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  • 1.
    Ahlenius, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Moral Lessons from Psychology: Contemporary Themes in Psychological Research and their Relevance for Ethical Theory2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis investigates the implications for moral philosophy of research in psychology. In addition to an introduction and concluding remarks, the thesis consists of four chapters, each exploring various more specific challenges or inputs to moral philosophy from cognitive, social, personality, developmental, and evolutionary psychology. Chapter 1 explores and clarifies the issue of whether or not morality is innate. The chapter’s general conclusion is that evolution has equipped us with a basic suite of emotions that shape our moral judgments in important ways. Chapter 2 presents and investigates the challenge presented to deontological ethics by Joshua Greene’s so-called dual process theory. The chapter partly agrees with his conclusion that the dual process view neutralizes some common criticisms against utilitarianism founded on deontological intuitions, but also points to avenues left to explore for deontologists. Chapter 3 focuses on Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer’s suggestion that utilitarianism is less vulnerable to so-called evolutionary debunking than other moral theories. The chapter is by and large critical of their attempt. In the final chapter 4, attention is directed at the issue of whether or not social psychology has shown that people lack stable character traits, and hence that the virtue ethical view is premised on false or tenuous assumptions. Though this so-called situationist challenge at one time seemed like a serious threat to virtue ethics, the chapter argues for a moderate position, pointing to the fragility of much of the empirical research invoked to substantiate this challenge while also suggesting revisions to the virtue ethical view as such.

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    Moral Lessons from Psychology: Contemporary Themes in Psychological Research and their Relevance for Ethical Theory
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  • 2.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Justice needs a blindfold: Effects of defendants’ gender and attractiveness on judicial evaluation2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender and appearance affect our judgments regarding an individual’s personality, profession, and morality, and create a reference frame within which to act toward that person. The main question of the present thesis is whether these kinds of stereotypical conceptions have implications for the judicial process: how professionals within the judicial process evaluate and judge a defendant, and how and what eyewitnesses remember. Expressed in other words: Is justice blind or do gender and appearances affect the treatment we receive in a judicial process?

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to study the effects of gender and attractiveness on evaluations of defendants accused of crimes of varying seriousness and type. The second theme was to study under what circumstances these effects are particularly strong; emotionality, retention interval, as well as gender and profession of evaluators, were controlled for.

    Study 1 aimed at investigating “pure” gender and attractiveness effects, with psychology students as participants. Study II added the variable of emotionality, as well as six groups of evaluators. Emotionality was studied by including emotional photographs of crime victim injury as well as two levels of vividness in the written description the evaluator was to read. The evaluators were professionals working within the judicial process in Sweden–judges, jury members, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and police officers–as well as law students. Study 1 showed that a male defendant was evaluated more negatively than a female. Study II showed two main tendencies: (i) “same-sex penalty effect”: Sentencing evaluators (judges, jurors) evaluated a defendant of their own gender more harshly than one of the opposite gender; (ii) “male penalty effect”: Nonsentencing evaluators (police officers, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and law students) evaluated and judged a male defendant more harshly than a female. Study III focused on exploring effects of violence (emotionality) and retention interval in the context of gender differences to investigate under which circumstances gender differences might be especially strengthened. Violence was manipulated using two acts: one neutral (walking in a store) and one violent (robbing the same store). Retention interval was of two lengths: 10 minutes and 1-3 weeks. Results revealed a gender-stereotype-enhancement effect, in which the evaluator evaluated the male defendant more harshly with the longer retention interval as well as in the violent act condition. The results of the present studies may have practical implications for the functioning of the judicial process; on the eyewitness hearing level (Study III) as well as on the evidence evaluation-, guilt-, and punishment assessment levels (Studies I and II).

  • 3. Airaksinen, Eija
    et al.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Kognitiv psykologi.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Low episodic memory performance as a premorbid marker of depression:: Evidence from a 3-year follow-up2007In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 115, no 6, p. 458-465Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine low episodic memory scores as a potential risk factor for depression.

    Method: A population-based sample of non-depressed individuals (20–64 years) were re-examined 3 years after an initial screening (n ¼ 708). At baseline, information on episodic memory scores, demographic and socioeconomic factors, alcohol use and anxiety diagnoses was collected. The data for depression diagnoses were collected at both baseline and follow-up.

    Results: Logistic regressions, conducted on three separate study groups that were defined according to three assessments of episodic memory (i.e. free + cued recall, free recall, cued recall) among individuals who scored in the 25 lowest or highest percentiles in the memory tests, revealed that low episodic memory performance defined as the sum of free and cued recalls of organizable words constitutes a risk of depression diagnosis 3 years later.

    Conclusion: Low episodic memory performance predated depressive diagnosis and might be considered as a premorbid marker of depression.

  • 4. Alkhateeb, Jamal M.
    et al.
    Hadidi, Muna S.
    Mounzer, Wissam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    The Impact of Autism Spectrum Disorder on Parents in Arab Countries: A Systematic Literature Review2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 955442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Having a child with autism spectrum disorder can have significant psychological effects on parents. This systematic review summarizes the current state of literature underscoring the impact of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on parents in Arab countries

    Methods: A systematic search of seven databases (PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, ERIC, Academic Search Complete, and PsycINFO) was performed, which identified 24 studies (20 quantitative studies and four qualitative studies) that included 3,299 parents or caregivers of children with ASD. These studies were conducted in 10 Arab countries (Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Egypt, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Emirates, Palestine, Qatar, and Lebanon).

    Results: The majority of the included studies found that ASD has a significant negative impact on the mental health and wellbeing of Arab parents. It was found that parents of children with ASD have a poor quality of life (QoL) and an increased risk of psychological disorders. These findings were in contrast to findings of parents of typically developing children and children with other developmental disorders. Challenges faced by parents of children with ASD were associated with several child- and parent-related factors. The most common coping strategy used by parents was religious coping.

    Conclusion: The impact of ASD on parents has only recently gained traction among researchers in Arab countries. Despite several knowledge gaps, published studies have provided useful information outlining the impact of ASD on parents in some of these countries. Further research comprising larger random samples and using varied research and data-collection methods is required to understand the multifaceted challenges experienced by parents raising children with ASD in Arab countries.

