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  • 1.
    Adler-Karlsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Western economic warfare 1947-1967: a case study in foreign economic policy1968Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 2. Ahlbäck, Anders
    et al.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Introduction2014In: Gender, war and peace: breaking up the borderlines / [ed] Anders Ahlbäck & Fia Sundevall, Joensuu: University Press of Eastern Finland , 2014, p. 6-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Looking backwards into the future: A Critique of Islamic Modernism2002In: Journal of Futures Studies, ISSN 1027-6084, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 75-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Inequality and bank debt in Sweden in 1919–20122017In: European Review of Economic History, ISSN 1361-4916, E-ISSN 1474-0044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates a long-run relationship between inequality and the bank debt to GDP ratio in Sweden in 1919–2012. The findings suggest that much of the impact of the top income share on the debt ratio comes from changes in the profit share. Earlier research claims that the rich, via the banks, have lent their savings to the poor as a substitute for wage gains, but this description seems ill-suited for Sweden. An alternative explanation is that banks consider profits to be an indicator of the safety of a loan. This is more in line with the study’s findings.

  • 5.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Inequality, asset markets and bank debt in Sweden, 1900-2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation concerns the nexus between inequality, asset markets, and private debt, in the case of Sweden in 1900-2013. The evidence of the study suggests that financial wealth in stocks relative to GDP is an intermediary variable between the profit share and bank debt to GDP ratio. Though the study finds that there is a positive long run relationship between the profit share and the bank debt ratio in the case at hand, the inclusion of the stock market wealth ratio changes the sign of the profit share coefficient. Even so, there is also a positive long run relationship between the profit share and stock market wealth relative to GDP. This means that changes in the profit share may still have a positive impact on credit formation, though indirectly via the stock market. The study finds some evidence that collateral in the form of housing wealth is another determinant of the debt level.

  • 6.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Private debt in Sweden in 1900–2013 and the risk of financial crisis2015In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 302-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents new time series data for private debt in Sweden in 1900–2013, including credit from banks, mortgage institutes and credit companies. The reconstruction of the data is a scientific task by itself, and is complicated by changed definitions, breaks in the series, and the need for occasional interpolation and cross-reference of sources. The obtained data reveal both qualitative and quantitative changes in the structure of private debt in Sweden during the period. One finding is a pattern where the era starting with the deregulation of the credit market in 1985 resembles the era preceding World War Two. Both periods experienced a high level of private debt-to-GDP ratio as well as severe financial crises. In a first application of the data, the hypothesis of rising private debt in the years before a financial crisis is explored through logit regression. The findings are in line with international research, and suggest that higher lending, especially from banks, might aggravate the risk of financial crisis.

  • 7.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The wage share and the welfare state in Sweden, 1900-2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the long run relationship between the wage share in the private sector and the extent of the Swedish welfare state in 1900-2013. It uses a novel approach where government intervention in the economy is broken down into three different aspects: Government consumption, government investment and residential construction. The construction of dwellings may seem questionable at first glance, since it to a large degree has been carried out by private interests. The fact that housing policy has been an important part of welfare policy through several channels motivates inclusion of the variable however. Government investment, mainly in infrastructure, and house construction as factors influencing the functional income distribution has been neglected in previous research. Through the use of single-equation cointegration technique, the study finds a positive and robust long run relationship between the private wage share and all three welfare variables.

  • 8.
    Aissi, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Threat formation processes and cooperation in a changing artic.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the outside world´s growing interest in the Arctic, which has emerged due to the opportunities implied by the Arctic‟s retreating sea ice, is affecting theArctic Ocean littoral states‟ relations with each other. It does so by utilizing the Copenhagen Schools‟ theory of securitization in a case study of Canadian and RussianArctic discourse between the years 2007 and 2012. The main findings are that bothRussia and Canada have securitized the Arctic and designated non-Arctic actors as anexistential threat. Through that process their willingness to cooperate with each other hasincreased.

