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  • 1.
    Ablhad, Reem
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Ny teknik i förskolan: En netnografisk studie kring iPad-projekt i tio kommuner i Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Ahlström, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lesant, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    ”Barnen är ju redan där, de är ju hur nyfikna och intresserade som helst”: IKT i förskolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka vilka faktorer som är avgörande när det gäller implementering av IKT i förskolan samt hur arbetet med IKT kan integreras på ett kreativt sätt i den pedagogiska verksamheten. För att försöka ta reda på detta har vi genomfört en kvalitativ studie där vi intervjuat medie/IKT-pedagoger för att kunna ta del av deras tankar och erfarenheter. Resultatet visar att ledning och chefer som satsar på och prioriterar IKT är en viktig aspekt. Att tid avsätts för regelbundna reflektionstillfällen är av mycket stor betydelse för att kunna utveckla arbetet med IKT, ett arbete som måste förstås som en ständigt pågående process. Medutforskande pedagoger med ett nyfiket och öppet förhållningssätt är en avgörande faktor för att IKT ska integreras på ett kreativt sätt i förskolans verksamhet. Studien visar även på vikten av att barn ges möjlighet att utveckla digital kompetens för att kunna vara delaktiga i ett digitalt samhälle.

  • 3.
    Aldén, Mona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Design och meningsskapande i förskolan: En multimodal designteoretisk studie av fyra lärandesammanhang kring matematik2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's purpose was, based on a design theoretical multimodal approach to describe, analyze and interpret how three preschool teachers design learning contexts, on the subject of mathematics. Besides, this was also the aim to gain insight on how context of learning designs could be understood and interpreted in terms of learning and meaning. The method I chose was built around a non-participating video observation with a qualitative approach where the goal was to try to understand what took place through the relevant interpretations. The results and conclusions that emerged was that the preschool teachers used a variety of semiotic resources in the form of physical tools along with facial expressions, voice and gestures in their communication with the children. Moreover, it appeared that the children also used a number of different semiotic resources in their work of creating meaning around the different learning situations, designed by the preschool educators, they participated in. It also became clear that the children's previous experiences had a significant role as they also used past experiences as a tool in the meaning-making process.

  • 4.
    Alexandersson-From, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Miladi, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hur beskriver studenter lärares bedömning?: Vad kan lärarstudenten som VFU-handledaren inte kan?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärare använder sig av allt från summativ bedömning och fingertoppskänsla till beprövad didaktisk erfarenhet och formativ bedömning, när elevers kunskaper ska bedömas. Forskning visar att den största framgången för elevers lärande och kunskapsutveckling sker då formativ bedömning används.

    Syftet med denna studie är att studera hur blivande lärarstudenter beskriver lärares bedömningspraktiker under den verksamhetsförlagda utbildningen. Vad upplever studenterna i praktiken av lärares bedömning jämfört med teorin från lärarutbildningen?

    Det empiriska materialet, bestående av 18 examinationsuppgifter från lärarstudenter i Didaktik II, sammanställs och tolkas med inspiration utifrån det hermeneutiska tankesättet. Studenttexterna tolkas utifrån de begrepp som studenterna enligt examinationsuppgiften förväntades att studera från sin VFU- verksamhet. Det empiriska materialet beskrivs, analyseras och resultatet jämförs i relation till forskningsfrågorna.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att lärare inte alltid gör som de säger samt att studenterna visar att de ännu inte helt erövrat den praktiska erfarenheten, som en lång lärarpraktik innebär. Studenterna har emellertid med sig de senaste teorierna om bedömning av och för elevers lärande och kunskapsutveckling. Denna studie visar att en viss diskrepans tycks råda mellan teori och praktik.

