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  • 1.
    Abdallah, Laila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Process eller Resultat?: Trender inom utvärdering av svensk högskoleutbildning under1990-talet2002Report (Other academic)
  • 2. Abdelhai, Rehab
    et al.
    Yassin, Sahar
    Ahmad, Mohamad F.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    An e-learning reproductive health module to support improved student learning and interaction: a prospective interventional study at a medical school in Egypt2012In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 12, p. 11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Public Health (PH) course at the medical college of Cairo University is based on traditional lectures. Large enrollment limits students' discussions and interactions with instructors. Aim: Evaluate students' learning outcomes as measured by improved knowledge acquisition and opinions of redesigning the Reproductive Health (RH) section of the PH course into e-learning and assessing e-course utilization. Methods: This prospective interventional study started with development of an e-learning course covering the RH section, with visual and interactive emphasis, to satisfy students' diverse learning styles. Two student groups participated in this study. The first group received traditional lecturing, while the second volunteered to enroll in the e-learning course, taking online course quizzes. Both groups answered knowledge and course evaluation questionnaires and were invited to group discussions. Additionally, the first group answered another questionnaire about reasons for non-participation. Results: Students participating in the e-learning course showed significantly better results, than those receiving traditional tutoring. Students who originally shunned the e-course expressed eagerness to access the course before the end of the academic year. Overall, students using the redesigned e-course reported better learning experiences. Conclusions: An online course with interactivities and interaction, can overcome many educational drawbacks of large enrolment classes, enhance student's learning and complement pit-falls of large enrollment traditional tutoring.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Organisation av undervisning för nyanlända elever: Ett exempel från två skolor med inkluderande arbetssätt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A current subject in Sweden today is how to organize education for newly arrived children in school. The number of newly arrived children continues to increase and this will ask for new demands on the school regarding reception and organization of learning for these students. This also demands the school to improve the knowledge about these children. The aim of this study is to describe the principals’, teachers’ and students’ experience of an inclusive organization of learning for newly arrived students. Two different schools in an area frequented of immigrants in one of the largest cities in Sweden have been selected. Both schools are working with inclusion around the newly arrived students. To obtain a pre-understanding of how the school works, lesson observations have been carried out in the schools. Thereafter interviews with principals, teachers and students have been carried out. The principals at both schools believe that the work with newly arrived students should be carried out in an inclusive organization. Depending on how long the school has had this way of working, but also depending on the teachers’ backgrounds, they are thinking differently about if it is favourable for the students to be included. At the Betaschool which is a school that has worked longer than the Alfaschool in an inclusive way, the teachers see more advantages with this way of working. The students at both schools are more positive than the teachers. The cultural capital that the students already have when they arrive to the school is important for the way of adjusting to the new school. There is also a difference in which position the student take on depending on the capital they bring with them. Several components are important for the school choosing to work inclusively with newly arrived students. Some of these are study counsellors, language development approach, relations and a shared view on how to educate newly arrived children at the school.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Julia
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Inkludering på vitryska: Fältstudier i Vitryssland gällande inkludering av2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe and examine the characteristics of inclusion of children with disabilities in the kinder garden and primary school in Belarus. The data in this study were collected through interviews with special teachers and staff at the Developing and Rehabilitation center. The interviews were supported by child-observations and a literature study. Staying in boarding schools prevents handicap students from integrating with the society as well as getting social experience. Integrated education demands the combination of two regularities: education of children with normal development and special education of children with psycho-physiological problems. Many research works consider the interconnection between socio-cultural development of the society and the values in upbringing which are prioritized in the society. Socialisation is possible when the child is involved in the processes of the daily life as well as interacting with adults and friends. It is easier for a child to adapt to a social behaviour when he realises what happens around him, understanding the subjective processes which happen inside other people and when the child can use his knowledge and experience on practice. Therefore, socialization is both a process and a result of realisation and active implementation of a social experience by a child. Integration is a systematic stage in the development of special education caused by change in the attitude of the society and state towards individuals with disabilities, admitting their rights for the equal opportunities in different spheres of life including education. Successful implementation of integrative education depends a lot on the level of material, organisational, educational as well as methodological in educational institutions. Moreover, this process depends on socio-psychological factors and moral atmosphere in the society. Practical solution of the problems in integration attracts not only teaching staff in specific institutions, children with different development and their parents but also children and their parents, teachers in normal secondary schools.

  • 5.
    Adami, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Claiming and Reaffirming Universality of Human Rights: Comparing the Role of UNESCO in Relation to the UN 1948 and 19932009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis explores the role of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in the drafting and formulation of the universal human rights in 1948 as well as its contribution at the Vienna Conference, when the universality of the human rights was reaffirmed after the Cold War. Using concept analysis on the reports published by UNESCO for the drafting of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights and the Vienna Declaration deepens the understanding of the influence of the organization within the United Nations (UN) system at these points in time. By applying an intersectional approach to the concept of “cultural dialogue”, the theoretical tool of “intersectional dialogue” is created in order to analyze and understand the process that occurred in the UN Commission when delegates from all over the world met to draft and discuss the universality of human rights. The conceptual framework of “universality” by Langlois is used in analyzing the parallel process of UNESCO in order to understand the universality of the human rights through local interpretations and particular values. The thesis held by Langlois, that the universality of human rights enables a global platform for oppressed and marginalized people to share their local stories based on particular values within a human rights discourse, is contested in the analysis.

  • 6.
    Adami, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Human Rights Learning: The Significance of Narratives, Relationality and Uniqueness2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas educational policy is mainly concerned with the content of Human Rights Education (HRE), philosophers of education have widely explored the subject and her social condition in terms of social justice education. This thesis draws on philosophers of education in exploring the subject rather than the content of HRE, focusing the study on ontological rather than epistemological aspects of learning. In this thesis learning is explored through narratives, as a relational process of becoming. The turn to narrative is taken against the dominant historical narrative of human rights as a Western project. This turn concerns how claims toward universalism of human rights exclude difference and equally concerns how notions of particularity overshadows the uniqueness in life stories. The concept of uniqueness serves to elucidate the complexity of the subject, not easily reduced into social categorizations, a concept drawn from Adriana Cavarero and Hannah Arendt.

  • 7.
    Adami, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Reconciling Universality and Particularity through a Cosmopolitan Outlook on Human Rights2012In: Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, ISSN 1837-5391, E-ISSN 1837-5391, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 22-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human rights are today criticized as not compatible with different cultural values and the debate has circulated around Asian values and Islamic values as in dichotomy with human rights as universal ethics (Ignatieff, 2003). The theoretical dichotomy between universality and particularity is questioned pragmatically in this paper through a historical study. The working process of drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in 1946-48, which included thousands of people, is explored as a cosmopolitan space in which individuals from different cultural contexts met to negotiate human rights through cultural narratives. The process where particular values were negotiated with universal notion on human rights resulted in a common proclamation (UDHR) without a common philosophical or ideological ground. This paper puts forth a thesis that human rights discourse can work as a cosmopolitan space, in which particular value systems meet in processes characterized by conflict and cohesion. Hence human rights can be understood as a master narrative compatible with different conflicting cultural narratives (Gibson & Somers, 1994).