  • 9.
    Anderson Rydell, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Socialt Kapital och de Svenska Hjälpkassorna: En historisk undersökning om föreningar, socialt kapital och ekonomisk utveckling2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to examine some historical aspects of Robert Putnam’s thesisabout voluntary associations and social capital. According to a micro perspective theory ofsocial capital the trust and reciprocity required and created by associations is important toexplain the disparity between institutional performance and socioeconomic development ofsocieties. The social patterns governing this therefore set a precedent for the future. Using themutual sickness benefit societies in Sweden as variable for voluntary associations around1884, the essay discusses the possible links between social capital, associations and long termeconomic development. The history and structure of the mutual benefit societies is analysed,and the regional differences in social capital and economic development 1958-1980 arecompared to the spread and extension of these benefit societies in 1884. The concludingchapter notes many difficulties in establishing empirical evidence of the discussed theories,pushes the role of some existing alternative explanations and makes a few suggestions onfurther historical research of the mutual benefit societies in the field of social capital.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Edvard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    En studie av den amerikanska identitetsdiskursen efter 11 september: En diskursanalys av Amerikanska tidningar som sträcker sig från terroristattackernaden 11 september 2001 till kriget mot Afghanistan den 9 oktober 2001.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen undersöker jag hur den amerikanska identitetsdiskursen såg ut efterterroristattackerna den 11 september 2001. Jag utgår ifrån ett postmodernt perspektiv. Denteoretiska utgångspunkten är huvudsakligen hämtad från David Campbells teorier om "we"och "the other" och Campbells teori om beroendeförhållandet mellan interna identiteter ochextern utrikespolitik.För att hitta den offentliga diskursen har jag använt mig av amerikanska tidningar. Jag harkartlagt om identitetsdiskursen skiljer sig åt mellan tidningarna och vilket utrymme de olikadiskurserna tar i den offentliga debatten. Vilka röster var tongivande och vilka var det inte?Har den allmänna diskursen speglat det utrikespolitiska agerandet?Som metod har jag använt diskursanalys enligt Laclau och Mouffe.Studien visar att det fanns två tydliga diskurser en Allmän och Alternativ. Inom bådadiskurserna identifieras "we" och "the other" på ett tydligt sätt – men med olika innebörd.Min tolkning av resultaten är att den Allmänna diskursen var så dominerande att denalternativa diskursen marginaliserades. Utrikespolitikens möjlighetsvillkor blev såledesmycket snäva och alternativa handlingslinjer till att gå till krig mot terrorismen blev intepolitisk möjliga.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    "Androm till varnagel-": det tidigmoderna Stockholms folkliga rättskultur i ett komparativt perspektiv1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic concept for my research is legal culture. Thus I do not confine my study to what has been labelled "historical criminology", but also include litigation in civil cases concerning economic conflicts. Though quantitative analysis is a necessary preliminary step, the focus of my interest lies in attitudes and values, mainly of the lower classes. The study of popular legal culture in Stockholm 1620-1720 is viewed in a comparative perspective with Chester and Bremen, two cities with legal systems belonging to the two main judicial traditions of Europe.

    At the basis of any theory of culture and cultural change should be the assumption that there is a relation between culture and the power structure in the society where that culture is situated. But power is not only the determinant of culture, legal culture also includes the way that power is structured, and the ways it is exercised. In the field of legal culture the main change with respect to power in the period I have examined is what has been labelled the judicial revolution. This concept is related to the process of the state taking control over legal system and establishing a monopoly of violence in society.

    Two main features may be discerned in the change of criminal pattern of Stockholm during the period 1620-1720. There is a distinct fall of the frequency of lethal violence and a rise of female criminality. In fact the early eighteenth century Stockholm is the only case known where more women than men are indicted and sentenced.

    The comparative study focuses on how the legal tradition coexists with different political and economic systems and with differences in the legal culture: values and attitudes concerning the law, especially the code of honour, which from a Swedish point of view seems to be a crucial element in the popular legal culture, the education and backgrund of the judges and lawyers as well as the participation of laymen in the legal system, the equality before law; the role of different kinds of argumentation in the legal discourse and finally the existence of popular sanctions outside the official system.

    The anglo-saxon system has maintained many arcaic and irrational elements, but on the other hand it has fostered a strong tradition of commersialization, pluralism and freedom to choose between different kind of courts, which may have aided the developement of a capitalistic economy. In Bremen the bürger-elite stayed in control of the political power, working for the autonomy of the city. But at the same time the city council gave place to a large number of judicially trained members and ranged itsef within the legal system of the empire.