  • 5.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Decline, Crisis and Turnaround in the Swedish School Market:: the case of a school that has come through2013In: Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    he principles of New Public Management (Adcroft & Willis, 2005, Deifenbach, 2008) have inspired educational reforms in Sweden during the last 20 years with the introduction of a large array of reforms: educational standards, national assessments, new grading system, accountability, vouchers, independent schools, school inspectorate (Allodi, in press, NAE, 2013). One of the assumptions is that the schools will perform better if they are exposed to concurrence from other schools, through the parents’ free choice of school. The system requires therefore that inspectorate reports and various measures of school performance are made publicly available. Measures of students’ achievements, grades, qualification rates, are included in the accountability system, while measures of school performance on other shared educational goals, as inclusiveness, fairness and equity, are usually not considered.  It is inevitable that some schools will be identified as low performers, or as performing less well than expected - in models that take account of school composition. The models employed in the Swedish school accountability system, however, do not take account of students with special educational needs and/or disabilities. Schools that recruit large numbers of disadvantaged students or that recruit students with special educational needs from the whole districts to special units, risk getting lower results than expected, may get consequently a bad reputation and eventually smaller numbers of students, which may conduce to economic trouble and budget cuts. Schools like these may be penalized and risk ending up in a situation of demoralization and crisis (Allodi, in press).The school’s organizational climate has been identified as a factor that influences school performance and students’ well being and results (Rutter & Maughan, 2002; Leithwood, 2011). The aim of the intervention program Social climate participation and learning was to sustain changes in the schools’ organizational climate, by mean of activities for the staff as workshops, evaluations and planning, in collaboration with a researcher. The broad theoretical framework of the intervention includes theories of learning environments, universal human needs and values (Allodi, 2007, 2010 a, 2010b, Schwartz, 1995), organizational  learning and change (Mintzberg, 1983, Senge, 1995, Kaplan , 2007). The changes were expected to make the school more equitable and inclusive, increasing the number of students that were qualified to secondary education, and also to raise the average qualification value of the students and their well-being. Pinehill school was one of the two schools that participated in the program. Pinehill school is a junior public high school with about 300 students located in a suburban municipality, in a neighborhood of about 16 thousand inhabitants. The employment rate in the area is about 84 % and 17 % of the population have an immigrant background. Pinehill school has a district commissioned special unit for students with special educational needs. The situation of the school at the beginning and some of the development and changes that occurred and were manifested at Pinehill school during three years are described and analyzed in this paper.

    The study is a case study of a school participating in a program aimed to change the school's organizational climate and performance. The school was recruited through the person in charge for development in the district, who identified it as a school in decline, a school that needed support to start a change. The principals, the teachers, the students and their parents were informed about the program and could avoid participating. The design of the program was approved by the regional ethical committee. The program adopted an approach that combined elements of research diffusion development and evidence-based practices. The key principles were: information on theories and research on social climate and supportive relationships in learning environments, evaluations of students’ experiences, reflection and analysis, flexible adaptations to local issues, long-term, sustainable development. The study has a mixed methods approach (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2010) and analyzes the data collected within the school during a three-year period. The data about the school organization and performance was collected through teacher surveys (organizational climate) student surveys (school climate) participation to meetings and workshops, and includes documents, reports, available official school statistics from the NAE, and the Swedish School Inspectorate.When the program started in Autumn 2009, Pine Hill school was in decline. After a period the crisis accentuated due to internal and external factors. Several developments and changes were introduced in the school organization during the following years. Pine Hill made a turnaround: the school has the best average qualification value among the municipal schools in the district and has consistently reduced the achievement gap between girls and boys. The students have better perceptions of the social climate (creativity, safety, helpfulness, participation and influence). At Pine Hill all the subjects are considered important and the esthetic-practical activities are highly valued. The students' number has increased, which make it possible to recruit new teachers. The mission of inclusive education and participation is important for the staff and they are involved in several new research projects. Besides the special unit for students with special educational needs Pine Hill plans to give place to recently immigrated students, a new commission from the school district. Nevertheless, a recent report of the Inspectorate found reason to yet give criticism to several aspects of the school functioning. The changes and development are analyzed and related to research and theories of organizational change.