  • 8.
    Adami, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Re-Thinking Relations in Human Rights Learning: The Politics of Narratives2014In: Journal of Philosophy of Education, ISSN 0309-8249, E-ISSN 1467-9752, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 293-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human Rights Education (HRE) has traditionally been articulated in terms of cultivating better citizens or world citizens. The main preoccupation in this strand of HRE has been that of bridging a gap between universal notions of a human rights subject and the actual locality and particular narratives in which students are enmeshed. This preoccupation has focused on ‘learning about the other’ in order to improve relations between plural ‘others’ and ‘us’ and reflects educational aims of national identity politics in citizenship education. The article explores the learning of human rights through narratives in relations, drawing on Hannah Arendt and Sharon Todd. For this re-thinking of relations in learning human rights, the article argues that HRE needs to address both competing historical narratives on the drafting of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR) as well as unique life narratives of learners.

  • 9.
    Adami, Rebecca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hållander, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Testimony and Narrative as a Political Relation: the Question of Ethical Judgment in Education2015In: Journal of Philosophy of Education, ISSN 0309-8249, E-ISSN 1467-9752, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore the role of film in educational settings and argue that testimony and narrative are dependent upon each other for developing ethical judgments. We use the film 12 Angry Men to enhance our thesis that the emotional response that sometimes is intended in using film as testimonies in classrooms requires a specific listening; a listening that puts pupils at risk when they relate testimonies to their own life narratives. The article raises the importance of listening in training narrative ethos in relation to violence witnessed in film. The article contributes by enhancing an understanding of a relational dimension to testimony and narrative, which, in an Arendtian sense, is also put forward as a political relation.

  • 10.
    Adamow, Goscha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Förskolan i ett mångkulturellt samhälle: Pedagogers föreställningar kring mångkulturellt arbete på förskolan2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe, understand and analyze the thought behind the perception amongst pedagogues´ on multicultural work in preschools, based on an intercultural perspective. In this study, I questioned the pedagogues´ view on the work in preschools that prepares children for a life in a multicultural society and also the way they describe the cultural challenges.

    The study was accomplished and questions were answered by studying current literature and previous research in the field. I also interviewed four pedagogues from two different preschools located in separate areas.

    This study shows that many opinions that pedagogues expressed in the interviews can be traced back to an “us vs. them” perspective, in which your own culture, the Swedish one in this case, is the most critical and should receive the greatest attention in preschool. At the same time, the study shows that the more experience pedagogues had from multicultural preschools the greater acceptance they had for other cultures. These pedagogues also had an advanced in the development of intercultural competence.

     

  • 11.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Elizabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    I Don't Feel Like Myself: Women's Accounts of Normality and Authenticity in the Field of Menstruation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master thesis is to contribute to a deeper understanding of women’s experiences in regard to menstrually related suffering. These particular experiences are examined in relation to notions of normality and authenticity. The study designed for this purpose is based on the life world of women in order to explore these ideas. The visceral signs originating from within the body are generally understood to be undetectable when working properly. Such is not the case for many women who menstruate. The cyclical change in physical and mental states associated with the menstrual cycle provide an opportunity to study how going in and out of different ways of being in the world influence human experience. Thematic interviews were conducted asking ten women living in Sweden to share their experiences of suffering related to the menstrual cycle. A phenomenological approach with focus on the body was used to study how changing ways of being in the world contribute to the construction of illness and health. Beginning with discussions about their experiences of suffering revealed that women thought in terms of when they felt like themselves and when they did not. Organization of time was interrelated with how women understood their experiences. Emphasizing recurring negative experiences lead to contemplation about causes of suffering and comparison of different states of being. The lack of ‘one’s selfness’ due to what is commonly referred to as PMS represents the dilemma these women describe. The need to have control over the outward representation of one’s self is discussed in light of different medical technologies like SSRI antidepressant use and hormonal therapies which revealed that women saw the origins of their suffering to be a product of society but tightly connected to their identity as women and were not willing to be without a menstrual cycle. Phenomenological ideas about embodiment were used to understand how suffering was seen both as a sign of health and as a part of the self.

  • 12.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Liz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Experiences, networks and uncertainty: parenting a child who uses a cochlear implant2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation project is to describe the ways people experience parenting a deaf child who uses a cochlear implant. Within a framework of social science studies of disability this is done by combining approaches using ethnographic and netnographic methods of participant observation with an interview study. Interpretations are based on the first-person perspective of 19 parents against the background of their related networks of social encounters of everyday life. The netnographic study is presented in composite conversations building on exchanges in 10 social media groups, which investigates the parents’ meaning-making in interaction with other parents with similar living conditions. Ideas about language, technology, deafness, disability, and activism are explored. Lived parenting refers to the analysis of accounts of orientation and what 'gets done' in respect to these ideas in situations where people utilize the senses differently. In the results, dilemmas surrounding language, communication and cochlear implantation are identified and explored. The dilemmas extend from if and when to implant, to decisions about communication modes, intervention approaches, and schools. An important finding concerns the parents’ orientations within the dilemmas, where most parents come up against antagonistic conflicts. There are also examples found of a development process in parenting based on lived, in-depth experiences of disability and uncertainty which enables parents to transcend the conflictive atmosphere. This process is analyzed in terms of a social literacy of dis/ability.

  • 13.
    Adiels, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Where did Technology Go?2009In: Strengthening the Position of Technology Education in the Curriculum / [ed] Arien Becker, Ilja Mottier, Marc J. de Vries, Delft: Delft University of Technology , 2009, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning there was techne and episteme. Today we have difficulties with finding technology in the implementations of the curriculum in, at least, Swedish schools. So where did it go? I will give arguments that it is all there but it suffers from specialisation. If we think of techne appearing before the different natural science subjects it is a very natural thought that technology today is what is left "between" the more specialized subjects. However I believe that technology is created also in the meeting between two specialized subjects. When a physicist work with a chemist to solve a problem, than this work will very easy appear as technology from one or both parts view. Also not a revolutionary thought this may explain why the Swedish higher education is organized as it is and why we have diffculties to make a working curriculum for the lower grades.

  • 14.
    Ageby, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Hellerstedt, Cecilie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Pedagogers inställning till utagerande barn i förskolan2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Ahlberg, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Gauffin, Cathrine
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Inkluderande undervisning2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka likheter och skillnader i undervisningen som finns mellan en grundsärskoleklass och en grundskoleklass. Undersökningens metod är strukturerade observationer genomförda av två observatörer i en grundskoleklass och i en särskoleklass på samma skola. Olika aspekter av undervisningen observerades, av vilka några kan anses utgöra förutsättningar för en inkluderande undervisning. Dessa är: samarbete mellan pedagoger i undervisningen, ledarskapsmodeller, cooperativt lärande (samarbetsinlärning), dynamisk pedagogik samt samarbete mellan pedagoger i problemlösande undervisning. Resultatet visar på likhet mellan de båda skolformerna beträffande användandet av en organismisk modell med ett demokratiskt ledarskap, där grundsärskolans pedagoger endast använder det aningen mer frekvent än grundskolans pedagoger. Båda skolformerna använde även en mekanisk modell med ett auktoritärt ledarskap, i grundsärskolan förekom detta i mindre utsträckning än i grundskolan. Likheterna mellan skolformerna är att båda använder sig av ett växelspel mellan modellerna och ledarskapen och där båda skolformerna hade en tonvikt på en mekanisk modell med ett auktoritärt ledarskap. Resultatet visar på skillnader mellan de båda skolformerna avseende samarbetet mellan pedagogerna i problemlösande undervisning. I grundskolan hade pedagogerna mer frekvent ögonkontakt med varandra än pedagogerna i grundsärskolan har. Vad beträffar samtal för överenskommelse samt organisatoriska frågor utövades dessa i mindre utsträckning av pedagogerna i grundsärskolan jämfört med de i grundskolan. Analysen av data från åtta observationer visar att inkluderande undervisning bedrivs till viss del i de båda skolformerna, men att en traditionell pedagogik genomsyrar verksamheten, vilket kan påverka förverkligandet av målsättningen av en skola för alla.