  • 12.
    Andersson Raeder, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Hellre hustru än änka: Äktenskapets ekonomiska betydelse för frälsekvinnor i senmedeltidens Sverige2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation studies the economic partnership between husband and wife amongst the Swedish nobility during the fifteenth century. Medieval marriages have been seen as an institution that first and foremost was economically and socially beneficial to men. The dissertation aims to broaden this view by emphasizing the marriages’ importance to women’s economic agency within the prevailing patriarchal structure of medieval society.Through arranged marriages noble families formed political and social networks in order to uphold and secure their positions. In scholarly literature the role of women is often reduced to being a link between men, the father and the husband, enabling property transfers between lineages. This dissertation describes how spouses circumvented the regulations of inheritance to benefit each other and their conjugal family. Furthermore, it discusses how these strategies were economically advantageous for married women whilst sustaining the patriarchal structure.

    The legal status of women changed when they became widows, and it has often been pointed out that widows had opportunities and agency that neither unmarried nor married women had. The autonomy that women gained when they married was conditional on the guardianship of her husband. The widow had no guardian, thus being her own mistress. However, based on the high rate of remarriage amongst noble widows this dissertation argues that widow’s legal freedom to handle economic and juridical matters was considerably constrained within the existing gender system. Furthermore, it argues that remarried women’s freedom of action was larger than that of widows. Hence, marriage offered the possibility of forming an economic partnership with a man that represented their conjugal estate in economic transactions.

  • 13.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    A Crise Mundial e a União Europeia2011In: A Desordem Internacional anordnad av Fundação Economica e Estatistica,(FEE), 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Bruten brygga: Gunnar Myrdal och Sveriges ekonomiska efterkrigspolitik 1943-19472000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The political project of Gunnar Myrdal in Sweden’s post-war planning is characterised and its application in different areas of economic policy in the first post-war years is analysed. His participation in the government, ending in 1947 at the time of a currency crisis, is generally regarded as a failure. A failure for what and why? These questions are addressed in a way elucidating the margins of manoeuvre open to a small European country in the transition years between the Second World War and the Cold War era.

    The characterisation of the project draws on Myrdal’s personal archive, the archives of Arbetarrörelsens Fredsråd and the official Post-war Economic Planning Commission. The three case studies on the post-war policies draw on the National Bank Archive (financial and currency policy), on the archives of Sweden’s Department of Foreign Affairs and the archives of Bank of England (trade policy) and on parliamentary records and Erlander’s personal archive (monetary policy).

    It is argued that Myrdal’s views on economic policy differed radically from those of Ernst Wigforss, Sweden’s Minister of Finance. Criticising assumptions about an expansionary economic policy motivated by fears of economic depression, the study shows that Sweden’s post-war financial policy actually was restrictive in intent as well as to its effects. The study of Sweden’s trade policy shows its eastward trade these years to be grossly misrepresented, its currency support of Britain’s sterling to underestimated and the American intervention in our trade policy to be earlier than generally assumed. The final study on monetary policy demonstrates the predominance of domestic consumption concerns over considerations of trade balances.

    The inconsistencies of the government’s economic policy these years are finally related to Myrdal’s partial failure to get his project accepted initially and to the growing exacerbation of domestic and international tensions.

  • 15.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Careers at crossroads: The impact of George Marshall’s Harvard Proposal of June 6,1947 on Sweden’s foreign policy and on  the careers of Gunnar Myrdal and Dag Hammarskjöld2008In: The Marshall Plan / [ed] Erixon, Fredrik, Stockholm: Timbro , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Changements du système de protection sociale en Suède des années 1990: stabilité ou dépérissement2011In: L’histoire des systèmes de protection sociale XXe siècle, nouveaux chantiers, nouveaux objets, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Civil servant or Politician: Dag Hammarskjöld’s role in the Swedish Government in the Forties2005In: Sveriges Riksbank Economic Review, ISSN 1144-0863, no 3, p. 33-49Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

      

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    It used to be said that the history of Sweden is that of its monarchs and

    contemporary history still tends to follow a modified version of this

    notion: the history of Sweden is that of its politicians. It is a view that is

    very much to the fore in assessments of how Swedish policy has been

    formed during the long period of social democratic hegemony.