  • 6.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Linikko, Jari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Learning technologies and special educational needs: a liiterature review of empirical research2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning technologies are used in educational settings as tools to communicate, design learning environments, and stimulate learning processes. Many of these tools are applied in the field of special educational needs.  We have identified several types of applications that have been reported in scientific international journals as technology-enhanced learning, augmentative and alternative communication, computer-assisted instruction,  interventions with computer-based games, multi-user virtual environment  (as virtual case, visualization and simulation activities), web-based inquiry learning, computer-supported collaborative learning, application software, digital literacy, learning platforms, e- learning and mobile learning. These developments in the field of learning technologies should be introduced in teacher training and in particular in special needs education training, since several of these technologies may be momentous in improving education for students with learning disabilities.  This study wants to contribute to synthesize the research in these subjects in order to disseminate knowledge and in order to stimulate to further research in this field in  teacher training. In fact, despite the rapid growth of technological applications in the Swedish schools, where many students have access to an own PC, the contents of the teacher programs are always adapted to the new, technology-enhanced educational conditions that are nowadays common in the schools. A literature review of research is valuable also to investigate which evidence that is available for the efficacy of various methods.  The literature review aim is to encourage a scientific approach on these matters, which means also a rigorous scrutiny of results. Besides the risk connected to a lack of knowledge, in fact, there is also the risk that commercial interests and marketing will influence investments in the educational sector, to a greater extent than research evidence. A comprehensive theoretical framework for the literature review has been Universal Design for Learning (Rose & Gravel, 2010, CUDE, 2012). Under this concept different didactic approaches fit that offer multiple means of representation and communication, using a variety of resources for activities and expression, and create numerous ways of engagement. ULD is based on principles that are fundamental for all learning and teaching activities. It provides the opportunity to explore a wide range of possibilities and processes related to the theme of inclusive education (inclusion) that strives for objectives of an equal education and to reduce barriers to learning. The aims are to investigate a) which  learning technologies have been developed and are reported in research; b) which theoretical models and concepts are employed in empirical studies of learning technologies and special educational needs; c) to make a mapping of the contents of the field; d) to make a synthesis of research results within a specific area e) to develop a database of research literature to identify questions and issues for future research (interventions, replication of quasi-experimental studies).

    The study has followed the recommended approach for systematic reviews (CRD, 2009, Gough, Oliver, & Thomas, 2012; Roberts & Petticrew, 2006, SBU, 2011). The searches were conducted mainly in databases that collect suitable Journals on special educational needs and learning technologies (EBSCO, Scopus) during the autumn 2012. Other databases at universities, research institutes, national and international authorities were also searched (e.g. OECD, EPPI, EIPPEE, European Agency for Special Needs Education, The Swedish National Agency for Education, Becta). The reference found was exported to an online database established in RefWorks (2012). A title- and abstract review of about 1300 references were performed according to a protocol. Required inclusion criteria concern population, educational context, special educational needs content, type of technology application, language and availability. The included references were sorted and reviewed in full text. The protocol for the full text review include: methods, subjects, type of special educational needs, relevance for the local educational context, quality. The literature review will map the existent research that is relevant for the special educational needs field and will synthesize the research conducted within a more specific area. Possible candidates are: a) serious games for numeracy, prevention of reading difficulties, training of working memory; b) virtual simulations. We expect that the results of the literature review willl be taken into account in teacher training and special educational needs training

  • 7.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Brickhouse, Nancy
    University of Delaware.
    Lederman, Judith S.
    Illinois Institute of Technology.
    Lederman, Norman G.
    Illinois Institute of Technology.
    Ligozat, Florence
    University of Geneva, Schweiz.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sadler, Troy D.
    University of Florida.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Zeidler, Dana L.
    University of South Florida.
    Exploring themes of scientific literacy2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Alvring, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Laptops in English language teaching2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the use of laptops in English language teaching, its benefits and disadvantages. Three classroom observations, six student interviews and three teacher interviews were carried out to answer the study’s research questions, namely, what are the benefits and disadvantages of using laptops in the teaching of English at schools under study? How do teachers solve technical and pedagogical problems related to the use of laptops? What kinds of IT-support and possibility to develop teaching skills required by laptops are available for teachers of English?

    Results of the study indicate that easy access to authentic English through laptops is a benefit when teaching English at two Swedish compulsory schools and one high school. Furthermore, the study has shown that laptops are beneficial tools when teaching writing proficiency and working with problem-solving tasks in the classroom. The results of the study have also pointed to the disadvantage in the use of laptops during classroom activities, which are caused by students who are engaged in browsing off-task websites. However, a solution to this could be to include these websites into English language learning activities. The data from the interviews with the three English language teachers have provided evidence about different possibilities for IT-support and IT-development for these teachers.

    This study makes it clear that a successful implementation of one-to-one laptop programs requires teachers who can invest their time and energy into learning new technology, IT-development provided by the school and municipality through courses, workshops and visits at IT-fairs and other schools with one-to-one laptop program as well as a functional IT-support.

