doorstep of 1500 persons’ homes.

  • 40. Botteldooren, D
    et al.
    De Coensel, B
    Dekoninck, L
    De Muer, T
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lercher, P
    Perceived Noise Annoyance Caused by Maglev Trains. Management Summary.2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The annoyance impact in realistic settings of traffic noise was assessed for one, two or four train passages, primarily high-speed trains, or continuous road traffic noise. An innovative system for selecting representative participants from the Dutch population was implemented, as regards a number of critical variables (age, gender, level of education, noise sensitivity, reported anxiety, home exposure to train and road traffic noise, general quality of living environment, and general health). In total, 1500 candidate participants responded to the specifically constructed questionnaire with items from a nation-wide Dutch survey and the Eurobarometer. Participants with typical Dutch response profile were recruited on a first come, first serve basis (in total 80 plus 21 extra persons. In the experiment, 5-7 participants were seated to be relaxed and to be reading a magazine or newspaper. The were served refreshments. Traffic noise was reproduced in outdoor loudspeakers in an ecologically valid way. Every 10 min, participants were asked to assess noise annoyance. At the beginning and at brief intervals during the experiment, participants assessed the annoyance of a set of 7 reference sounds utilized for master scaling. At the same average façade exposure, no significant annoyance difference was neither found for Maglev and TGV, nor for conventional trains and the high-speed trains (only tested up to 65 dBA). The latter result contradicts Vos et al.’s earlier findings. Neugebauer at al.’s results fall within the spread in annoyance values due to distance to the track and vehicle speed that we observed. Field surveys have shown that for the same average sound level, railway noise evokes less annoyance than dense road traffic noise, at least for a certain interval of levels. Although our experiment included several of the factors that may contribute to this effect, we were unable to observe this kind of effect, except for the case when the sounds were recorded at a distance of more than 100 m.

  • 41. Botteldooren, Dick
    et al.
    De Muer, Tom
    De Coensel, Bert
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lercher, Peter
    An LAeq is not an LAeq.2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 117, no 4, 2616- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Classical dose response relationships for environmental noise annoyance have been based on Ldn or Lden. These exposure measures are essentially based on an energy averaging measure, LAeq. Differences between groups of sources (e.g., continuous or event based) are accounted for by using separate dose-effect relationships. In society today, one often sees that event loudness is traded for number of events which is perfectly acceptable within the LAeq based annoyance concept. Clearly a more unified theory for noise annoyance is needed to fully account for the effect of such trade-offs. In this paper a model implementing such a theory is presented. The perceptual model starts from the premises that a sound event has to be noticed for it to contribute to overall annoyance. The model accounts for the fact that noticing a noise event not only depends on the level of the event itself but also on background noise, sound insulation and acoustic characteristics of the dwelling, level of attention, etc. The severity of the effect of a noticed sound on overall annoyance is assumed to primarily depend on the signal to noise ratio. The model allows to account for modifiers such as previous exposure, noise sensitivity, and coping. The model results are compared to the findings of a recent field experiment. Conclusions based on calculated and experimental trends are presented.

  • 42.
    Britan, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mattsson, Linnéa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Delaktighet och motivation i en stor organisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Motivation, engagemang och delaktighet bland medarbetare är viktiga faktorer i organisationers ekonomiska framgång och överlevnad på marknaden. Huvudsyftet med denna studie var att undersöka om det fanns skillnader i inre motivation och delaktighet utifrån grad av tillfredsställelse av de tre grundläggande psykologiska behoven mellan organisationens olika yrkeskategorier. Vidare syften var att undersöka om ohälsa kan prediceras med grad av inre motivation samt om det fanns skillnader i skattningarna av delaktighet på arbetsplatsen och inom organisationen. En web-baserad enkät skickades ut till samtliga 914 medarbetare i organisationen och 205 valde att delta. Resultaten visade att det inte fanns någon skillnad i tillfredsställelse av de grundläggande psykologiska behoven kopplat till yrkeskategorier samt att medarbetarnas inre motivation kunde användas som prediktor för deras självskattade ohälsa. Resultatet av studiens explorativa frågeställningar visade att delaktighet och inre motivation i arbetet skattades som viktigt av medarbetarna. Resultaten indikerade att Organisationen hade en stark organisationskultur med fokus på delaktighet, som delades av medarbetare från olika yrkeskategorier.