    It is evident not least in discussions of how the crisis policy in the

    Thirties was arrived at and how post-war economic policy emerged. As I

    have pointed out elsewhere,

     

     

    1

    works by Erik Lundberg, Leif Lewin and

    Assar Lindbeck continue to be the foundation on which most historical

    accounts of this period are built. They all focus on politicians and assign

    the active role to members of the cabinet, primarily Ernst Wigforss.

     

     

    2

    But how were the decisions prepared? What part was played by the

    government institutions and drafting bodies?

    In my opinion, the political role the Riksbank and ministerial officials

    played in the construction of Swedish policy is seriously underestimated.

    3

    Dag Hammarskjöld was undersecretary in the Finance Ministry in

    the period 1936–45 and thereby immediately under the finance minister,

    Ernst Wigforss. From 1941 to 1948, moreover, he chaired the Riksbank’s

    board of governors. For a revaluation of the part played by government

    institutions in the practical construction of economic policy, it is relevant,

    in connection with the recollections of Hammarskjöld’s contributions

    1

     

     

    See Appelqvist, Ö., (2000),

    Bruten Brygga. Gunnar Myrdal och Sveriges ekonomiska efterkrigspolitik

    1943–1947

     

     

    .

    2

     

     

    This applies to surveys of political as well as economic history; there is no mention of Hammarskjöld in

    Möller, T., (2003),

     

     

    Svensk politisk historia 1890–1975 or in Schön, L., (2001),

    Sveriges ekonomiska

    historia

     

     

    .

    3

     

     

    Compare this with the excellent institutional analyses of French and German fiscal history that have been

    made under the auspices of CHEFF, the French institute for studies in fiscal history, perhaps above all the

    studies of the respective importance of the Banque de France and the Commissariat du Plan for the evolution

    of French post-war economic policy. See in particular Margairaz, M., (1991),

     

     

    L’Ètat, les finances et

    l’économie. Histoire d’une conversion 1932–1952

     

     

    .

    that are being presented to mark the hundredth anniversary of his birth

    in July 2005, to look at Hammarskjöld’s political role in a number of

    important situations, something that research to date has largely failed

    to do

     

  • 18.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Den brutala galenskapen: Hur spekulationen förstör ekonomin Essäer om finansiell spekulation, eurokris och världsekonomins ändrade maktförhållanden2011Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Den dolda duellen: Myrdals och Hammarskjölds sammanflätade karriärer2007In: Personhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0031-5699, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Deux voies politiques vers le plein emploi et deux modèles sociaux : France-Suède  (1944-1948)2008In: Revue de l’IRES, ISSN 1038-2012, Vol. 56, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    El rol de los intelectuales en el Norte y en el Sur2011In: Espacio interdisciplinario, Universidad de la Republica, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    En ny geoekonomi2010In: Internationella Studier, ISSN 0020-952X, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Essential Gunnar Myrdal: edited with commentary by Örjan Appelqvist and Stellan Andersson2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    From Internationale Gruppe Demokratischen Sozialisten to the UN Economic Commission for Europe: attempts at bridge-building in the early post-war period2007In: Conflicted Memories / [ed] Konrad Jarausch, Thomas Lindenberger, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Förord2011In: Keynes : mästarens återkomst, Stockholm: Karneval , 2011Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Geopolitiska konfliktområden och ekonomisk utveckling2006Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Perspektiv : En introduktion till studier av Internationella Relationer i ekonomisk-historiskt perspektiv. (Plantago Media2009 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Quales são as relações entre pensiamento, pensadores e instituções internacionais2011In: 5 Jornadas do Associação Uruguayana dos Historiadores de Històrica Economica (AUDHE), 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Rediscovering uncertainty: IGDS and UNECE, two early attempts at a pan-European post-war recovery 2008In: Cold War History, ISSN 1468-2745, E-ISSN 1743-7962, ISSN 1468-2745, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 327-352Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is time to re-open the question of the early post-war division of Europe as a problem. In order to move beyond bipolarity and give a fuller representation of the tentative and open character of the immediate post-war years it is furthermore pertinent to include a broader array of actors. By highlighting the aspirations of Internationale Gruppe Demokratischer Sozialisten, a transnational network of social-democratic refugees from Germany and German-occupied countries in Sweden during the war and some of their endeavours after the war the articles explores the relative merits of realist and liberal readings of the outcomes. It is argued that historiography so far has underestimated the nationalistic, anti-German position of French and British socialists at the end of the war, and its wider implications as well as the importance of internal domestic dissensions within the UK and US administrations