  • 9.
    Anderhag, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Taste for Science: How can teaching make a difference for students’ interest in science?2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the thesis is to describe and analyse aspects of home background and teaching that may be important for students’ capability and will to participate in science. The purpose is to make explicit how teaching can support students in developing an interest in science and so counter-balance the restricted opportunities some students may have due to upbringing. In study 1 population data is used to make evident what associations there are between home background variables and the students’ choice of applying for the Swedish post-compulsory Natural Science Programme (NSP). The findings show that home background is important for Swedish students’ choice of the NSP but also that some lower secondary schools can make a difference. Students’ interest in science has usually been examined through questionnaires and rarely studied as constituted in classroom action as a result of teaching. In study 2 therefore an action-oriented methodology is developed based on the concept of taste to study what difference a teacher can make for the constitution of interest in the science classroom. The concept of taste is grounded in pragmatism and the works of Pierre Bourdieu and acknowledges the affective, normative, and cognitive dimensions of situated science learning. In study 3 this methodology is used to examine how a teacher located through Study 1 supports his students in developing an interest in science. The results of study 3 suggest how teaching can make the object of science the focus of students’ interest and so showing that science, with its aims, norms, and values, can be enjoyed in itself. Study 4 draws on the findings of studies 1-3 to discuss the possibility of an overlooked field in studying interest in science; namely whether primary, secondary, tertiary students in effect have different objects of interest. The findings of studies 1-4 are used to discuss how teaching may make a difference to a continued student interest in science.

  • 10.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    What can a teacher do to support students’ interest in science?: A study of the constitution of taste in a science classroom2015In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 45, no 5, 749-784 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined how a teacher may make a difference to the way interest develops in a science classroom, especially for students from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. We adopted a methodology based on the concept of taste for science drawing on the work of John Dewey and Pierre Bourdieu. We investigated through transcripts from video recordings how such a taste is socially constituted in a 9th grade (ages 15–16) science classroom, where there was evidence that the teacher was making a positive difference to students’ post-compulsory school choice with regard to science. Salient findings regarding how this teacher supported students’ interest are summarized. For example, the teacher consistently followed up how the students acknowledged and enjoyed purposes, norms, and values of the science practice and so ensuing that they could participate successfully. During these instances, feelings and personal contributions of the students were also acknowledged and made continuous with the scientific practice. The results were compared with earlier research, implications are discussed, and some suggestions are given about how these can be used by teachers in order to support student interest.

  • 11.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Helena, Danielsson Thorell
    Carina, Andersson
    Andreas, Holst
    Johan, Nordling
    Syften och tillfälligheter i högstadie- och gymnasielaborationen: en studie om hur elever handlar i relation till aktivitetens mål2014In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 10, no 1, 63-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that students’ awareness of the goals and purposes of the laboratory activity is important for their possibility to participate in and learn from the activity. While practical activities often have been considered to be a central part of science education, relatively few studies have examined laboratory work in situ. In this paper we addressed these issues by examining (a) what purposes are distinguished when students’ work with a laboratory assignment and (b) how these purposes are made continuous with the teacher’s aim with the assignment. The data was based on classroom observations from two ordinary laboratory settings, one from a chemistry class in lower secondary school and one from a physics class in the natural science programme in upper secondary school. Although both student groups acknowledged their teacher’s intentions with the practical and could act towards the more student centered purposes of the activity, e.g. describe what happens with the copper and measure the speed of a small vessel respectively, there were differences regarding the possibilities the students had to act toward the activity’s final aim. The results showed that these factors can be referred to the amount of purposes introduced by the teacher as well as those that arose because of contingences, and the connection of these purposes to students’ prior experiences

  • 12.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    An evalutation of how NTA is helping schools to attain the Science Studies syllabus goals at the grade 5 level2007Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Signs of taste for science: A methodology for studying the constitution of interest in the science classroom.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Taste for science: bridging the Cartesian divide between interest and cognitive learning in science?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions, aesthetics and affect are natural elements in everyday science classroom practice, but our understanding of their role for learning in science is limited. It has been suggested that the epistemological tradition of approaching human conduct as essentially separated intovarious dualisms, such as social-mental, emotion-cognition, fact-value, body-mind and so forth, can explain why affect and learning have received so relatively little attention from the science education research field. This theoretical paper addresses some of these issues by discussing how the concept of taste, which is grounded in the works of Pierre Bourdieu and pragmatism research on aesthetics and learning, can be used for approaching cognition, norms, and values as simultaneously transacted in classroom action.