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  • 5.
    Allertz, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att motivera och/eller manipulera: En begreppsutredande litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to theoretically investigate the concepts of the interpersonal actions 'to motivate' and 'to manipulate' and also to examine possible differences and similarities between the two. The method used is a conceptual review based on the Self-Determination Theory, related to the concept of motivation, and Machiavellianism, related to the concept of manipu-lation. The results show that 'to motivate', according to Self-Determination Theory, concerns influencing the intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, where intrinsic motivation is related to the feeling of self-determination, inner locus of causality, being or feeling competent and exercise activities for the pleasure of it, whilst extrinsic motivation is related to external locus of cau-sality, external pressure and engaging in activities for the purpose of reaching a goal or re-ward. 'To manipulate' is according to Machiavellianism based on the manipulator doing whatever it takes to reach a certain goal and gain something for himself with no regard of what methods being used. The comparative analysis showed that the crucial difference in how an behaviour is interpreted as either, or both, motivating and manipulative is based on who is doing the interpretation, what information she has and which aspects that are focused on.

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    FridaAllertz-Att motivera ocheller manipulera
  • 6.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Goals and values in school: A model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments2010In: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 207-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence; they are hypothesised to be structured in a circular model. The contents are defined and related to existing theories and research in education, special education, educational psychology and sociology, on the basis of reviews of literature. The model underlies the Goals, Attitudes and Values in School questionnaire, developed to assess the characteristics ofeducational settings. The model can be a practical tool in understanding and appreciating differences between learning environments in research and assessment and it could represent a guideline for interventions aimed to analyse and improve the social climate of learning environments.

  • 7.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in outdoor living spacesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perspectives on wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor environments: Studies of masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An acoustic environment contains sounds from various sound sources, some generally perceived as wanted, others as unwanted. This thesis examines the effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in acoustic environments, with regard to masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility.

    In urban settings, masking of unwanted sounds by sounds from water structures has been suggested as a way to improve the acoustic environment. However, Study I showed that the unwanted (road traffic) sound was better at masking the wanted (water) sound than vice versa, thus indicating that masking of unwanted sounds with sounds from water structures may prove difficult. Also, predictions by a partial loudness model of the auditory periphery overestimated the effect of masking, indicating that centrally located informational masking processes contribute to the effect. Some environments have also been shown to impair stress recovery; however studies using only auditory stimuli is lacking. Study II showed that a wanted (nature) sound improve stress recovery compared to unwanted (road traffic, ambient) sounds. This suggests that the acoustic environment influences stress recovery and that wanted sounds may facilitate stress recovery compared to unwanted sounds. An additional effect of unwanted sounds is impeded speech communication, commonly measured with speech intelligibility models. Study III showed that speech intelligibility starts to be negatively affected when the unwanted (aircraft sound) masker have equal or higher sound pressure level as the speech sound. Three models of speech intelligibility (speech intelligibility index, partial loudness and signal–to–noise ratio) predicted this effect well, with a slight disadvantage for the signal–to–noise ratio model. Together, Study I and III suggests that the partial loudness model is useful for determining effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor acoustic environments where variations in sound pressure level are large. But, in environments with large variations in other sound characteristics, models containing predictions of central processes would likely produce better results.

    The thesis concludes that wanted and unwanted characteristics of sounds in acoustic environments affect masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility, and that auditory perception models can predict these effects.

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    Comprehensive Summary
  • 9.
    Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Grabell, Adam
    Department of clinical and developmental psychology, University of Michigan, MI, United States.
    Chang, Hyein
    Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lovén, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Olson, Sheryl
    Department of clinical and developmental psychology, University of Michigan, MI, United States.
    The Contribution of Hot and Cool Self-Regulation in Early Childhood to Later Academic AchievementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of hot (emotional/motivational) and cool (cognitive) self-regulation in early childhood to lateracademic achievement in kindergarten (math) and late elementary school (math andlanguage). In a sample of 235 preschoolers, higher levels of cool self-regulation predicted better math achievement in kindergarten and this head-start effect persisted into late elementary school. In contrast, higher levels of hot self-regulation predicted better language but not math achievement in late elementary school. These findings support the notion that cool self-regulation is important for the development of academic skills already inkindergarten, whereas the effects on academic achievement of hot self-regulation are delayed, which may be a result of increasing demands through elementary school.

  • 10.
    Andersson Konke, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Multilingual Multitaskers2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that managing two languages enhances creativity, cognitive flexibility, and divergent thinking. As demands on these and related higher cognitive functions are accentuated in multiple task performance, this study tested the hypothesis that bilinguals are better mulitaskers than monolinguals. Bilinguals were expected to show more efficient executive functioning and spatial ability than monolinguals, which in turn were expected to mediate individual differences in multitasking. A total of 19 bilingual and 18 monolingual undergraduates completed computerized tests of multitasking, executive functioning and spatial ability. Supporting the main hypotheses, bilinguals were better multitaskers than monolinguals (p < .01) and these effects were in part mediated by their superior spatial ability (p < .05).

  • 11.
    Andersson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attribution and judgment: examining the relation between attributing capacities and moral judgments about killing animals2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new operationalization was used to model a schema-based approach to moral judgment, as well as compare it to predictions based on the Social Intuitionist Model. Judgments were made about the moral wrongness of killing different animals. At Time 1, only moral judgments were made. At Time 2 judgments were made again, with questions and scales relating to attributing morally relevant cognitive capacities also included; further, two randomized conditions varied the presentation order of the scales. Differences between Time 1 and 2 indicated a reversed perspective-taking effect, with animals of lower capacities rated less empathically at Time 2. Affective ratings and attributed capacities were compared as different predictors, showing attributed capacities being more powerful. A group comparison was also made between active animal rights proponents and non-proponents, showing differences on several factors. These and other findings are discussed with relation to the Social Intuitionist Model and a schema-based account of morality.

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  • 12.
    Anna, Bengtsson
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johan, Krogh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Upplevelse av anställningsbarhet på PAO-programmet - samt sambanden med kompetens, självkänsla, extraversion och självförmåga2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om det fanns en skillnad i upplevd anställningsbarhet mellan studenter som läser PAO-programmet termin ett och sex på Stocholms Universitet samt undersöka om det förelåg något samband mellan anställningsbarhet, kompetens, självförmåga, självkänsla och extraversion för respektive termin. En enkät delades ut till samtliga tillgängliga studenter på termin ett och sex. Enkäten undersökte de fem olika variablerna med hjälp av tidigare testade frågor. Resultatet visade att det inte fanns någon signifikant skillnad i upplevd anställningsbarhet mellan de båda grupperna. Variablerna kompetens, självkänsla, självförmåga och extraversion hade alla ett signifikant samband med anställningsbarhet för båda undersökningsgrupperna. Stora delar av resultatet bekräftar tidigare teorier angående vad som påverkar anställningsbarhet. Det finns dock delar i resultatet som ifrågasätter tidigare teori så som att den upplevda anställningsbarheten inte ökade trots utbildning. Det kan bero på att studenternas upplevda anställningsbarhet påverkades mer av deras personliga egenskaper än av den kunskap som erhölls under utbildningen. En liknande studier bör genomföras i form av en longitudinell undersökning för att bevisa dessa spekulationer.