    The purpose of this study is to examine what similarities and differences in teaching can be found when comparing a special needs school program and a mainstream primary school program. The study has been performed by two observers, using the method of structured observations, in a mainstream primary school program and a special needs school program; both programs were observed within the same school. Different aspects of teaching were observed, some of which may constitute conditions of an inclusive education. The aspects observed were: cooperation between teachers during class, leadership, cooperative learning, dynamic pedagogics and cooperation between teachers in problem-solving oriented teaching. The results show that there are similarities between the two school structures regarding the use of an organismic model with a democratic leadership, where the special needs school program teachers use it slightly more frequently than those of the mainstream primary school program. Both school structures also used a mechanical model with an authoritative leadership, this was used to a lesser extent in the the special needs school program than in the mainstream primary school program. The two school structures show similarities in the use of interaction between models and leadership, where both school structures emphasize on a mechanical model with an authoritative leadership. The results show differences between the two school structures regarding the cooperation between teachers in problem-solving oriented teaching. The mainstream primary school program teachers more frequently make eye-contact with each other than the teachers of the special needs school program. Regarding communication with the purpose to reach agreement and in organisational issues, the special needs school program teachers practice this to a lesser extent than those of the mainstream primary school program. The analysis of data from eight observations show that inclusive education is practiced in both school structures to some extent but that traditional pedagogic methods permeate the educational programs which have been studied, this in turn may affect the realization of a school for all.

  • 16.
    Ahlm, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    ”Språkstimuleringen måste byggas in i vardagen”: Verksamhetsstöd på förskolan och i grundskolans tidigare år för barn och elever med tal- och språksvårigheter.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka vilket verksamhetsstöd det finns för barn och elever med tal- och språksvårigheter på förskolan och i grundskolans tidigare år. Frågeställningarna handlar om hur en talpedagog arbetar för att stödja barn med tal- och språksvårigheter, hur ett barns svårigheter kartläggs samt hur barns tal och språk stimuleras under den dagliga verksamheten. Som forskningsmetod har jag använt mig av intervju och observation.

    Resultatet visar att det stöd barnen får av talpedagogen är genom olika övningar som valts ut för att stimulera deras tal och språk. Talpedagogen kartlägger även barnens svårigheter med hjälp av Hellqvists fonemtest med vilket hon får kunskap om vad barnet redan kan och vad det behöver öva på. Både på förskolan och i skolan bygger pedagogerna in språkstimuleringen i vardagen på ett naturligt sätt genom att oftast utgå från barnens egna intressen och kunskaper. Detta har visat sig på förskolan genom att pedagogerna främst låter barnen ge förslag på vad de vill göra och utgå från detta, medan lärarna i skolan anpassar material och arbetsböcker utefter elevernas kunskapsnivå.

  • 17.
    Ahlqvist, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Livslångt lärande: Mer än ett CV?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är resultatet av en undersökning av två verksamheter som valt att använda ett icke-formellt verktyg för att synliggöra, erkänna och dokumentera lärande. Utgångspunkten i undersökningen har varit en önskan att pröva om kunskaper om arbetsliv och erfarenheter från arbetsliv är möjliga att synliggöra, erkänna och dokumentera med liknande status och kvalitetssäkring som inom det formella utbildningssystemet. Studien bygger på intervjuer med elever, deltagare och handledare på ett introduktionsprogram med handelsinriktning på gymnasiet samt på ett program i en kommunal arbetsmarknadsåtgärd. Gemensamt för målgruppen av ungdomar och unga vuxna i undersökningen var att de hade låg eller bristfällig utbildningsnivå samt att de riskerade att etableras i ett utanförskap.

    Undersökningen visar att det verktyg som använts visar bygger på en systematik som bidrar till att skapa en tydlig och pedagogisk lärandesituation samt ett arbetssätt som bidrar till en kvalitetssäkrad dokumentation. Den kompetens som deltagarna tillgodogjort sig visade sig även öka matchningsmöjligheterna på arbetsmarknaden. Verktygets etablering i samhället visade sig i undersökningen vara den svagaste länken i användandet. Verktyget upplevdes inte som tillräckligt kommunicerat och känt vilket var till elevernas nackdel. Kvalitetssäkringen visade brister inte minst vad gäller hanteringen av deltagarnas intyg över erhållet lärande. Trots goda resultat visade det sig också vara svårt för ansvariga tjänstemän att motivera kostnaden för användandet.

    Resultatet bör vara intressant för verksamheter som har tankegångar runt en integrativ syn på lärande samt om formella, icke-formella och informella verktyg för att synliggöra och erkänna lärande kan verka i symbios för att öka tillgången till det livslånga lärandet.

  • 18.
    Ahlsén, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Lundh, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Teaching Writing in Theory and Practice: A Study of Ways of Working with Writing in the 9th Grade2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to take a closer look at how teachers work with writing and to examine some theories on the teaching of writing. Five teachers in two schools are included in order to get an insight in teachers’ practical work with EFL writing. This has been done through classroom observations and interviews. The results show that all teachers seem to use aspects from several theories. The results also show that the teachers’ level of awareness of theories on teaching writing varies

  • 19.
    Ajagán-Lester, Luis
    Stockholm University.
    "De Andra": afrikaner i svenska pedagogiska texter (1768-1965)2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the way in which the image of the Sub-Saharan peoples is presented in the schools texts used in Sweden. The concept of ‘educational texts’ includes both used reading books and school texts for teaching geography. This study primarily concentrates on educational texts from 1768 up to 1965.

    The guiding questions of this research are as follows: What are the social factors that have contributed to shaping a certain image of Africans? What kind of messages concerning Africa may be detected in school texts? What type of emphasis can be perceived (in Africa’s discursive field)? What messages emanating from other cultural contexts have led to the elaboration of Swedish texts about Africa? How was the Swedish mental chart about Africa structured? What social identities led to the making of such texts? What type of ‘knowledge’ has been excluded from these school texts?

    The theoretical guidelines that organise this research are founded in Mikhail Bakthin’s critical discourse analysis and dialogism, the socio-semiotics approach and Raymond Williams’ notion of selective tradition. Raymond Williams’ notions of dominant culture transmission indicate that this process is characterised by selectivity of existing knowledge in a given historical period.