  • 15.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    What difference can a teacher make for the constitution of taste in the science classroom?:  2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    How can teaching make a difference to students’ interest in science? Including Bourdieuan field analysis2015In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 10, no 2, 377-380 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we respond to the discussion by Alexandra Schindel Dimick regarding how the taste analysis presented in our feature article can be expanded within a Bourdieuan framework. Here we acknowledge the significance of field theory to introduce wider reflexivity on the kind of taste that is constituted in the science classroom, while we at the same time emphasize the importance of differentiating between how taste is reproduced versus how it is changed through teaching. The contribution of our methodology is mainly to offer the possibility to empirically analyze changes in this taste, and how teaching can make a difference in regard to students’ home backgrounds. However, our last two steps of our taste analysis include asking questions about how the taste developing in the classroom relates more widely in society. Schindel Dimick shows how these two steps can be productively expanded by a wider societal field analysis.

  • 17.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Signs of taste for science: a methodology for studying the constitution of interest in the science classroom2015In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 10, no 2, 339-368 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a methodological approach for analyzing the transformation of interest in science through classroom talk and action. To this end, we use the construct of taste for scienceas a social and communicative operationalization, or proxy, to the more psychologically oriented construct of interest. To gain a taste for science as part of school science activities means developing habits of performing and valuing certain distinctions about ways to talk, act and be that are jointly construed as belonging in the school science classroom. In this view, to learn science is not only about learning the curriculum content, but also about learning a normative and aesthetic content in terms of habits of distinguishing and valuing. The approach thus complements previous studies on students’ interest in science, by making it possible to analyze how taste for science is constituted, moment-by-moment, through talk and action in the science classroom. In developing the method, we supplement theoretical constructs coming from pragmatism and Pierre Bourdieu with empirical data from a lower secondary science classroom. The application of the method to this classroom demonstrates the potential that the approach has for analyzing how conceptual, normative, and aesthetic distinctions within the science classroom interact in the constitution of taste for, and thereby potentially also in the development of interest in science among students.

  • 18.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jakobson, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Why do secondary school students lose their interest in science?: A possible overlooked explanationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Teaching business economics for sustainability: the roles of a business person priviledged in classroom practice2017In: DEE 2017: Abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New teaching approaches to include ‘sustainable development’ in the business curriculum are currently being developed with the expectation that students will become better equipped to address sustainability issues as budding business people. At the same time education for sustainable development has been argued as being particularly challenging in the context of business education due to assumptions underpinning orthodox business theories. This article presents a study of the roles of a business person privileged by teachers in the classroom when the concept of ‘sustainable development’ is incorporated in the subject of business economics. The empirical material, consisting of video recorded observations in five teachers’ classrooms, was collected two years after the inclusion of the concept in the upper secondary school syllabus in Sweden. The results show how different rules and conditions for doing business are foregrounded in classroom practice, which have different implications for whether a responsible business person is expected to: a) adapt to self-interest (in narrow terms), b) respond to consumers’ increasing interest for sustainable products, or c) be sensitive to stakeholders’ diverging interests. Detailed empirical examples illuminating how different classroom practices open up for different (egoistic vs altruistic) roles are provided with the aim that they should be useful for teachers (and anyone involved in design of lessons and/or educational materials) to develop a professional vision to identify when and how in educational practice ‘homo economicus’ becomes a norm as well as when and how other norms might emerge.

  • 20.
    Andrews, Paul
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Finnish mathematics teaching from a reform perspective: A video-based case study analysis2013In: Comparative Education Review, ISSN 0010-4086, E-ISSN 1545-701X, Vol. 57, no 2, 189-211 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers a qualitative analysis of videotaped mathematics lessons taught by fourteachers in a provincial university city in Finland. My study is framed not only by Finnishsuccess on Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) but also by theobjectives of current mathematics education reform, which are consistent with PISA’sgoals of measuring mathematical literacy. The analyses indicated that conceptual understandingand procedural fluency were addressed by all four teachers. However, adaptivereasoning, strategic competence, and the development of a productive dispositionappear rarely. I observed few occasions where students were invited to solve authenticproblems.