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    fulltext
  • 13.
    Appelbom, Sophia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nordin, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kvinnor i ledande positioner i organisatorisk motgång - chefers syn på glasklippan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Glasklippan symboliserar fenomenet att kvinnor oftare befordras till ledande positioner i motgång än framgång. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att hos chefer i Sverige undersöka upplevelser och förhållningssätt till glasklippan, vad den tros bero på samt hur kvinnor anses påverkas av den i arbetslivet. Semistrukturerade intervjuer där ett scenario om glasklippan diskuterades utfördes med 12 chefer. Induktiv tematisk analys användes. Några intervjupersoner hade själva hamnat på glasklippan utan att ha verkat medvetna om det. Deltagarna förde ofta motstridiga resonemang och deras uppfattningar var inte samstämmiga. Det lyftes även hur kvinnors situation ser ut på organisationer idag, varför det är viktigt att medvetandegöra fenomenet, och förklaringar till glasklippan. Trots glasklippans närvaro i organisationer verkar den vara svår att se och förstå. Olika förväntningar som ställs på kvinnor skapar en svårhanterlig situation för dem på glasklippan. Att fenomenet förekommer i Sverige men är svårupptäckt visar på vikten av att uppmärksamma glasklippan.

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    Kvinnor i ledande positioner i organisatorisk motgång - chefers syn på glasklippan
  • 14.
    Arklund, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöblom, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetsgivares attraktionsattribut ur tre generationers perspektiv2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Soundscape assessment.2005In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 2591-2592Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the quality of the soundscape it is necessary to know its descriptive and evaluative properties, and the relationships between these properties. This was explored in a listening experiment with 100 participants (48 women, 52 men; mean age 25,6 years). Each participant scaled 5 out of 50 soundscapes with regard to 116 single verbal attributes, using a visual analogue scale of agreeableness. In addition, acoustical properties of the soundscapes were assessed. A principal component analysis identified two major evaluative components, labeled Hedonic Tone and Eventfulness. Furthermore it was found that the mere presence of common sound sources, regardless of sound level, correlated significantly with these evaluative components. Technological sounds (e.g., traffic noise) were negatively associated with both Hedonic Tone and Eventfulness, while a positive association was found between Hedonic Tone and sounds of nature (e.g., bird song), and a positive association was found between Eventfulness and human sounds (e.g., human voices). These relationships lead to the hypothesis that introduction of nature and human sounds, in combination with the reduction of technological sounds may improve the quality of soundscapes considerably.

  • 16.
    Bak, Krzysztof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Literature and History of Ideas, History of Literature.
    Psykologi och moral i Andreas Bjerres kriminalstudier2014In: Arche - tidskrift för psykoanalys, humaniora och arkitektur, ISSN 2000-7817, Vol. 46-47, no 1, p. 220-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bak, Krzysztof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Psykologi och moral i Andreas Bjerres kriminalstudier2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Becker, Nina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany.
    Laukka, Erika J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Kalpouzos, Gregoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany.
    Structural brain correlates of associative memory in older adults2015In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 118, p. 146-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associative memory involves binding two or more items into a coherent memory episode. Relative to memory for single items, associative memory declines greatly in aging. However, older individuals vary substantially in their ability to memorize associative information. Although functional studies link associative memory to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), little is known about how volumetric differences in MTL and PFC might contribute to individual differences in associative memory. We investigated regional gray-matter volumes related to individual differences in associative memory in a sample of healthy older adults (n = 54; age = 60 years). To differentiate item from associative memory, participants intentionally learned face-scene picture pairs before performing a recognition task that included single faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Gray-matter volumes were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. To examine volumetric differences specifically for associative memory, item memory was controlled for in the analyses. Behavioral results revealed large variability in associative memory that mainly originated from differences in false-alarm rates. Moreover, associative memory was independent of individuals' ability to remember single items. Older adults with better associative memory showed larger gray-matter volumes primarily in regions of the left and right lateral PFC. These findings provide evidence for the importance of PFC in intentional learning of associations, likely because of its involvement in organizational and strategic processes that distinguish older adults with good from those with poor associative memory.

  • 19.
    Berg, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bildandet av det psykologiska kontraktet: upplevelser hos nyanställda inom IT2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett psykologiskt kontrakt hos en nyanställd börjar bildas i interaktionsprocessen vid den första anställningsintervjun. Ibland tidigare, redan vid en perception av kommunikation från företaget om hur detta är som arbetsgivare. Den subjektiva upplevelsen av löften mellan arbetsgivare och arbetstagare utgör det psykologiska kontraktet. IT-avdelningar växer som en viktig funktion på moderna företag och denna undersökning syftade till att genom intervjuer undersöka frågan om hur det psykologiska kontraktet bildas hos IT-anställda. Fem nyanställda på ett reseföretag i Sverige intervjuades för studien. En tematisk analys gav ett resultat med fyra teman som återger fyra källor till signaler inom det psykologiska kontraktet; företagets image, habituering, den närmaste chefen och jämförelse. Förslaget till framtida forskning är att väga in andra påverkansfaktorer än bara relationen mellan nuvarande arbetstagare och arbetsgivare; d.v.s. jämförelse med tidigare arbetsgivare.

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    Bildandet av det psykologiska kontraktet: upplevelser hos nyanställda inom IT
  • 20.
    Berglund, B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, M.E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On a tool for measuring soundscape quality in urban residential areas.2006In: Acta Acustica united with Acustica, no 92, p. 938-944Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On a tool for measuring soundscape quality in urban residential areas An attribute-profiling tool, customized for 106 residents’ structured listening walks, was developed for measuring "soundscape quality" in 24 kinds of listening places representing four urban residential areas exposed to road-traffic noise. The tool’s 12 attributes were matched to the soundscape on a scale from 0 to 100%. The attributes were: soothing, pleasant, light, dull, eventful, exciting, stressful, hard intrusive, annoying, noisy and loud. In total, the soundscape quality of 636 unique 30-s soundscapes was measured. For good soundscape quality (pleasant and soothing) to predominate outdoors, the overall sound level of soundscapes had to be below ca. 50 dB LAeq,30s. Indoor soundscapes (closed windows) at exposed sides of buildings were found to be of inferior quality compared to outdoor soundscapes at shielded sides. This was true although the former soundscapes were 14 dB LAeq,30s lower than the latter. A PCA analysis of the 12-attribute profiles of the 24 kinds of listening places shoed that residents actually perceived "signature" of soundscape quality linked to the origin of the soundscapes, whether indoor or outdoors. All soundscapes at shielded sides indoors with closed windows clustered together with the indoor and outdoor soundscapes in the low road-traffic noise exposed residential area. Conversely, at buildings ides with high traffic-noise exposure, all soundscapes, outdoors or indoors with open window, clustered together with their outdoor soundscapes at the shielded d sides. The new attribute-profiling tool is promising because it measures soundscape quality beyond unwanted sounds and mere sound level of predominant noise.