    The material has been classified into four periods. The first embraces the period from 1768 to 1850. It is characterised by its emphasis on the cultural differences between Africans and Europeans, who were considered sub-human and civilised, respectively. The second period - 1850 to 1920 - introduced the racial bias into the corpus of school texts. The metonymic language identifies Blacks with inferiority and Whites with superiority. During this period, school texts reproduce without criticism the colonialist’s arguments. The texts are permeated by oppositions of the type ‘we, the civilised’, ‘they, the barbarians’, ‘culture’ vs. ‘non-culture’, ‘religious’ vs. ‘pagans’, etc.

    The third period covers texts from mid-1920s till the end of the 1950s. School texts are impregnated of virulent scientific racism. Craniology and the idea of hereditary racial superiority or inferiority structure the examined texts.

    School texts of these three periods tend to monology and single-emphasis. In the early 1960’s - the last period under examination - witnesses the emergence of texts without racist contents. This period saw the appearance of books providing space for a large variety of voices and their main feature is dialogical. The stress on the difference between ‘them’ and ‘us’ gives way to the ‘similarity’ among cultures. This was the period of the gradual disappearance of such way of thinking that opposes ‘civilisation’ (us) and ‘barbarous’ (them).

    Our research indicates that the processes of selection of school knowledge play a fundamental role in cultural reproduction. The fact of having conceded a privilege position to some knowledge and disregarded others, led to the emergence - for almost 200 years - of a clear object in school discourse: the “alien-inferior-other”.

  • 20.
    Ajagán-Lester, Luis
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Mot en pluritopisk hermeneutik2005In: Text och existens: hermeneutik möter samhällsvetenskap / [ed] Staffan Selander, Per-Johan Ödman, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2005, p. 143-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Luis Ajagán-Lester fokuserar i sin artikel `den andres hermeneutik` - mötet mellan medlemmar av olika kulturer och frågan hur hermeneutiken kan bidra med förståelse av den Andre. Både tolkningar som är baserad på avstånd i tid respektive rum aktualiserar frågan om hur man förstår sig själv genom bilden av den andre/det andra. Den bildade européns slutenhet i sin egen värld har bidragit till hermeneutikens `monotopika` karaktär. Begreppet `takt`framskrivs en central kategori mi mötet med den andre och i utvecklandet av en `pluritopisk`hermeneutik och `polyfon tolkningsprocess`.

  • 21.
    Ajagán-Lester, Luis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Text och etnicitet: en diskussion om texter och etnisk självförståelse1999In: Textanalys: Introduktion till syftesrelaterad kritik, Studentlitteratur, Lund , 1999, p. 121-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Akpinar, Madeleine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Gökmen, Meggi
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Olika skolor- Lika möjligheter?2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår uppsats handlar om hur en invandrartät och icke invandrartät skola arbetar för att förbättra elevernas skolprestationer vad gäller betygen. Då den ena skolan är invandrartät utgör svenska2 och modersmålsundervisningen grunden för deras kunskapsinhämtande. Eftersom denna skola har en hög andel invandrarelever får de också tillägg till grundpengen vilket ger dem större frihet att fördela resurserna inom verksamheten. Den andra skolan, som har få invandrarelever, får däremot inget tillägg till grundpengen trots att även de har elever som är i behov av stöd. Där får skolledningen istället försöka fördela resurserna på bästa vis. Metoden vi använde oss utav var kvantitativ då vi hämtade statistik genom Statistiska Centralbyrån och Skolverket. Den kvantitativa informationen från statistiken har vi tolkat genom intervjuer med rektorer på vardera skolan samt ställt kompletterande frågor till utbildningskontoret i den ena kommunen. Frågorna till utbildningskontoret behövdes för att förklara lite mer detaljerat hur de delar ut resurser till skolorna i den icke invandrartäta kommunen då detta inte kunde besvaras av skolledningen. Dessa intervjuer utgjorde den kvalitativa metoddelen i arbetet. Det vi kom fram till var att skolorna har olika slags problematik att ta itu med och tillvägagångssättet därmed blir annorlunda. Rektorerna på de två skolorna gör allt som står i deras makt för att kunna erbjuda eleverna en så god skolgång som möjligt efter de resurser som de har att fördela.

  • 23.
    Ala i´-Rosales, Shahla
    et al.
    University of North Texas.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    University Training for Behavior Analysts Specializing in Autism Interventions2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing number of children diagnosed with autism and the demand for evidence-based interventions has lead to an increase in the need for well-trained behavior analysts.  There are only a small handful of programs that are accredited by ABAI and have course sequences approved by the BACB.  Even fewer of these programs have formal institutional course approval for classes in autism.  The purpose of this paper is to describe a training summit that was held in September of 2009.  The purpose of the summit was to consider and discuss a wide range of issues involved in higher education and autism intervention and to produce a special volume of the European Journal of Behavior Analysis that would explore these issues.

  • 24.
    Ala í- Rosales, Shahla
    et al.
    University of North Texas.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Pinkelman, Sarah
    University of Oregon.
    Emerging Opportunities in Higher Education: Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism2010In: European Journal of Behavior Analysis, ISSN 1502-1149, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 207-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The growing number of children diagnosed with autism and the recognized importance of evidence-based interventions has substantially increased the need for well-trained applied behavior analysts. Relative to public/consumer demand, there are very few higher education programs that are equipped to train behavior analysts specializing in autism. Worldwide, there are only a few programs accredited by Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI), that have course sequences approved by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB), and have formal institutional course approval for classes in autism and behavior analysis. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a series of expert commentary on the context, content and systems required to build quality higher education programs in autism and applied behavior analysis. Together the articles in this special section of the European Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis form a resource for faculty and university administrators interested in the development of innovative and socially relevant training programs in higher education.

  • 25.
    Alameddine, Josefine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Att 'simma' i hela sin personlighet": En genuskritisk diskursanalys om subjektivitet och kön, av ett urval texter om Reggio Emilia-filosofin2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats avser att studera framskrivningar om kön och barns subjektivitet, utifrån en samling texter som beskriver Reggio Emilia-filosofin och dess pedagogik. Med feministisk poststrukturalism och diskursanalys som teori och metod har jag i texterna sökt efter bland annat representationer, och utifrån dessa skrivit fram diskurser om barns subjektivitet respektive barn som könade subjekt. I materialet betonas en helhetssyn på barn, där barnet ses som ett kompetent, medskapande och unikt subjekt – men studien visar också att flickor och pojkar som generaliserade grupper beskrivs som delvis olika, och att denna antagna olikhet ger anledning till exempelvis gruppindelning efter kön. Dessa framställningar uppfattar jag stå i spänningsförhållande till varandra: diskursen om barn som könade kan förstås som begränsande för vad som ryms i diskursen om barns subjektivitet. Fokusering på olikhet mellan könen kan spåras till dels ett inom Reggio Emilia-filosofin värnande av just ”värdet” olikhet och dels en tanke om denna könsliga olikhet som något delvis inneboende hos barnen – en slags essens – som så att säga kommer före det relationella, kontextuella. Denna essentialistiska syn på könsligt bundna egenskaper förefaller stå i kontradiktoriskt förhållande till Reggio Emiliafilosofins betonande av individens unika subjektivitet. Studien gör gällande att denna olikhet, avseende kön, inte problematiseras i merparten av mitt material – men att det samtidigt tycks finnas en slags motdiskurs som gör detta problematiserande.