  • 30.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Socialisme démocratique et mouvements sociaux2011In: Socialisme et capitalisme. Histoire, mutations, nouveaux défis, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The Hidden Duel: Conflict and cooperation in the careers of Gunnar Myrdal and Dag Hammarskjöld2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizes conflict and cooperation in the intertwined careers of Gunnar Myrdal and Dag Hammarskjöld as economists, actors in Swedish policy 1940-1947 and international civil servants, Myrdal being Executive Secretary of the UN ECE 1947-1957 and Hammarskjöld being General Secretary of the UN 1951-1961. In economics the difference between dynamic and neoclassical approaches are noted. It contrasts Myrdal’s very early formulation of growth oriented financial policy with the very lasting refusal of counter-cyclical policies of the Swedish government under the influence of Hammarskjöld. In regard to official US postwar policies their differences are highlighted from the pre-cold war period as well as from the early fifties, Myrdal defending a ‘universalist’ position trying to defend the ECE against power policy intrusion whereas Hammarskjöld wanted to ‘proceed with caution’ in regard to what he considered to be ‘a friendly government’.

    Their differences are traced to personal backgrounds while at the same time expressing principal dilemmas facing civil servants in international organisations in a political climate of strong tensions between national interests.

  • 32.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    We won’t pay: Assuming confrontation to open possibilities2011In: European Economist for an Alternative Economic Policy, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Appelqvist, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ämbetsman eller politiker: Om Dag Hammarskjölds roll i fyrtiotalets svenska regeringspolitik2005In: Penning & Valuta, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Aradszky, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Hispanics som största minoritetsgrupp i USA: Ett hot mot den angloamerikanska majoriteten?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den spansktalande gruppen hispanics har växt till att den blir den största minoritetsgruppen i USA med 50 miljoner människor, och förutspås dominera i landet år 2050. Detta orsakar rädsla för ett makthot mot den angloamerikanska majoriteten inom vissa ekonomiska, politiska och kurlturella kretsar. Regeringar har de senaste decennierna infört språkpolicys för att stoppa spanskans spridning, men likväl växer språket i USA med den ökande folkgruppen och spanskspråkig media. Detta arbete syftar till att analysera huruvida hispanics faktiskt är ett makthot inom de tre kategorierna ekonomi, politik och identitet, grundat i makthot-teorin som ansåg dessa tre variabler vara avgörande för dynamiken mellan majoritetsgrupp och minoritetsgrupp i ett samhälle. Genom aktuell statisktik och uppgifter om hispanics situation som minoritetsgrupp i USA, från källro såsom forskningsorganisationers och myncigheters data en kvalitativ analys av det potentiella makthotet denna grupp kan utgöra för majoritetsbefolkningen inom ekonomi, politik och identitet. Analysen resulterar i slutsatsen att det inte ligger någon grund för ett ekonomiskt makthot, mycket liten grund för ett politiskt makthot, men däremot stor grund för ett hot mot identiteten i form av makten som det spanska språket utgör.

  • 35.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Before the Scandinavian ‘porn wave’: the business and regulations of magazines considered obscene in Sweden, 1910–19502017In: Porn Studies, ISSN 2326-8751, E-ISSN 2326-8743, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 4-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the Swedish market for magazines considered obscene (by authorities, distributors, retailers, etc.) is analyzed, with a focus on the first half of the twentieth century. Obscene content was combatted with several recurrent strategies by popular movements, the joint daily press, distributors and retailers, in addition to Freedom of the Press cases. However, once the consensus about the problem of pornography had been broken, during which time pornographers found ways to circumvent these strategies, a pornographic market was able to develop. The magazines that were considered obscene had different sub-genres: humorous and satirical (in the 1910s and 1920s), sex education (in the 1930s), nudism (1930s onwards) and pin-up (1940s onwards). All of the magazines in various ways distanced themselves from pornographic or sexual commercialism, but were nonetheless treated as part of it. Later, Sweden became one of the ‘forerunners’ in developing a market for pornography. This article traces the prehistory of this development and elaborates on the circumstances that prevented the market from developing earlier on. The argument is made that the restrictions were more connected to corporatist-related regulations concerning retail and distribution than to legal actions.