  • 21.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    From the WHO Guidelines for community noise to healthy soundscapes.2006In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 2006., 2006, p. 1-9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Community noise destroys environments which otherwise could have been quiet and restorative, such as court yards, gardens, parks and other green urban and suburban areas. Wide gaps exist between current sound levels and those adopted in the WHO guidelines for community noise. A wide gap also exists between current long-term goals and the goals that would constitute good sound environments. Thus far, community-noise pollution has in principle been viewed as a pure engineering problem, not a health problem. The objective of the WHO guidelines and the EC environmental noise directive, is to protect people from the harmful effects of noise. Both also recommend education and information as noise management measures, besides the legal and engineering measures. However, in practice there is an inbuilt conflict which abuses the health goals. WHO guideline values are based on different critical health effects which are linked to the “all-noise” immission in specific environments and sensitive time periods for sensitive groups during specific activities. In contrast, noise maps and remedial actions against noise are concerned with sound levels of a specific noise source. It is not enough to protect and prevent against the predominating noise. The way forward is to promote and support the development of healthy soundscapes. One goal of long-term city planning must be to provide soundscapes supportive to health.

  • 22.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measurement in psychology2011In: Measurement with persons: Theory, methods and implementation areas / [ed] B. Berglund, G.B. Rossi, J.T. Townsend & L.R. Pendrill, New York and London: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis Group , 2011, p. 27-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In psychology, there are two main schools of metrology: psychophysics and psychometrics, which are grounded in physics and statistics, respectively. In both schools, reliable and valid measurement would require well-designed studies involving persons, that is, persons as measuring instruments or as objects for measuring their own characteristics e.g., personality or emotions. Originally, psychophysical experiments were set up to measure sensory perception and performance particularly malfunctions such as specific color blindness or hearing deficits. This would involve identification/recognition, discrimination and perceived intensity measured in physical quantities. At least three psychophysical ‘laws’ were established: that of Weber, Fechner and Stevens. Mathematics and statistics relevant to theory in decision-making were soon applied e.g., signal detection theory and choice theory. For intensive continua, the methods of quantification were divided into the direct and indirect scaling methods; the direct ones strived towards fundamental measurement, whereas the indirect ones were grounded in statistical theory. Because of cumbersome data collection, the indirect scaling methods are seldom applied outside the research laboratory. Direct scaling methods do fulfill requirements from comparability to calibration: absolute magnitude estimation, magnitude matching, constrained scaling, Borg’s category-ratio estimation, and Berglund’s master scaling. Several statistically base methods are applied in measuring complex psychological phenomena, such as descriptor profiling, cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling, individual differences scaling, and correspondence analysis.

  • 23.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Towards supportive residential soundscapes, indoors and outdoors: Abstract S54.12006In: Abstract Guide of the 26th International Congress in Applied Psychology., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health-supportive soundscapes can best be accomplished if noise pollution is abated in harmony with creative city planning. In order to design better soundscapes in residential areas, outdoors and indoors, we have to know what sounds are discerned and what kinds of soundscapes are adverse (e.g., disturbance) or positive (e.g., tranquillity). Today regulation is limited to energetic time-averages for specific traffic (road, rail & air) and industrial noise. No information is conveyed on sound components, on structure of their composite, or the acoustic soundscape. Also the WHO health-based guideline values are grounded in longterm equivalent continuous sound levels. Such averages, based on the amount of traffic and short-term sound-levels, allow for worst-noise component approximations, but do not characterize the soundscape per se. Alternatively, a strategy is here proposed which aims at delivering prognostic design tools for perceived soundscapes. Recent research results will be presented from our residential soundscape database. It includes a dualistic soundscape similarity approach for differentiating various perceptual and acoustic qualitative aspects of soundscapes as well as a diagnostic system for soundscape certification, which builds on a neural network classifier. Both tools may be used in soundscape design and mitigation psychophysics.

  • 24.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A dualistic psychoacoustic research strategy for measuring soundscape quality: Paper 034.2006In: Inter-Noise 2006–Engineering a Quieter World.: Engineering a Quieter World., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to be able to design future soundscapes, tools are needed by which soundscape quality can be measured. For this purpose a “dualistic psychoacoustic research strategy” has been developed. The main goal of this strategy is to identify new ways to characterize soundscapes acoustically. The core question is how soundscapes should be measured on the one hand acoustically, on the other perceptually, such that the acoustic soundscapes that are similar (or dissimilar) would be identical to the perceived soundscapes that are similar (or dissimilar). A top down approach is favored in which tools for measuring perceived soundscape quality are first developed, and followed by developing models of measurement for acoustic soundscapes. Our multidimensional tool for measuring perceived soundscapes includes (perceived) similarity analysis for finding basic underlying dimensions and corresponding similarity analysis of acoustic (waterfall) soundscape quality. This means that this tool measures soundscape quality beyond loudness of unwanted sounds or mere sound level of predominant noise. Research on neural network models is in progress for finding appropriate acoustic measures of soundscapes.

  • 25.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are similar acoustic soundscapes perceived as similar?: Paper SS29-355.2006In: EuroNoise 2006: Advanced Solutions for Noise Control., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health guidelines are concerned with soundscapes as coherent wholes (emissions from all sounds) and everyday life also takes place in soundscapes. Current noise control focuses on sound level change for singular sources, isolated from invariant background and other component sounds. By applying a dualistic similarity approach to data sets of perceptual soundscapes and acoustic soundscapes, it was possible to meaningfully differentiate properties of acoustic soundscapes of relevance for improving urban and suburban soundscapes. Apart from the mere presence of common sounds (e.g., birds, sounds of nature or technological sounds), meaningful differentiations of soundscapes include: (1) the relative proportion of direct and shielded sounds in background soundscapes, (2) the modification of loudness/softness and eventfulness/uneventfulness by acoustic quality, and (3) the “sound signatures” traceable to the relative foreground-background character of perceived soundscapes. Acoustically similar soundscapes (evolutionary spectra) were not always perceived similar, because the reasons for the two types of similarities differ. This fact calls for new ways to assess the acoustic soundscapes such that adequate design tools for coherent soundscapes can be developed.