  • 26.
    Aldskogius, Suzanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Persson, Katja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Play Time/Social Time: ett sätt att främja inkludering i svensk förskola?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that children in need of special support do not participate in play with peers to the same extent as their peers and therefore risk missing important parts of their development, such as interaction and participation. The purpose of this study was to examine opportunities and possible barriers in the application of the evidence-based program Playtime / Social Time, as a method to develop social skills and interaction in the play of children with special educational needs and their peers, using a peer-mediated approach. The study highlights a socio-cultural perspective where learning and development takes place through interaction with others. The empirical data were collected through four observations in two inclusive pre-school classes with XX children aged 3-5, and through five focus conversations with two preschool teachers during 5 weeks, when the application of some program activities was carried out by the teachers in their classes. One prominent result shows that preschool teachers welcomes the use of an evidence-based material to practice play and interaction with the children. The teachers believe that it would benefit all children on many levels. Another perceived benefit of the program is that it contributes to making play and play skills visible for teachers and children and give support in considering play as a democratic right for children. An issue, which the participants acknowledge they have to think more about, concerns if and how peers would be motivated to be role models in the play situation. The focus of the discussion lies in the result of the importance of the environment for social encounters and on the importance of the role of peers in the program.

  • 27.
    Aldskogius, Suzanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Persson, Katja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Play Time/Social Time: Ett sätt att främja inkludering i svensk förskola?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Alexandersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundh, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    ”Men jag är ju den där förlorade generationen…(skratt)” - Äldres erfarenheter och upplevelser av delaktighet, datorer och IT2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a natural part of many people's everyday life today. At the same time the risk of digital divides are highlighted by several community agencies in society. One of the risk groups mentioned here are elderly people, risking of falling behind and also to be left out the whole democratic process, because of lack of access to or knowledge of computers and the Internet. The aim of this study is to highlight elderly people's experiences of computers and IT and their participation and involvement in the IT society of today. The study is inspired by the ethnographic method and has a perspective of Social constructionism in which age can be understood as a social created category. The empirical material is based on six interviews with elderly people taking a computer course for beginners, as well as participant observations carried out during the computer course. It appears in the result, that a feeling of being forced is connected to keeping up with the technological development in our society, which can be stressful and frustrating. At the same time the informants feels that it is important to “keep up” with the society, and a curiosity is expressed towards technology. Informants learn computers in an active way. Meaningfulness in learning the computer is seen in everyday life as to maintain contact with grandchildren, search for information and to manage on your own. At the time, an underlying view of themselves and others exist, where the age is given importance in that it is harder to learn when you are old, or that older teachers are preferred since they have more understanding. In contrast to this it is expressed that good teachers will not depend on age, and those in the informants surroundings that supports them are usually young.

  • 29.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Byråkrati, marknad eller lotteri?: Organisation och styrning av utbildning: effekter och risker för specialpedagogiska verksamheter2009In: Offentlig sektor och komplexitet: Om hantering av mål, strategier och professioner / [ed] Petra Adolfsson och Rolf Solli, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, p. 199-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Emerging themes in the meeting between teachers and parents: when the children have special needs disabilites or are at risk2011In: Educazione familiare e servizi per l'infanzia: Education familiale et services pour l'enfance. XIII Congresso Internazionale. Firenze, 17-19 novembre 2010 / [ed] Catarsi, Enzo; Pourtois, Jean Pierre, Firenze: Firenze University Press , 2011, p. 99-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Relations characterised by collaboration and alliance between staff and parents of children with particular needs, experiencing developmental challenges or disabilities are necessary conditions of a favourable educational situation. Several studies testimony the protective role of positive educational experiences for children at risk, but the educational experiences of these children are not always satisfactory and propitious for their future development. Studies on the experiences of the meetings between parents and educational staff describe which difficulties may arise in the form of conflicts, communication problems, loss of trust and reciprocal devaluation and critique. The meetings between families and the services are not just personal encounters; they are also influenced by the characteristics and structures of the surrounding educational context. The themes emerging from several studies can be related for instance to the fight for the support and the resources, and to the definition of the child’s needs, potential and of what is the best for the child. The analysis and reflection on these themes and their motives should help the teachers to understand and prevent these risks, changing the responses to the parents adequately.

  • 31.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Goals and values in school: A model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments2010In: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 207-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence; they are hypothesised to be structured in a circular model. The contents are defined and related to existing theories and research in education, special education, educational psychology and sociology, on the basis of reviews of literature. The model underlies the Goals, Attitudes and Values in School questionnaire, developed to assess the characteristics ofeducational settings. The model can be a practical tool in understanding and appreciating differences between learning environments in research and assessment and it could represent a guideline for interventions aimed to analyse and improve the social climate of learning environments.

  • 32.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Lärarens val: att göra motstånd mot en förtryckande organisation eller mot elever som inte passar in2010In: Pedagogik som motstånd / [ed] Gunilla Alba & Ylva Wibaeus, Stockholm: Svenska Korczaksällskapet , 2010, 1, p. 77-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att få möjlighet att utbilda sig är en grundläggande mänsklig rättighet. Skolan ska bidra till att barnets personlighet samt fysiska och mentala förmågor utvecklas till dess fulla potential. Men när är skolan verkligen en rättighet och när blir den i stället en belastning för barnet? Kapitlet analyserar villkoren för att utbildningen ska upplevas som en rättighet av alla elever och hinder som finns på vägen dit, samt reflekterar kring vad det kan innebära för lärarna att välja att ta ansvar för sina elever.

  • 33.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Perché dare voce alle esperienze dei bambini a scuola e perché no: Motivi e sfide per la ricerca pedagogica2009In: Infanzia Rivista di studi ed esperienze sull'educazione 0-6, ISSN 0390-2420, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 269-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational research is concerned with the observation and understanding of the experiences of children. Listening to the voices of children is a necessary enterprise in educational research. However, the practice of this activity is connected with obstacles and challenges. This paper describes the nature of some of these difficulties and identify the need of self-reflection.

  • 34.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    The experiences of mental health and well-being of Swedish children and youth with a focus on educational situations: Some results and reflections from a review of qualitative studies2010In: Trender i barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa: Program & abstracts 12-14 april 2010, Stockholm: Kungliga vetenskapsakademien , 2010, p. 17-18Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of including in reviews people’s experiences and perceptions, which are collected with non-experimental and qualitative studies, has been developed recently in the field of mental health studies. These approaches and methodologies have inspired the review of research on Swedish children and adolescents experiences of mental health and well being, with a focus on their educational situation, that was conducted as a part of a systematic review of research on School Learning and Mental health, performed by appointment of the Royal Academy of Sciences. The aim of the review was to gather testimonies that can give indications of the experiences of mental health and well being in this specific context. The results from the studies that were relevant for the aims of the review are structured in four themes: general views, protective factors, risk factors, individual factors. They are presented in a narrative synthesis, giving a particular weight to the direct and indirect report of children’s and adolescents’ own views. The adolescents defined mental health as emotional experiences, seen both as internal feelings and as relational feelings. Family, friends and educational environments as social and physical environments were perceived as determinants of mental health. A great number of feelings were related to school, both related to satisfaction and pain, in particular when the school attendance is presented as an obligation. Harassment and rejection at school, performance stress, worries about grades and future prospects could be threats against self-worth and self-esteem, while teachers that do not care could generate negative experiences. Various kind of stress could be described and various strategies to resist stressful situations: for instance emotional support, safety and involvement. The educational environments can be an arena for social, cognitive and emotional experiences, relationships and accomplishments that are enriching the individuals and increase their well being. General structural characteristics of the educational environments may also affect well being in different directions: performance, evaluation and feedback, freedom of choice and responsibility for the future may be perceived as a burden. The following reflections can be made: the experiences of children and adolescents change when they grow older, go through developmental processes and encounter different educational situations; the studies reporting views of younger children on the matters of this review were less well represented; the negative experiences may be expressed in rather cautious and non dramatic terms by younger children; there are unique contribution of the review of qualitative studies, but also several interesting correspondences with the results of the review of quantitative studies.