  • 43. Burke, Michael
    et al.
    Kuzmičová, Anežka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Mangen, Anne
    Schilhab, Theresa
    Empathy at the confluence of neuroscience and empirical literary studies2016In: Scientfic Study of Literature, ISSN 2210-4372, E-ISSN 2210-4380, Vol. 6, no 1, 6-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to review extant empirical studies of empathy in narrative reading in light of (i) contemporary literary theory, and (ii) neuroscientific studies of empathy, and to discuss how a closer interplay between neuroscience and literary studies may enhance our understanding of empathy in narrative reading. An introduction to some of the philosophical roots of empathy is followed by tracing its application in contemporary literary theory, in which scholars have pursued empathy with varying degrees of conceptual precision, often within the context of embodied/enactive cognition. The presentation of empirical literary studies of empathy is subsequently contextualized by an overview of psychological and neuroscientific aspects of empathy. Highlighting points of convergence and divergence, the discussion illustrates how findings of empirical literary studies align with recent neuroscientific research. The article concludes with some prospects for future empirical research, suggesting that digitization may contribute to advancing the scientific knowledge of empathy in narrative reading.

  • 44.
    Burnham, Denis
    et al.
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Francis, Elisabeth
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Webster, Di
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Attapaiboon, Chayada
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Keller, Peter
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Perception of lexical tone across languages: Evidence for a linguisticmode of processing1996In: Proceedings of the 4th InternationalConference on Spoken Language Processing / [ed] T. Bunnell & W. Isardi, 1996, 2514-2517 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pairs of Thai tones were presented for perceptual discrimination inthree linguistic contexts (normal speech, low-pass filtered speech,and as musical (violin) sounds) to tonal language speakers, Thaiand Cantonese, and non-tonal (English) language speakers.English speakers discriminated the tonal contrasts significantlybetter in the musical context than in filtered speech, and in filteredspeech better than in full speech. On the other hand, both Thaiand Cantonese speakers perceived the tonal contrasts equally wellin all three contexts. Thus developmental absence of exposure tolexical tone results in a linguistic mode of processing whichinvolves the attenuation of a basic psychoacoustic ability, pitchdiscrimination.

  • 45.
    Chinapah, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlson, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Modelling the Relationship Between Values, Intentions and Behavior: A Simultaneous LISREL Analysis Over Time1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Translation of own norms and perception of parents' and friends' values into actual behaviour were studied in the context of the theory of reasoned action. A LISREL model based on this theory was constructed, and the fit and generalizability of the model tested across gender and time. The same norm questionnaire assessing adolescents' own values, their own intentions and actual behavior and perception of parents' and friends' was administered to two samples of approximately 15-year-old adolescents on two occasions (in 1969 and in 1995, in the same town). A LISREL model with an acceptabel fit was obtained, and its structural parameters indicated a strong relationship between adolescents' own evaluations, own intentions and actual behavior. The model was also tenable acorss gender and time. No significant differences were found between groups across gender and time with regard to the four parameters of the structural part of the model which indicate the relationships bwtween the latent variables.

  • 46.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ehrenkrona, Marika
    Psykologi och bevisvärdering: myter om trovärdighet och tillförlitlighet2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Vittnet talade klart och tydligt, hade stadig blick och lämnade en detaljrik och sammanhängande berättelse. Dessutom var hon säker på sina uppgifter och hade konsekvent berättat samma sak mellan olika förhör.”

    Är detta ett trovärdigt vittne och en tillförlitlig utsaga? – Inte självklart.

    Tvärtom visar flera vetenskapliga studier att många av de handgrepp och antaganden om hur människan fungerar som används inom rättsväsendet stämmer dåligt med den psykologiska forskningen på området.

    Med utgångspunkt i domar, intervjuer och enkätundersökningar analyserar författarna en rad psykologiska myter i juridiken. Olika föreställningar illustreras även med exempel från litteratur, konst och film, och många gamla sanningar sätts i nytt perspektiv. Syftet är att med aktuell och relevant kunskap bidra till att höja kvaliteten i de juridiska bedömningarna för att ytterst öka rättssäkerheten.

    Boken vänder sig i första hand till advokater, domare, åklagare, poliser och andra som är verksamma inom rättsväsendet. Den kan med fördel användas av juridikstudenter som vill fördjupa sina insikter i bevisvärdering och vid universitetskurser i kriminologi och rättspsykologi.