  • 26.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The soundscape explicated.2005In: Archives of Acoustics, ISSN 0137-5075, Vol. 30, no 4 (Supplement), p. 127-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscapes but not soundscapes are planned. Today’s noise control is based on traffic noise prognosis and is confined to average sound level of traffic noise. However, the heterogeneous soundscape embraces many component sounds, background sound inclusive. Prognostic design tools are needed by which “quiet” and pleasing soundscapes can be ensured. In a psychoacoustic experiment, promising properties of soundscapes were retrieved from similarities among evolutionary spectra. These were meaningfully differentiated in accord with features of perceived soundscapes extracted by multi-dimensional scaling: (a) position and slope of loudness functions due to qualitative differences (road-traffic exposed or shielded sides of buildings), (b) clusters of shielded soundscapes relative to two types of sound-exposed soundscapes, and (c) relative contribution of direct sound to background in soundscapes. The dualistic similarity approach conveys useful knowledge for soundscape design and mitigation psychophysics.

  • 27.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindvall, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Noise. In The National Board of Health and Welfare: Environmental Health Report 2005. Extended Summary.2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Community noise is a widespread environmental problem in Sweden and is the form of disturbance that affects the highest number of both children and adults. Twelve-year-olds are disturbed by the same noise sources as adults, but, for children, loud music is the most annoying source, whereas road-traffic noise is most annoying source for adults. One child in every seven is annoyed by noise in or near the home and one in four is annoyed by noise in or near the school/kindergarten. One in every five report that after listening to loud music or other loud sounds. They experience ringing, squeaking, howling or buzzing in their ears, this being slightly more frequent among boys than girls. Just over one in ten report that their hearing is sometimes worse after listening to loud music. Children are exposed to hearing-impairing noise to a larger extent than in the past. Sound levels measured in kindergartens and schools exceed the limit for when ear protectors must be worn according to legislation governing health and safety at work. It is important that children’s noise exposures in kindergartens, schools and leisure environments are reduced as well as children's exposure to excessively loud music.

  • 28.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Soundscape perception.2006In: Joint Baltic-Nordic Acoustics Meeting 2006.: 8-10 November 2006, Gothenburg, Sweden., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Annoyance research typically focuses on single sources and on adverse effects of noise. In contrast, soundscape research focuses on the total sound environment, including all its positive and negative aspects. A major challenge in soundscape research is to develop methods for measuring the perceived soundscape. In the research program “Soundscape Support to Health”, we have developed new methods for this purpose, including listening tests in the laboratory, listening walks in the field and questionnaire studies targeted on the soundscape. We have thus identified major perpetual dimensions of soundscapes (pleasantness and eventfulness), linked these features to important acoustical and informational properties of soundscapes (type of sources), and explored the effect of noise mitigation on soundscape perception. Our research show (a) that pleasantness of soundscapes is related to the presence of natural sounds, whereas eventfulness is related to the presence of sounds from humans, (b) that traffic noise should be reduced to below 50 dBA, in order to have a chance to create good outdoor soundscapes in urban residential and recreational areas, and (c) that mitigation efficiency in sound level of various barriers and facades may overestimate corresponding perceptual mitigation efficiency. Based on these findings, new tools for ‘green labelling’ of soundscapes are being developed.

  • 29.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Perception och Psykofysik.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Perception och Psykofysik.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Perception och Psykofysik.
    Soundscape psychophysics in place2007In: Proc. Inter-Noise 2007, 2007, p. IN07–114-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rossi, Giovanni B.Townsend, James T.Pendrill, Leslie R.
    Measurement with persons: Theory, methods and implementation areas2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements with persons are those in which human perception and interpretation are used for measuring complex, holistic quantities and qualities, which are perceived by the human brain and mind. Providing means for reproducible measurement of parameters such as pleasure and pain has important implications in evaluating all kinds of products, services and conditions. This book inaugurates a new era for this subject: a multi- and inter-disciplinary volume in which world-renowned scientists from the psychological, physical, biological, and social sciences reach a common understanding of measurement theory and methods. In the first section, generic theoretical and methodological issues are treated, including the perceptual basis of measurement in the various fields involved; the development of formal, representational, and probabilistic theories; the approach to experimentation; and the theories, models and methods for multidimensional problems. In the second section, several implementation areas are presented, including sound, visual, skin , and odor perception, functional brain imaging, body language and emotions , and, finally the use of measurements in decision making. The book covers topics relevant to a range of sciences, including general psychology and psychophysics, measurement theory, metrology and instrumentation, neurophysiology, engineering, biology and chemistry.

  • 31.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rossi, Giovanni B.
    Wallard, A.
    Measurement across physical and behavioural sciences2011In: Measurement with persons: Theory, methods and implementation areas / [ed] B. Berglund, R.B. Rossi, J.T. Townsend & L.R. Pendrill, New York and London: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis Group , 2011, 1, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement in physical and behavioral sciences has had an interactive development. Helmholz pointed out the analogy between measuring and counting (the amount of “something”), a prerequisite for measurability. Campbell established measurability by providing a characteristic” for the empirical order relation, either by a physical addition operation (reference measurement scale) or by finding a physical law (measure as a function of other quantities); i.e. fundamental or derived quantities, respectively. Stevens contributed methods for the direct measurement of sensory events and the classification of measurement scales (nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio). Krantz, Roberts, Suppes, and Luce provided the representational theory of measurement, which feasibility has gained support for all kinds of measurement among physicists and engineers. Numbers obtained through measurement represent empirical relations. This holds true for fundamental physical measurements, but also for Stevens “weaker” scales. Through cooperation among members of BIPN, the international system of metrology is continuously revised and contributes significantly to the overall progress of science and technology, i.a. by agreeing on a common language in metrology by publishing an International Vocabulary. The International System of Unites (SI, formerly MKSA system) presents quantities with units and their interrelations as well as accepted physical laws.

  • 32.
    Berglund et al, Brgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    CEC–WG HSEA: The Effectiveness of Noise Measures.2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Working Group Health and Socio-economic Aspects was set up by the European Commission in order to provide guidance on cost-effectiveness of noise reduction measures and the interaction between different such measures. Strong interactions were found between noise reduction measures taken at the EC level and at the local levels. Therefore, this research focused on finding additional knowledge on how to prioritize solutions. A model study was undertaken in order to predict the effects of noise abatement packages as regards their effectiveness. It was possible to demonstrate what constitutes an effective mix of noise measures for different sources (in scenarios). Ranking the solutions to noise problems was, in principle, guided by two criteria: effect reduction and cost-benefit ratio. Other considerations were equity (who pays the costs and who gets the benefits), the polluter pays principle and the time frame. Some measures have important consequences also in other areas, like air quality, safety, travel time, and energy. Based on the research results, the EC is advised: (a) To develop an ambitious strategy to achieve further noise reduction for road, rail and aircraft noise; (b) To carry out detailed analysis in the course of developing noise actions plans into the most cost-effective solution in their particular case; (c) To raise awareness of noise as a public health issue and to disseminate the knowledge on effective nose abatement.