  • 35.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    The meaning of social climate of learning environments: some reasons why we do not care enough about it.2010In: Learning Environments Research, ISSN 1387-1579, E-ISSN 1573-1855, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 89-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse reasons underlying the neglect of social climate in education. It discusses the relevance of the concept of social climate in learning environments: presenting evidence of its effects; its importance in special needs and inclusive education; presenting existing differences between settings; discussing the contribution of social climate to teachers’ professional autonomy. The arguments support the view that social climate is an essential factor in educational processes and make incomprehensible the scarce attention reserved to it in educational policy, research and teacher programs. Indications of neglect in the Swedish context are presented. The resistance towards the concept of social climate is related to a) dualistic and hierarchic views; b) characteristics of bureaucratic systems; c) reductionist interpretations; d) difficulties in handling and evaluating social values and goals; e) post-modern criticism of scientific knowledge and psychology. Implications for counteracting reductive interpretations and meeting resistance and criticism are discussed.

  • 36.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Fischbein, Siv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Job engagement and perceptions of work environment in Swedish junior-high school teachers2009In: Theory construction and multivariate analysis: Applications of Facet approach, Bar-Ilan University: FTA Publications , 2009, p. 231-241Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Alm, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Persson, Maha
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Påtvingade brytpunkter i karriären: Ny väg - nya möjligheter?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att undersöka hur påtvingade brytpunkter, i detta fall nedläggning av en arbetsplats, upplevdes och vilka möjligheter individerna såg inför sina fortsatta karriärval. Den metod som användes var av kvalitativ art med ostrukturerade intervjufrågor riktat till sex respondenter som befann sig i samma situation. Resultatet visade att trots att de flesta respondenter kände chock och ilska när beskedet kom, så upplevde de ett år senare situationen som mer hanterbar och hade börjat strukturera i både tankar och handling vilka alternativ man såg som möjliga och åtkomliga. De slutsatser vi drog var att individens egen motivation har spelat stor roll och beslut som tagits har utgått ifrån den kontext man befunnit sig i. Flera var aktiva i sitt sökande efter nya möjligheter till sysselsättning och kunde med lite distans se denna oförutsedda händelse som ett tillfälle i livet att utifrån ett intresse finna en ny karriär.

    The purpose with the degree project was to investigate how forced turning points, in this case company closure, were experienced and what opportunities individuals could see concerning their continuous career choices. Method used was of qualitative kind with unstructured interview questions aimed to six respondents´ being in the same situation. Despite most of respondents´ feelings of chock and anger when information was recieved, the result proved one year later they experienced the situation as manageable and had started to structure in both thoughts and actions different possibilities and reachable alternatives. Conclusions made were in fact that the individual’s own motivation had made a big difference and decisions made were taken considering the context of their lives. Most of the respondents were active in seeking after new possibilities to occupation and were able to with some perspective see this unforeseen turning point as an opportunity in life to find a new career based on their interest.

  • 38.
    Almroth, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Knuts, Anette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    ”Man måste kriga för att få bra betyg”: En kvalitativ studie om elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter och deras upplevelser av betygsystemet i Lgr11 med fokus på ämnet svenska2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska skolan har genom historien haft flera olika betygssystem. 1994 infördes mål- och kriterierelaterade betyg och 2011 fick Sverige en ny läroplan Lgr11. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur elever, vilka är i läs- och skrivsvårigheter, i årskurs 6-9 upplever kunskapskraven, bedömningsprocess och betygssättning enligt Lgr11 i ämnet svenska. Arbetet byggdes på fokusgruppsintervjuer med totalt 15 elever, verksamma vid en grundskola i Mellansverige våren 2016.  

    Studien har en fenomenologisk ansats där vi genom halvstrukturerade fokusgruppintervjuer ville ta reda på hur elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter upplevde kunskapskraven samt bedömningsprocessen enligt Lgr11. De teoretiska perspektiv som har använts för att analysera vårt empiriska material är Husserls livsvärldsteori, det situerade perspektivet på lärande och bedömning samt det relationella perspektivet på specialpedagogik. Resultatet visar att eleverna upplever att betyget är viktigt för sin framtid och de ser det som ett kvitto på sitt lärande. Vidare lägger eleverna det största ansvaret för sitt betyg på sig själva och de upplever nuvarande betygsystem som svårt att förstå. Vi ser också att de uttrycker en osäkerhet kring vilka kunskaper som bedöms i skolan. Eleverna ger också uttryck för upplevelser av oro, besvikelse, stress, uppgivenhet, vanmakt, ilska, osmarthet och glädje. Vår tolkning av resultatet är att eleverna upplever att lärarnas bedömningspraktik och läroplanens kunskapskrav kan utgöra hinder för dem i sin strävan att nå ett högre betyg.

  • 39.
    Al-Naib, Zahra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Blomgren, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Hagström, Tåve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    "Närmare varandra": - hur den fysiska lärmiljön kan främja delaktighet och acceptans2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utformandet av våra klassrum och fysiska lärmiljöer har i stort sett varit detsamma i flera hundra år, trots att villkoren och syftet med undervisningen har förändrats. För att “en skola för alla” verkligen ska kunna tillgodose allas rätt till likvärdig utbildning måste delaktigheten öka i den pedagogiska, sociala och fysiska lärmiljön. Denna studie tar till vara specialpedagogikens tvärvetenskapliga ambitioner och har för avsikt att få en ökad förståelse för hur vi i skolan kan ändra de traditionella klassrummen och göra dem mer inkluderande. Vi lutar oss också mot Vygotskij och den sociokulturella teorin samt det relationella perspektivet. Studien kommer att svara på hur elever och lärare upplever att deras klassrum främjar delaktighet och vad det har för betydelse. I detta arbete har vi i forskning samt med en etnografiskt inspirerad forskningsansats undersökt hur alternativa fysiska lärmiljöer kan främja ökad delaktighet. Vi presenterar forskning kring delaktighet och lärmiljöer, och lyfter de hinder och framgångsfaktorer som framkommer där. Vi har tolkat observationer, fokusgruppssamtal och enskilda intervjuer. I våra resultat blev tre teman tydliga: Samspel, gemenskap och relationer; Arbetsro och motivation samt Acceptans av olikheter. Alla teman leder till begreppet delaktighet, varav det sista temat är det med störst specialpedagogisk relevans. Resultaten bekräftar att de elever och lärare som hade tillgång till ett klassrum med alternativ lärmiljö upplever att detta främjar delaktigheten, både den pedagogiska och den sociala. De alternativa fysiska lärmiljöerna är mer flexibla och inkluderande och erbjuder eleverna anpassningar utan att dessa blir utmärkande. Vidare framkommer att lärarna reflekterar mer över sin undervisning och sitt ledarskap i dessa miljöer, samt att de alternativa lärmiljöerna generellt bidrar till en känsla av arbetsro, kreativitet, sammanhållning och acceptans för olikheter, samt att man kommer närmare varandra på olika plan.