  • 36.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Beyond Mrs Consumer: Competing femininities in Swedish advertising trade publications, 1900–19392018In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article follows the discussion on female consumers in Swedish advertising journals and handbooks. The aim is to problematise the gendered aspects of Swedish consumer and early advertising history, by studying how the notion of the female consumer intersected with notions of social class, marital status and sexuality. The article also closes in on the persons who were invited to embody the consuming women and what kind of interests they represented. The article concludes that, from the start of the twentieth century, gender and class was prevalent in the advertising literature. The married woman was also from the start seen as the head of the consuming family. Therefore, reaching her through advertising became key for facilitating the relations between producer and consumer. With time, different women’s organisations, the weekly press, and new theories of advertising from the US addressing the notion of ‘Mrs Consumer’ came to influence the Swedish advertising trade press. The result became the favouring of a certain kind of middle class, urban and rational kind of femininity, strongly connected to homemaking and women’s roles in purchasing for the family. However, this femininity also paralleled notions of ‘the flapper’ and the professional woman.

  • 37.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    For Men, by Men? Women's Business Activities in the Pornographic Press Compared to the Overall Publishing Industry in Sweden 1950–19722013In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 21-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on women’s business positions in Swedish porn publishing from the 1950s to the 1970s, i.e. when pornography was legalized and when sexually explicit magazines made their commercial breakthrough. The research draws on statistical information on women’s entrepreneurial roles in the overall publishing industry, which is then compared with women’s agency in porn publishing. According to the findings, women seem to have had a slightly more central role in pornography than within the mainstream publishing industry. The analysis is also expanded with details about a few key female pornography entrepreneurs, tracing their publications and business strategies connected to the Freedom of the Press legislation. It is argued that women’s presence in pornographic print and in the overall publishing industry were in fact similar, with a high ratio of family businesses. Women’s entrepreneurship in pornography thus followed a more general historical pattern whereby women engaged in small-scale business with relatively low barriers to entry.

  • 38.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    I princip fulländad? Den ovärdiga välfärden2014In: Bang: feministisk kulturtidskrift, ISSN 1102-4593, no 2, p. 49-53Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mellan organisationspress och sensationell nakenhet: Nudist- och naturistpressen i Sverige 1951-19682012In: Presshistorisk årsbok 2012 / [ed] Ellinor Melander, Vällingby: Svensk Presshistorisk Förening , 2012, p. 141-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The courting of advertisers: The self-advertising of the Swedish press and its depiction of gendered and classed market segments, 1880-19392017In: Explorations in Globalization and Glocalization: Marketing History Through the Ages: Proceedings of the 18th Biennial Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM) / [ed] Ann-Marie Kennedy, CHARM Association , 2017, Vol. 18, p. 17-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the press’ self-advertising to the advertisers in order to trace early divisions into market segments primarily based on gender and social class.

    Design/methodology/approach – Both qualitative and quantitative analysis are made in order to follow the changes of highlighted consumer groups in the ads. Also a qualitative intersectional analysis is made in order to se how notions of class and gender intersected.

    Research limitation/implications – This paper takes an overall perspective of market segmentation in relation to the press and tells less about different market segmentation strategies from single businesses point of view. The sectioning of the press is stressed as a prerequisite for market segmentation and the economic history of mass media is lifted as essential for understanding the latter. Therefore the gendering and classing of market segments were also based on how common interests were interpreted by political movements and their press forums. For surviving in the long run, however, the political press needed to commercialize the political identities in order to attract advertisers and survive economically.