  • 33.
    Bergman, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Anknytningsmönster, copingstrategier och psykisk hälsa hos brandmän2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns få tidigare studier som har undersökt vilka faktorer som påverkar brandmäns psykiska hälsa. Eftersom yrkeskategorin är särskilt stressutsatt är coping och anknytningsmönster intressanta fenomen att studera hos brandmän. Syftet med studien var att se om anknytningsmönster och copingstrategier har betydelse för den mentala hälsan hos denna grupp. En enkät delades till 42 brandmän, heltidsanställda vid en räddningstjänst i Sverige. Resultatet visade att anknytningsmönster har betydelse för den psykiska hälsan hos denna grupp brandmän, ett signifikant positivt samband fanns mellan otrygg anknytning och psykisk ohälsa. Även coping visade sig ha betydelse för det psykiska välmåendet, då det förelåg ett positivt signifikant samband mellan dysfunktionell coping och psykisk ohälsa. Analysen visade vidare att anknytningsmönster inte har någon betydelse för hur gruppen brandmän väljer att hantera stress. Studien bidrar till att öka förståelsen av effekterna av anknytning och coping som i framtida forskning kan visa sig vara viktigt för att förstå brandmäns stressutsatthet och behov.

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  • 34.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Advancing Developmental Science: Some Challenges and Obstacles2012In: International Journal of Developmental Science, ISSN 2192-001X, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 41-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental science (DS) is defined somewhat differently by different researchers. In the present essay DS is defined as (1) it concerns understanding individual development, partly in contrast to group development, (2) DS is cross-disciplinary, and (3) the individual is regarded as a “functioning whole”, engaged in a developmental process in context, characterized by interactions. Empirical research carried out within a DS framework must pay attention to many issues such as: (1) The translation of a specific DS theory into informative hypotheses. (2) The integration of DS findings with the research literature. (3) Making the findings interpretable as addressing individual development. Finally, it was pointed out that to maximally advance DS research a shared general theoretical framework and set of central concepts are necessary.

  • 35.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zukauskiene, Rita
    Career outcomes of adolescents with below average IQ: Who succeeds against the odds?2015In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 52, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The educational and vocational careers of adolescents with below average IQ were studied in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 1326), born in 1955 and followed from early adolescence to midlife. Compared to those with average IQ, the level of education and occupational status achieved by those with below average IQ were, generally, considerably lower. This was the case, in particular, for female participants in the lowest IQ group. No significant relationships were found between parents' socioeconomic status and educational level, income, or occupational status in midlife for adolescents with low IQ (lowest 20%). When those with a successful educational or vocational career were compared to others on a number of competence factors, own educational aspirations stood out as the factor that differed most within each IQ group between those who succeeded and those who did not. The differences were largest for those of low IQ (effect sizes 0.4–1.6). These findings were consistent with results from multiple regression analyses, which, for instance, showed that, within the low IQ group and controlling for confounders, the only significant predictor of career outcomes was educational aspirations.

  • 36.
    Berman, Anne Hephzibah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur mår prinsessan när sagan slutar annorlunda?: Psykisk hälsa efter skilsmässa hos kvinnor med barn1998Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka den psykiska hälsan hos frånskilda kvinnor som har barn. Ett intervjuformulär konstruerades med utgångspunkt i teorier om bearbetning av sorg, existentiella frågor och krispsykologi. Som kvantitativa mätinstrument användes svenska översättningar av Gray & Shields' (1995) frågeformulär om faser i sorgarbetet i separationer och Rekers (1992) formulär om upplevelsen av mening i livet. Det empiriska materialet omfattar intervju- och formulärsvar från sju yrkesverksamma kvinnor som skilde sig för mellan två och tio år sedan och som hade barn upp till 16 år gamla vid tiden för skilsmässan. De kvalitativa resultaten från intervjuerna sammanfattas med tio temabegrepp som kännetecknar den psykiska hälsan efter skilsmässan. Grundförutsättningarna för återhämtningsprocessen är att kvinnorna självständigt tar ansvar för beslut om deras liv efter skilsmässan samtidigt som de styrs av uppskattning till sig själva. Övriga teman som har betydelse i denna process är hälsa/ohälsa, beroende/oberoende, framtidstro, styrka, svaghet och hopplöshet. Återhämtningen efter skilsmässan sker som en process och är präglad av känslomässiga och praktiska utmaningar. Kvinnorna hämtar dock styrka och framtidstro från relationen till sina barn. De kvantitativa resultaten visar att kvinnorna två till tio år efter skilsmässan befinner sig i den tredje och sista fasen av sorgarbetet enligt Bowlby (1980), samt att livet uppfattas som mera meningsfullt ju längre tiden går efter skilsmässan. Kegans (1982) utvecklings-konstruktiva teori används som en ram för att tolka resultaten där skilsmässan uppfattas som en händelse som sker i övergången mellan en psykologisk utvecklingsnivå till en annan, när äktenskapet brister i de hållande och bekräftande funktionerna. Klinisk tillämpning av resultaten diskuteras för kvinnor och män som behöver kortvarigt stöd och för de som fastnat i kronisk ohälsa, samt för unga vuxna som upplevt föräldrarnas skilsmässa. De intervjuade kvinnorna uttrycker missnöje med den tillgängliga professionella hjälpen. Ett förslag läggs fram om att i Sverige utveckla medling för skilsmässa som integrerar psykologisk, juridisk och ekonomisk rådgivning. 

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  • 37.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marknadsorienterade relationer i arbetslivet: om känslan av att vara anställningsbar2011In: Arbetets marknad / [ed] Christina Garsten, Jessica Lindvert, & Renita Thedvall, Malmö: Liber, 2011, 1, p. 150-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokbeskrivning från förlaget

    Få saker i samhället engagerar oss så som arbete. Arbete är föremål för våra drömmar och visioner om framtiden när vi är unga. Arbete engagerar våra strävanden som vuxna. Det ger en plattform för gemenskap, såväl som möjlighet att forma vår identitet. Men arbete kan också vara något som stänger människor ute; från gemenskap och deltagande, och från att forma sin egen framtid.