  • 21.
    Andrews, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    What does PISA performance tell us about mathematics teaching quality? Case studies from Finland and Flanders2013In: Pisa, power and policy: the emergence of global educational governance / [ed] Heinz-Dieter Meyer, Aaron Benavot, Oxford: Symposium Books, 2013, 99-114 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade Finnish students’ performance on the mathematical literacy components of PISA has created much international interest. However, with respect to the two times Finland has participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Finnish students’ mathematical performance has painted a very different picture, particularly at grade 8. What is less well known is that Flanders, whose Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) achievements have been masked by those of Belgium as a whole, has performed as well as Finland with respect to mathematical literacy and, on the three TIMSS in which it has participated, it has been the most successful European system at grade 8. Thus, while Finnish performance on tests of technical competence, despite success on tests of mathematical applicability, has been moderate, Flemish students have led the Europeans on both. In this chapter, the author examines two sequences of videotaped lessons taught on percentages, a topic resonant with ambitions of both technical competence and mathematical applicability, by case-study teachers considered against local criteria to be effective. The evidence suggests that Finnish mathematics didactics are more likely to explain Finnish TIMSS failure than PISA success. Flemish didactics may have greater explanatory potential for both PISA and TIMSS success. Such findings suggest that performance on international tests of achievement may be unrelated to didactical quality as other, typically hidden, cultural factors intercede.

  • 22.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Altering conditions for student participation and motive development in school science: learning from Helena’s mistake2012In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 7, no 2, 425-438 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on science education has described various factors influencing students’ participation and produced categorizations of students based on e.g. cultural background. In this article it is argued, theoretically and empirically, that an understanding of students’ participation in science education needs to begin with an analysis of what activity students are engaged in. The aim is to explore how altering conditions of classroom work may open up opportunities for students mainly participating in an activity of education or schooling to engage in an activity of science learning. Activity is conceptualized in a Cultural-Historical Activity Theory perspective as object-oriented and transformative. Drawing on an ethnographic study in a Swedish compulsory school, a critical incident of the participation in science education of a 7th grade girl called Helena is analyzed. The results show that altered conditions of classroom practice may produce new possibilities for student participation, and point to the impossibility of determining students as ‘different kinds of students’ based on a priori categories e.g. sex, ethnicity, socio-economic background.

  • 23.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community2014In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 9, no 1, 25-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire ‘the right way’ of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  • 24.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Bodily formation of students in the school science laboratory2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work in the school science laboratory has been criticized for being pseudo-experimental, resulting only in a reproduction of already well-known facts and theories. The point of departure in this paper is rather what students actually have the possibility to learn. What we learn must be understood as an aspect of the activities we engage in. In this article the formation of students in the school science laboratory is analyzed within a cultural historical tradition. The research approach is ethnographic. Two science classes, grade six and seven, were studied in a Swedish midsized compulsory school during one school-year. A conclusion is that both students’ laboratory skills and their abilities to discern, classify, and represent nature and the physical reality is developed.

  • 25.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Borders/Border Crossing2015In: Encyclopedia of Science Education / [ed] Richard Gunstone, Springer Netherlands, 2015, 132-133 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Border crossing provides a lens for analyzing science learning as cultural acquisition and science teaching as cultural transmission. Thus, science is deemed as culture rather than absolute truth. The generic construction of border crossing assumes the existence of borders between two (or more) distinguishable cultures/subcultures that, to a varying degree, represent obstacles for individuals to cross. The notion of border crossing has been used widely in science education research to conceptualize difficulties that students encounter in science education. In research, science classroom experiences of students and teachers have been theorized in terms of the ease with which students and teachers cross cultural borders of the science classroom. Border crossings have been categorized as smooth, manageable, hazardous, or virtually impossible (Cobern & Aikenhead, 1998). The concept of border crossing was borrowed from cultural anthropology and first applied to Western students studying science by Aikenhead (1996) with an expressed aim to encourage science educators to acknowledge inherent border crossings between students’ lifeworld subcultures and the subculture of science. The theoretical framework of cultural borders and border crossing have later been challenged for assuming subcultures as given entities and not fully taking hybridity, heterogeneity, and the situatedness of cultural practices into account (Carter, 2008).