  • 47. Clark, C
    et al.
    Stansfeld, S
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, Anita Gidlöf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    van Kamp, I
    van Kempen, E
    Lopez Barrio, I
    Psychological restoration, coping strategies and children’s cognitive performance in the RANCH study: Paper 090.2006In: Inter-Noise 2006: Engineering a Quieter World., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The RANCH study found a linear exposure effect association between chronic aircraft noise exposure at primary school and the impairment of children’s reading comprehension, in the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. This paper presents multilevel modelling analyses, exploring psychological mechanisms, which may moderate the effect of aircraft noise on children’s cognition. Psychological restoration – the process whereby places which afford tranquillity and relaxation are utilized to reduce stress and promote well being – has been shown to reduce the adverse effect of noise on children’s annoyance responses. This paper examines whether having places for psychological restoration at home, moderates the adverse effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure at school on children’s cognition. In addition, the effectiveness of coping strategies in relation to noise exposure at school are examined – are specific coping strategies associated with less impairment of cognition?

  • 48.
    Clausén Gull, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    The relation between Executive Functions and Emotion Regulation in Preschool Children2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Executive Functions (EF) and Emotion Regulation (ER) are essential for children´s ability to regulate and control thoughts, behavior and emotions but the developmental relations between them are unclear. The present study was performed within the project PsPATHS with the purpose to investigate the relation between EF and ER. Performance on cognitive tasks tapping inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility were combined with teacher report of ER in 55 four to five year old preschool children. Contrary to the hypothesis, no significant relations could be established between EF and ER in this sample. For the EF components, the result showed a significant association between inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility, however, no further associations could be evidenced. The study demonstrates an advantage in using multiple measures and suggests that attention along with motivational and affective aspects of EF should be considered in future research of children´s ability to regulate emotions.

  • 49.
    Clausén Gull, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Verbalt flöde hos ungdomar födda för tidigt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier av exekutiva förmågor har visat lägre resultat för unga vuxna födda för tidigt, prematurt, jämfört med jämnåriga födda i fullgången tid. Föreliggande studies syfte var att undersöka ordflödestest som indikator på olika aspekter av exekutiv förmåga samt att utröna vilka förmågor som krävs för verbalt flöde. Resultat på ordflödestest för kontrollgrupp och prematurgrupp, samt inom prematurgruppen, jämfördes. Samvariation med andra exekutiva mått från 18-årsuppföljningen i Stockholm Neonatal Project undersöktes. Antal deltagare var för prematurgruppen 134 och kontrollgruppen 94, totalt 228 testpersoner. En signifikant skillnad i verbalt flöde påvisades till kontrollgruppens fördel. Likaså påvisades en signifikant skillnad inom prematurgruppen. Verbal intelligens var en stark prediktor för ordflöde, semantiskt flöde predicerades av mental snabbhet och ordmobilisering för kontrollgruppen och för prematurgruppen även av verbal intelligens och mental flexibilitet. Studien visade att deltesten ordflöde, semantiskt flöde och semantisk växling har olika svårighetsgrad och delvis kräver olika förmågor för prematurgruppen och kontrollgruppen.

  • 50.
    Da Cunha Meneses, Filip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tingstam, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    IDA: internetförmedlad behandling för vuxna med ADHD – en randomiserad kontrollerad studie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) är en neuropsykiatrisk funktionsnedsättning med negativ inverkan på multipla livsområden. Huvuddelen av patientgruppen erbjuds farmakologisk behandling som inte alltid är tillräckligt effektiv. Det finns begränsat med forskning på psykologiska behandlingar för vuxna med ADHD. KBT och även DBT har båda visat goda resultat. För att öka tillgängligheten för denna patientgrupp skulle internetbehandling kunna vara ett alternativ. Syftet med denna studie var att effektutvärdera en internetbehandling (iKBT) för vuxna med ADHD jämfört med en aktiv kontrollbehandling (iTA) samt väntelista. 69 deltagare randomiserades till någon av dessa tre grupper. iKBT visade på en trend till förbättring jämfört med väntelista men inte jämfört med iTA. Andelen förbättrade i iKBT, iTA och väntelistan var 27%, 22% respektive 0%. Resultaten tyder på att iKBT bör ses över gällande utformning och användarvänlighet.

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