    Den här boken är ett resultat av flera års forskning om de förändringar som har format arbetsmarknaden och som fortfarande pågår. Den beskriver hur arbetsmarknaden blivit just en marknad och lyfter fram centrala tendenser i denna omvandling. Såväl den som söker arbete som den som har ett arbete står inför nya utmaningar:

    • Hur gör jag mig anställningsbar?

    • Vilka förväntningar och krav ställs på mig som arbetssökande?

    • Hur är förmedlingen av arbete organiserad idag?

    Arbetsmarknadspolitiken kan få oförutsedda effekter på den enskilda människans liv. Vi måste granska, diskutera och ifrågasätta vad varje politisk inriktning och dess verktyg innebär. Den här boken ger underlag och inspiration för en sådan diskussion.

    Arbetets marknad vänder sig till studerande inom följande områden: arbetsvetenskap, personaladministration, samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen och socionomutbildningen. Den lämpar sig också för verksamma inom arbetsmarknads- och arbetslivsområdet och för politiker.

  • 38.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Employability and work-related health2010In: The dynamics of organizations and healthy work / [ed] Staffan Marklund & Annika Härenstam, Växjö: Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    About the book: Increasing international interdependency has intensified the need for organizational changes and changes in employment conditions in the private sectors in Sweden. For a number of reasons, economic as well as political, even the public sector has changed. Large shares of its services have been transformed into private and semi-private forms of ownerships. Economic restrictions and new management ideologies after the early 1990’s have forced many private enterprises and public administrations to initiate organizational reforms. Some of these changes and their consequences for working conditions and health of the employees are described in the different chapters of this publication. The publication is the result of a number of research projects that were initiated at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life in the early 2000’s. The main idea behind these projects was to empirically as well as theoretically capture the dynamics of a rapidly changing working life. This means that a range of different aspects were studied from multidisciplinary perspectives. Studies of changes in how individuals’ working conditions and health had changed were related to organizational factors as well as to structural conditions. Although some of the chapters are focusing on the individual level, the work place level or the structural level, the ambition has been to integrate the different levels and to develop research designs and theories that allow such integration.The book is suitable for everyone interested in how Swedish working life has changed in later years, but it can also be used in undergraduate teaching on courses dealing with occupational health, working life and research design.

  • 39. Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Hultman, Lill
    Österborg Wiklund, Sofia
    Nygren, Anna
    Storm, Palle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sandberg, Greta
    Intensity and Variable Attention: Counter Narrating ADHD, from ADHD Deficits to ADHD Difference2023In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 3647-3664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has historically come from a cognitive deficit approach and lacked community authorship. In contrast, this article utilises a neurodiversity framework to explore ADHD as a cognitive difference through ADHDers’ experiences. Specifically, here we analyse collective autoethnographic writings from neurodivergent academic researchers writing to one other about their experiences of intensity and variable attention or interest-based attention. Through the process of collective writing, we started to rename and restory our experiences, which has enabled us to understand intensity and variable attention as a valuable facet of human diversity, with both strengths and challenges. This project offers an example of how community-based research can elucidate individual experiences as ADHD/AuDHD researchers, facilitate exploration of varied experiences with intensity and attention and increase self-awareness and ability to give and receive neuroaffirmative support. 

  • 40.
    Björklid, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education(LHS).
    Nordström, Maria
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Environmental Child-Friendliness: Collaboration and Future Research2007In: Children, Youth and Environments, Vol. 4, no 17, p. 389-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important social aspect of sustainable development is that it offers children and youth opportunities for individual development based on influence and participation. Children’s possibilities to move around freely, to explore the natural and built environments, to meet others and to observe and try out roles in public places are all conditions for children’s participation. Two consequences of the intensified building and increased traffic now taking place in Swedish cities, particularly in inner city areas in the largest cities, are that children’s outdoor space has been reduced and children’s safe access to the outdoors is at risk. For children, having limited or no access to their nearby environment, important for their development in multiple ways, means they will have no environmental experiences of their own to communicate to others and on which to base their opinions. Our research projects show that traffic is the greatest obstacle to children’s independent mobility along with the lack of places for children to use.

  • 41.
    Blomkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Hofer, Marlise
    Olfactory Impairment and Close Social Relationships: A Narrative Review2021In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 46, article id bjab037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory impairment is one of the more unique symptoms of COVID-19 infection and has therefore enjoyed increased public attention in recent months. Olfactory impairment has various implications and consequences ranging from difficulty detecting dangerous pathogens to hindering social functioning and social behaviors. We provide an overview of how olfactory impairment can impact 3 types of close social relationships: family relationships, friendships, and romantic relationships. Evidence is divided into several categories representing potential mechanisms by which olfactory impairment can impact close social relationships: bonding disruptions, decreased social support, missed group-eating experiences, hygiene concerns, and altered sexual behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of emerging future research questions.

  • 42.
    Blomkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Izzo, Giulia
    Vaccaro, Maria Grazia
    La Vignera, Sandra
    Brunetti, Antonio
    Aversa, Antonio
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    The scent of monogamy: self-reported olfactory function predicts sexual well-being and infidelity in an Italian population2022In: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 2879-2889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that olfactory function plays an essential role in the bonding of a romantic relationship. Body odors, in particular, seem involved in both mate choices and other intimate behaviors. Our sense of smell is also crucial to detect possible pathogen threats, by activating a suitable disgust reaction. Previous studies have shown that disgust sensitivity is negatively related to sociosexuality, and disgust generally inhibits our sexual drive. In the present study, we explored the possible relation between olfactory function, pathogen disgust sensitivity, sociosexuality, sexual well-being, and infidelity through a web survey. Our exploratory analyses found that, in a large Italian sample (N = 1107), among those in a stable relationship, self-reported olfactory function predicted sexual well-being (p < .05) and negatively predicted infidelity (p < .05) when controlling for other relevant sociodemographics variables. Moreover, the relation between self-reported olfactory function and sexual well-being was mediated by pathogen disgust sensitivity. Although significant, these results must be interpreted with caution, because the effect sizes were small.

  • 43.
    Blomqvist, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF AUDIOVISAL INTEGRATION IN EPISODIC MEMORY2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ­­­Recent brain scan research has found evidence of reactivation in brain regions that suggest a reactivation of the whole experience for the subject trying to remember. Such a reactivation is seen to represent a multimodal integration of the memory representation in the brain. The purpose of the study was to test the existence of audiovisual integration in episodic memory. This was done by comparing reaction times when audiovisual information was old, new or both old and new. Results indicated quicker rejection when there was both old and new information presented in comparison to when information was all new, indicating a reactivation of the whole experience of the presentation in the learning phase, i.e. a facilitation process based on audiovisual integration in episodic memory. An extension of the study could be to increase the retention interval testing for a different type of consolidation.