  • 41.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Husz, Orsi
    From the great department store with love: Window display and the transfer of commercial knowledge in early twentieth-century Sweden2018In: History of Retailing and Consumption, ISSN 2373-518X, E-ISSN 2373-5171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Larsson, Mariah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Sexualskildringar inför lagen: kommentar till pornografianklagelser2015In: Sexualpolitiska nyckeltexter / [ed] Pia Laskar, Klara Arnberg och Fia Sundevall, Stockholm: Leopard förlag , 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Laskar, Pia
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Sexualpolitisk historia genom nyckeltexter, 1608-20102015In: Sexualpolitiska nyckeltexter / [ed] Klara Arnberg, Pia Laskar & Fia Sundevall, Stockholm: Leopard förlag , 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Marklund, Carl
    Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Södertörns högskola.
    Illegally blonde: swedish sin and pornography in U.S. and swedish imaginations, 1955-19712016In: Swedish cinema and the sexual revolution: critical essays / [ed] Elisabet Björklund and Mariah Larsson, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2016, p. 185-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish cinema became recognized for daring representations of sexuality with such films as One Summer of Happiness (1951), The Silence (1963), I am Curious (Yellow) (1967) and a wave of sex films in the late 1960s and 1970s. The association between Swedish film and sexuality shows up frequently in popular culture-from Taxi Driver to Mad Men, references to dirty Swedish movies abound. Yet the connection has attracted little critical attention. In this collection of new essays, Swedish and American scholars go beyond popular misconceptions to explore the origins, influences and reception of sexuality in Swedish cinema during the "sexual revolution" on both sides of the Atlantic. A broad range of topics are covered, from analyses of key films, to a behind-the-scenes study of the Swedish Film Institute, which played a significant role in opposing Swedish film censorship.

  • 45.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Pia, LaskarSundevall, FiaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Sexualpolitiska nyckeltexter2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Svanlund, Jonatan
    Mad women: gendered divisions in the Swedish advertising industry, 1930–20122017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 268-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article constitutes a first attempt to systematically map the presence of women in the greatly changing Swedish advertising industry since 1930. The overarching aim of the study is to analyse how the gendered divisions of labour and business changed in relation to both business structure and the overall labour market in Sweden. While we conclude that women constituted around 40–50% of the workforce over time, we see an increase in the shares of women in higher positions and in women who were self-employed and managers. This upturn, however, stabilised during the 1990s. We argue that the changes in gendered divisions of labour and business coincided with a fast-changing business structure. First, the old cartel broke down in the mid-1960s. Then, the number of firms increased quickly during the 1970s and 1980s, and the market share for the largest firms declined. This, in turn, meant new business opportunities for women at the same time as their overall labour market participation increased. The article stresses the importance of both acknowledging women’s presence in the industry development as well as the structures constituting gender divisions.

  • 47.
    Bahgat, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Handels- och biståndsförhållandets utveckling mellan Uganda och Sverige och EBA-avtalets målsättning2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Handels- och biståndsförhållandet mellan Uganda och Sverige har undersökts i syfte att tareda på hur utvecklingen har sett ut under frihandelsavtalet Everything But Arms. Avtalet harvarit aktivt sedan 2001 och resulterat i tullfrihet av alla varor förutom vapen och ammunitionför Ugandas handel med EU. Innan avtalets sattes igång var Ugandas handel med Sverigeojämn, det är den även idag efter ca åtta år av en global frihandel. Handelsstatistiken dessaländer emellan tyder på en stor export vinst för Sveriges del. Genom Everything But Armsavtaletstullfrihet anser EU och FN att ett MUL-land som Uganda kommer att kunnakonkurrera på världsmarknaden. EBA-avtalets målsättning är tydlig och menar att frihandelnkommer leda till att Uganda ökar sin export och därmed ta större plats på världsmarknaden. Igranskandet av förhållandet Uganda-Sverige utgjorde slutsatsen att EBA-avtalet inte har nåttupp till sin målsättning.EBA-avtalet har varit aktivt i snart åtta år och det svenska biståndet som ges till Uganda ärungefär 30 gånger större än Ugandas svenska exportintäkter. Ugandas sociala ochdemokratiska förhållanden i landet är den största faktorn som bromsar upp utvecklingen ochdärför är landet fortfarande beroende av utländskt bistånd. Det svenska biståndet går därförfrämst till demokratiska, humanitära och fattigdomsbekämpande insatser. Utan att kunnaförsäkra den sociala stabiliteten hos den ugandiska befolkningen kan inte handelsutvecklingenprioriteras. Uganda kan idag inte öka konkurrensen på världsmarknaden genom ett avtal omtullfrihet. De måste först uppnå acceptabla sociala, politiska och demokratiska nivåer i landetför att handeln ska kunna utvecklas och därmed i sin tur kunna konkurrera påvärldsmarknaden.