  • 40.
    Anderberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Johander, Johanna
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    ...så kom det ena ordet efter det andra: Att lära svenska som andraspråk med hjälp av skapande verksamhet.2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Den teoretiska bakgrunden bygger på de i litteraturen tydliga grundstenarna för andraspråksinlärning, vilka är varierad undervisning, tryggt klassrumsklimat, kulturella variationer, behov och motivation. Dessutom har samtalets betydelse för andraspråksinlärning lyfts fram och huruvida skapande verksamhet bidrar till samtal mellan eleverna. Syftet med studien var att göra en jämförande studie mellan tidigare forskning och verksamma pedagogers uppfattningar angående vilka faktorer som upplevs viktiga vid svenska som andraspråksinlärning. Dessutom ville vi undersöka huruvida skapande verksamhet stimulerar till samtal och om det därmed kan underlätta svenska som andraspråksinlärning. Studien grundade sig på intervjuer som gjordes i en grundskola för yngre åldrar i ett mångkulturellt område. Tio pedagoger, alla med någon form av intresse för skapande, intervjuades. Sju pedagoger intervjuades i fokusgrupper, medan tre pedagoger intervjuades enskilt. Resultatet visade att respondenterna upplever följande faktorer som viktiga vid svenska som andraspråksinlärning: gemenskap, glädje, varierande undervisning, att det finns ett behov att lära sig det nya språket, att det finns elever med svenska som modersmål att samtala med, en lyhörd och flexibel pedagog samt kulturella aspekter i undervisningssituationen. Vidare ansåg respondenterna att det är en självklarhet, och en naturlig del av skoldagen, att använda sig av samtal vid svenska som andraspråksinlärning. Åtta av tio respondenter upplevde att skapande verksamhet är en bra metod för att få igång samtal i klassen. De övriga två menade att skapande verksamhet i samband med samtal inte var en bra kombination. Den ena ansåg att bildämnet i sig var så viktigt att eleverna borde koncentrera sig på enbart det och inte samtala med varandra. Den andra tyckte att eleverna inte kunde samtala samtidigt som de slöjdade utan att situationen spårade ur. Slutsatsen är att det inte enbart är många olika undervisningsmetoder som behövs, utan hänsyn vid inlärningen måste också tas till en mäng faktorer. Dessa innefattar allt ifrån elevernas livssituation, bakgrund och erfarenheter till skolverksamheten samt de pedagoger och klasskamrater de möter där. När det gäller undervisningsmetoder måste dock förtydligas att skapande verksamhet, som vi belyser i denna studie, enbart är en av många metoder som bör användas för att nå ut till alla elever.

    The theoretical background is based on several factors in the literature which were of importance for second language education. These factors are various teaching, a positive atmosphere in the classroom, cultural influences, needs and motivation. Furthermore links between conversation and second language education were in focus, and even so relations between conversation and handicraft. The purpose of the study was to compare earlier science with pedagogues’ experiences regarding which factors that is of importance while learning Swedish as a second language. Furthermore we wanted to examine if creative activity, as handicraft and art, stimulates to conversation and if it makes it easier to learn Swedish as a second language. The study is based on interviews with pedagogues in a multicultural compulsory school for children in the age of 6 to 11. Ten pedagogues, all with some kind of interest in handicrafts, were interviewed, seven of them in groups and three of them individually. The pedagogues we interviewed experienced these following factors as important for learning Swedish as a second language: solidarity, joy, various teaching, for the pupils own use, classmates with Swedish as mother tongue, a open minded and flexible pedagogue, cultural influences. Furthermore, conversations as a method of learning Swedish as a second language are seen, by the pedagogues, as natural part of the day in school. Eight of the ten pedagogues experienced creative activity as a good method to encourage the pupils to converse with each other. One of the two other pedagogues who did not agree with the eight others thought that art, as a subject, is so important that the pupil only should concentrate on their performance. The other one stated that the classroom situation would be uncontrollable if the pupils converse at the same time as they are creative. As a conclusion, a pedagogue has to use a lot of different education methods, and need to keep in mind factors as pupils’ life situation, background and experiences but also the school as an institution, and all the people the pupil meet there. When it comes to education methods we have to clarify that creative activity is only one of many methods the pedagogue could use to reach all the pupils.

  • 41.
    Anderhag, Per
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Den svårformulerade evolutionen: gränssnittets och innehållets betydelse för de meningar om evolutionen som erbjuds användaren av tre digitala läromedel i biologi2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Andersson, Tommy
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Specialpedagogen som intern handledare i en skol- och förskoleorganisation2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En av specialpedagogens arbetsuppgifter kan vara som intern handledare i en skol- eller förskoleorganisation. Syftet med vårt examensarbete är att undersöka hur specialpedagoger beskriver sina upplevelser och uppfattningar av att vara intern handledare i en skol- eller förskoleorganisation. I vår studie har vi intervjuat åtta specialpedagoger och en speciallärare som handleder kollegor som en del i sitt arbete. Vi har använt en metod med halvstrukturerade frågor. Specialpedagogerna kommer från förskolor, grundskolor, gymnasieskolor och en särskola i Stockholms län. I resultatet har vi i en kvalitativ analys tittat efter dominerande mönster i specialpedagogernas uppfattningar och upplevelser. Dessa mönster har vi delat in i teman. Resultatet visar att specialpedagogerna har ett otydligt handledaruppdrag av skolledningen som bygger på att pedagoger frivilligt efterfrågar handledning. Specialpedagogerna upplever sig ha dubbla roller i organisationen på grund av ansvarsuppgifter. Specialpedagogerna har mandat av sina kollegor att tillhandahålla och leda handledning. De flesta specialpedagoger upplever att de har erfarenheter av etiska dilemman i rollen som intern handledare när det gäller information, när de handleder kollegor som de har nära vänskapsrelationer med och att skolorganisationen inte tillhandahåller regelbunden handledning på handledning. Specialpedagogernas handledning sker ofta i form av individuell rådgivning där de oftast förekommande gemensamma överenskommelserna gäller tid och sekretess. Specialpedagogerna hävdar att de har en teoretisk grund i sin handledning men brister i att precisera vilken. Specialpedagogerna menar att andra arbetsuppgifter i organisationen ofta har en positiv inverkan på rollen som intern handledare.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education. Stockholm University.
    Stenberg, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education. Stockholm University.
    Att anpassa undervisningen efter individens förutsättningar och behov: en studie om individualisering och individanpassning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med denna studie är att lyfta fram hur specialpedagoger och klasslärare arbetar med individualisering och individanpassning för alla elever och tydliggöra vilka strategier yrkesgrupperna använder sig av för att individualisera och individanpassa. I Lpo 94 står det att: ”Undervisningen skall anpassas till varje elevs förutsättningar och behov” (s.4). Genom att ha gjort sju kvalitativa intervjuer, med fyra specialpedagoger och tre klasslärare, och studerat olika författares teorier om individualisering har vi försökt att se över goda strategier i att individualisera och även problematiserat dem. Goda strategier som framkom var bland annat att arbeta multisensoriskt, se över elevens styrkor samt att ha tillgång och använda sig av rätt hjälpmedel. Genom ledande frågor har vi undersökt ifall författarnas teorier förekommer i pedagogernas arbete, vilket de gjort i olika former. Resultat visar på att individualisering ger möjligheten att nå alla elever, men att denna möjlighet påverkas av bland annat gruppstorlek, ekonomi och tid. Vi ville också se ifall det finns resurser för att individualisera för alla elever i den kommunala skolan eller om det behövs specifika skolor för exempelvis elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter och dyslexi. Utifrån denna studie kom vi fram till att resurserna finns, men att det handlar om att förvalta dem rätt.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Bengt-Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Human Development, Learning and Special Education .
    Strander, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Human Development, Learning and Special Education .
    Framtiden blev vår: 101 sjuttiotalister följda under sina 25 första år2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska barn har det generellt sett mycket bra. Ändå vet vi att en del individer drabbas av större sårbarhet och sämre utveckling. Går det att identifiera vilka faktorer under barns och ungdomars uppväxt det är som verkar uppbyggande repktive nedbrytande? Vilken betydelse har förskolan och skolan? Familjeförhållanden? I denna andra rapport fokuserar författarna på 101 barns utvecklingsgång under hela livsperioden 1-25 år och utvecklingsprocessens betydelse för dem som unga vuxna.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Bengt-Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Human Development, Learning and Special Education .
    Strander, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Human Development, Learning and Special Education .
    Skolan, familjen och framtiden: social sårbarhet hos unga2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur går det i livet för unga människor som upplevt misslyckanden i skolan? I denna första rapport från FABASKO-projektet analyseras enkätmaterial från en stor grupp 25-åringar. Ungdomarna besvarade första gången enkäter när de var 18 år gamla och gick på gymnsiet.