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    Patrik Blomqvist - A behavioural study of audiovisual integration in episodic memory
  • 44. Bluhm, Gösta
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosenlund, Mats
    Buller.2006In: Barns hälsa och miljö i Stockholms län 2006: Regional Miljöhälsorapport, 2006, Stockholms läns landsting, Stockholm , 2006, p. 113-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Noise is an environmental problem that affects children both at school and home. This chapter summarizes the results on noise disturbances from the “Children’s environment and health survey” conducted in Stockholm County in year 2003. It was found that children were most disturbed by noise at school. Thirty per cent of all 8- and 12 year old children in Stockholm County were annoyed by noise at school, mainly noise from other children. Children in Stockholm County were exposed to more noise in their homes than children in other parts of Sweden. Almost 50 % of children in inner city Stockholm and 20 % in the rest of the County were living in apartments with windows facing a major road, railway or industry. Eighteen per cent of all 8- and 12-year olds were disturbed by noise in their homes. Slightly less than 6 % reports that noise disturbed school homework or speech communication, whereas 4 % reported difficulties in falling asleep due to noise in the home. Approximately three per cent of parents to all 4-, 8- and 12-year old children reported that their children have reduced hearing, and three per cent of 8- and 12-year old children reported that they have tinnitus. It is concluded that noise in dwellings and schools should be reduced in order to provide good and healthy sound environments for children. Furthermore, the sound environment should be considered already at the planning stage, in order to minimize indoor and outdoor noise exposure in future dwellings and schools.

  • 45.
    Boman, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Money or Melancholia? Dropout and Retention Rates in the K-pop Industry2021In: Culture and Empathy, ISSN 2635-6619, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 156-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The K-pop music industry is signified by a hyper-competitive training system. The aim was to examine dropout and retention rates among a representative sample of K-pop artists and groups. The dropout rates of 49 K-pop groups and 298 group members (N = 298; F = 130; M = 168), who have been active any time between 2003-2019, were 5.70%. As gender, age and other generic control factors could not explain more than a fraction of retention rates, the author interprets this as partial evidence for melancholia among some dropouts.

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    fulltext
  • 46.
    Boman, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Parallelization: A theory of cultural, economic and political complexity2023Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A broad and encompassing new theory for the social and behavioral sciencesConnects hot topics such as globalization, migration, secularization, and climate change to parallelization theoryInvestigates a theory of cultural, economic and political complexity.

  • 47.
    Boman, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Parallelization: The Fourth Leg of Cultural Globalization Theory2021In: Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, ISSN 1932-4502, E-ISSN 1936-3567, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 354-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending Pieterse’s (1996) tripartite cultural globalization theory consisting of homogenization, hybridization and polarization, the current article outlines a set of exemplifications and justifications of a fourth theoretical underpinning labeled parallelization. The theory implies that at a global scale, crucial events that appear paradoxical or contradictory occur at the same time, such as carbon emissions due to growth-fixated global capitalism, while the causes of carbon emissions lead to greater resilience against the consequences of carbon emissions as wealth accumulates. Other examples discussed are large-scale migration flows which lead to increased segregation in host societies while integration of migrants occur as a parallel process; secularization visa-à-vis the resurgence of religions; clear indications of that the biological component of cognitive abilities decreases due to fertility patterns in many locations around the globe, while the IQ test scores have risen as a consequence of various environmental factors.

  • 48.
    Boman, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    PISA Achievement in Sweden From the Perspective of Both Individual Data and Aggregated Cross-Country Data2022In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 6, article id 753347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to analyze Swedish 15-year-olds’ PISA performance in 2015 and to lesser extent 2018 by using a combination of individual data (2015) and aggregated cross-country data for 2015 and 2018, inclusive of 31 OECD countries. At the within-country and individual level, native Swedish students who took the PISA test in 2015 outperformed first- and second-generation migrants. Moreover, the latent socioeconomic variable “number of books at home” was associated with higher PISA math achievement. Ambition was positively associated with PISA math scores, wheres worry was negatively associated with PISA math. At the cross-country level, GDP per capita was associated with higher PISA scores but ethnic homogeneity was not. IQ scores, PIAAC scores for teachers, and teacher salaries were also moderately correlated with PISA math achievement. This indicates that a country with high cognitive ability levels, as well as cognitively competent and well-paid teachers are likely to perform better in large-scale international assessments such as PISA.

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    fulltext
  • 49.
    Boman, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vulnerable women: Negotiations among migrant women in the aftermath of the Ukraine war2023In: Human Arenas, ISSN 2522-5790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women, in the past and to different extents in the present, have typically constituted a vulnerable although heterogenous social group. After the foundation of a “new” sovereign post-Soviet Union Ukraine in 1991, large numbers of women in poverty were exposed to human trafficking, prostitution, and labor. Since Russia’s war in Ukraine in 2014, many internally displaced persons and migrants have left their places of sojourn for other cities in Ukraine or to go overseas. This situation is exacerbated after Russia’s full-scale invasion in 2022. The current situation constitutes a double-edged sword: on the one hand opportunities to seek more profitable work environments in wealthier cities and countries, but on the other hand a risk of being exploited. Others want to leave but cannot not due to constraining factors such as financial difficulties. With the aid of proculturation theory, N = 5 Ukrainian women were interviewed. Their discourses highlight a negotiation between the Ukrainian and the European in regard to familiar/unfamiliar spheres.

  • 50.
    Boman, Josephine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Chiboub, Yemina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mellan Raderna: En kritisk analys av Skolverkets allmänna råd - arbete medstudie och yrkesvägledning2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In between the lines, there it is. An invisible barrier that makes it difficult for some, easy forothers. That is the basis of our purpose in this paper. The invisible barrier – norms that areperceived as limiting for individuals. And the criticism leveled against norms and theirlimitations. We apply an analysis model whose purpose is to critically examine, understandthe problem picture behind the representation of the problems that are implicit in policydocuments. We have carried out a document study in which we have critically reviewed theSkolverkets allmänna råd - arbete med studie- och yrkesvägledning (2013) using Bacchi's(2009) theory and method "What's the problem represented to be". The purpose is to examinein what way Skolverkets allmänna råd - arbete med studie- och yrkesvägledning (2013)represents norms and norm criticism and which dilemmas arise in the representation. Byadopting a constructivist and norm-critical perspective, we try to understand therepresentation of norms and norm criticism and what happens in between. Between the lines.

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    Mellan raderna – en kritisk analys av policydokument
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