  • 48.
    Baraibar, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Green Deserts or New Opportunities?: Competing and complementary views on the soybean expansion in Uruguay, 2002-20132014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In just over a decade, soybean production in Uruguay emerged from almost non-existence to second most important export product. The extraordinary rapid soybean expansion is often referred to as representing changes that go far beyond the mere substitution of one agrarian activity for another, but evolved into a broad societal concern. Accordingly, the soybean expansion has not only been debated in national media, but among NGO’s, firms, scholars, farmers, political parties as well as within broad sectors of the state apparatus. Although the views expressed are allegedly about the soybean expansion, they are found to reflect much deeper values and assumptions about what is good, appropriate and desirable. All this ultimately represents discordant alternative visions and paths of development. This dissertation outlines and analyzes the dynamics of different, complementary and competing views on the soybean expansion in Uruguay between 2002 and 2013. These have in turn been related to wider debates about “development” of longer historical roots within the social sciences.

    Rather than exclusively relying on the mediatized accounts expressed in the public debate, often posed in a rather superficial and antagonistic way in accordance to some media logic, this study has made intensive use of in-depth interviews. This has allowed for deeper, more complex and nuanced accounts, as well as made possible to include voices that were only indirectly “represented” in the public debate. The main agreements and disagreements expressed in relation to the soybean expansion have been outlined, described, situated and explored. While constant contingency and unfixity are acknowledged, three main broader competing world-views, or discourses, have also been identified. These are discerned through the analysis of patterns of regularities in the articulations about the soybean expansion. The first is labelled “agro-ecology discourse”, reflecting anti-capitalist notions and centered in values of local autonomy and justice. The other is labelled “pro-market discourse”, reflecting market faith and centered in values of growth, dynamism and meritocracy. The third is labelled “pro-public regulation discourse”, reflecting beliefs in development intervention and centered in values of progress and upgrading.

  • 49.
    Berg, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Vägen till isbrytarna: Den kommunalpolitiska isbrytarfrågan i Göteborg och Stockholm1867-18952012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Isen har i alla tider varit ett problem för sjöfarten. Innan ångbåtarna fanns fick man helt enkeltundvika isen. Segelfartygen togs upp eller sökte sig till isfria (sydligare) platser över vintern.När isen lade sig stängdes hamnarna. Detta påverkade det ekonomiska livet för de samhällensom drabbades genom minskad aktivitet och tillgång på handelsvaror. Ångbåtarna, isynnerhet sådana som genom konstruktion och styrka kunde bryta is, förändrade detta.

  • 50.
    Berg, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Giftets värde: Apotekares förståelse av opium i Sverige, 1870-19252016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Before the regulation of opium as a “narcotic” in Sweden in 1923, opium was not regulated for its intoxicating properties and was freely available. But not in any kind of shop. Opium was legally available only through the pharmacies. This thesis explores how this free availability of a narcotic was understood by its traders, the pharmacists.

    The title of this thesis – The Value of Poison – indicates how opium could be conceptualized both as a safe, everyday remedy essential to keep freely available and as a drug of intoxication. As a poison it could be articulated as a matter of primarily pharmacological, not moral or medical, concern. This also gave the pharmacists, with their special knowledge of pharmaka (drugs, poisons), an autonomous space of knowledge free from the ever more intruding “medical gaze”. But, in order to articulate this kind of understanding of opium, another kind of knowledge was needed to be acknowledged: that of the user. In this articulation a “sensus communis” was tied in with a broader cultural knowledge of drugs. Problems with opium were focused on the danger of acute poisoning, not recreational intoxication. Concepts that could have problematized this kind of use were rearticulated as problems either of illegitimate trade, unregulated markets and advertising or of draconian regulation by greedy or sloppy doctors. These rather opposite elements were made equivalent through the articulation of ignorance in both cases, thus further emphasizing the special knowledge of the pharmacist.

    The thesis locates a process of contradiction that contributes to the eventual diminishing of the discourse of poison towards the end of the period. The pharmaceutical knowledge that guaranteed the discourse was based on a “pharmaceutical gaze” on pharmaka. It pierced through the drug to identify its constituent parts. In this process it was promised that the different effects of opium would be separated. “Narcotic” could be a by-product, to be discarded or controlled, without dispensing of other therapeutic effects. With this ever deeper knowledge of opium, knowledge in the pharmacies was made insufficient for the full understanding or opium, and so too was that of the traditional user. The era of opium as a poison was over.

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