    Syftet är att få en bild av hur dessa unga vuxna anpassat sig till sin vuxenroll och till samhällets krav på dem. Författarna försöker också ta reda på om vissa av dem kan antas vara mer utsatta än andra och se vad som karaktäriserar denna grupp.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Rådjur och raketer: Gatukonst som estetisk produktion och kreativ praktik i det offentliga rummet2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyse the visual expressions of Street Art that occurs in the public space, and by doing so, to study this specifi c practice, and also elucidate the relation between public space as a democratic idea, a place for freedom of speech and as a planned, aesthetically shaped place. The intention is to throw light upon a central part of many young peoples lives in a didactic aspect. In this thesis I discuss Street Art as an informal image making in public space that young people use as tools to make meaning, but also as a form of resistance. The methodologies used in the study are ethnography and visual ethnography, where observational studies of Street Art as practice, interviews and interpretation of photographs (my own, and my informants) are performed and analysed. Theoretically, the study has a didactic and semiotic approach but I also rely on Cultural Studies as a research fi eld in order to be able to pick up different kinds of theories. From three platforms; public space and public place and places for Street Art, aesthetic learning processes within this specifi c practice, and fi nally the expanded fi eld of Art and the similarities and differences between formal Art and Street Art I have outlined four themes; ephemerality, the criteria for Street Art practice, how the work is being done, as a collective and individual practice, the struggle of space in public space, and fi nally high and low in Art and culture. By describing and analysing this informal image making light is thrown upon the aesthetic learning process that occurs, the didactic aspect of this practice and the communication that the images articulate. As a result, the study shows that Street Art, in spite of its illegal mark, points out that it is an aesthetic production and a creative practice that consists of resistance, meaning making, achieving knowledge through practice, and above all a way to use the city, to become a part of the city. The thesis contributes with the suggestion that this informal aesthetic learning process is a way to form identity, make meaning, take part of public space, and through symbolic resistance demand ones rights of expression.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Dan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Folkbibliotek makt och disciplinering: En genealogisk studie av folkbiblioteksområdet under den organiserade moderniteten2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focusing of the Swedish public library as an institution for general education during the period of 1910 to 1990. The aim is to enhance the knowledge of the construction of the Swedish citizen during the organized modernity.  What were the functions of the educational efforts characterizing public library, what procedures, technologies and techniques were in use´, how did they govern and what was the inherent impact of the citizen? With inspiration from the work of Michel Foucault the library discourse have been examined from a genealogical perspective illuminating discursive and non-discursive apparatuses, technologies and relations of power within the public library practices. The public library activities were organized hierarchic, giving the national library the overall responsibility for strategic activities, thus governing regional and local libraries to form localities, book collections, methods for studies considered appropriate for people. The local libraries´ responsibility was to offer the citizens appropriate books and methods for general studies. Bio-power technologies and disciplinary techniques, such as panoptical, expert strategies and central governing are in use. Limited selections, exclusions, rating based on hierarchical principles, governing on distance, self-regulation are the most important and common not only within the field of public library but in society as a whole.  Thus, forming an active and accountable citizen that is capable of making choices, recurrently willing to reconstruct herself by studies and consumption of books. The conclusion is that this citizen, consuming knowledge and high culture, corresponds well to the requirements of the modern society.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Fia
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Human Development, Learning and Special Education(LHS).
    Att utmana erfarenheter: Kunskapsutveckling i en forskningscirkel2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims at describing and analysing the process and content in knowledge development within a research circle. The participants in this circle are seven teachers who work with multilingual children diagnosed within the autism spectrum, and me as a researcher.

    The study is conducted within the tradition of participatory-oriented research. The research issue concerns the questions these teachers ask themselves in their everyday work. The study, consisting of twelve meetings, was carried out during 2004-2005. In the final meeting material collected in the circle was analysed together by all participants. The knowledge-content analysis disclosed four main themes: mother-tongue issues, disabilities and diagnoses, the issue of frames and matters related to working with parents and other professionals. The results show that once a child is diagnosed within the autism spectrum the diagnosis “takes over” and mother-tongue instruction is seldom discussed.

    The participants in the circle found it difficult to collaborate with the various authorities involved in working with a child and its family. They also found it difficult to communicate with parents, due to language barriers, different cultural contexts, and the observation that interpreters did not translate properly. The participants noted an existing hierarchy in relation to doctors and psychologists, regarded as having the mandate to assess a child’s ability and suggest placement in class.

    A conclusion is that the work of the teachers entails a high degree of complexity, and that knowledge meetings and collaboration between parents, teachers, and the various authorities are needed. During the circle process emancipating collective knowledge was constructed transcending what any participant had from the start. Experiences discussed in continuing dialogues, and in an on-going process, seem to be essential for generation of knowledge. When experiences were challenged, potentials for different actions were revealed.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Det osynliga har blivit synligt - att bringa klarhet2010In: Etik i specialpedagogisk verksamhet / [ed] Rolf Helldin, Birgitta Sahlin, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 175-188Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Andersson, Fia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Rivera, Trinidad
    Längby-Grubb, Kristina
    Barn och elever med funktionsnedsättning och utländsk bakgrund: Mångfaldsfrågor och specialpedagogik2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1234567 1 - 50 of 1990
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