  • 26.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Developing Inquiry Literacy: Exploring Conditions for Students’ Learning about Inquiry in Primary School from a CHAT Perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is a current debate in science education on what it might mean to educate scientifically literate citizens and the possibilities of actually educating students to become “competent outsiders with respect to science” (Feinstein, 2011). One aspect of scientific literacy, which has been underscored but not sufficiently scrutinized in relation to educating “competent outsiders”, concerns the issue of becoming capable “…to evaluate the quality of scientific information on the basis of its source and the methods used to generate it”. (National Science Education Standards, 1996, p. 22). The aim of this study is to explore conditions for promoting students' abilities to engage in critical discussion in relation to science inquiry in primary science education.

    In science education, on a policy level, inquiry has been attributed great promise as an instructional approach. It has been identified as a ‘key-approach’ to primary science education (Harlen, 2009; Lena, 2009), and recommended as the 'renewed pedagogy for the future of Europe' (European commission, 2007). Today, inquiry is found in curricula world-wide (Beeth et al., 2003). As educational practices, IBSE practices are inherently hybrid: products, ideas and methods of science are transformed into educational content and classroom tasks (Andrée, 2007). The aims of inquiry based science education (IBSE) are, multi-facetted involving IBSE as a method for a) making science more interesting, b) illustrating scientific concepts and c) learning about inquiry as a way of doing science. From previous studies of inquiry and practical work in science education at various levels, we know that students' work in classrooms/school laboratories cannot be equated with the work of scientists even when students follow what appears to be similar procedure (e.g. Wickman & Östman, 2002). Studies specifically focusing on learning about inquiry show that an explicit focus on teaching about the characteristics of scientific inquiry is unusual (Lager-Nyqvist, 2003; Gyllenpalm, 2010). Also, teachers do not regard learning about inquiry as equally important as traditional science subject matter (Lederman, 2007). In addition to this, teachers have rarely experienced authentic inquiry themselves (Windshitl, 2002).

    Developing an inquiry literacy involves appropriation of a particular social language for critically analysing, evaluating and judging scientific investigations and conclusions (cf. Lemke, 1993). A challenge in a Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) perspective (cf. Engeström, 2001; Leontiev, 1986; Roth, Lee & Hsu, 2009) becomes to engage students in an activity that allows them to make use of relevant intellectual tools for discussing scientific investigations. This also relates to the issue of authenticity and how to create some resemblance between what students do in school science and what happens in science laboratories (Roth, Eijck, Reis & Hsu, 2008).

    Method

    The study was conducted as a participant-oriented action research study in collaboration with two teachers teaching science in primary school, grades 1-2 and 3, in one Swedish compulsory school over one school-year. This implies studying educational practice with a view to improving the quality of action within it (cf. Elliot, 1991). Data was collected throughout the school-year by using audio- and video recordings of collaborative teacher-researcher meetings, classroom work and collecting artifacts (e.g. work-plans, lesson plans, and student work). Data also include field-notes from informal meetings. Data is analyzed in terms of how students’ incorporate a language of inquiry in activity. The analytical framework used is Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (cf. Engeström, 2001; Leontiev, 1986; Roth, Lee & Hsu, 2009) in combination with Bakhtin’s (1986) notion of speech genres.

    Expected Outcomes

    The initial experiences of collaborating researchers and teachers was that it is difficult to design teaching practices that allow students to engage in open-ended inquiry sharing some resemblance to what happens in science laboratories in terms of the levels of control the students have over their conditions of work. For example, when grade 1 students were given a task to collect and investigate mosses in a nearby forest, the teacher by habit assembled the collected mosses from the students without record of whom had collected what mosses, in view that the class would share the mosses equally the following science lesson. As a consequence, the students were deprived of their own unique collection and lost the context for gathering their mosses. In the next step of inquiry students could not relate to the different milieus of the mosses. In order to push toward more authentic inquiry, researchers and teachers have discussed how to further control over inquiry to the students without loosing the objective of developing students abilities to talk about inquiry work. Further detailed analyses will focus on how students in grades 2 and 3 incorporate a language of inquiry when investigating water phase transitions.

    References

    Bakhtin, M. (1986). The problem of speech genres. In C. Emerson & M. Holquist (Eds.), Speech genres and other late essays (pp. 60-102). Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

    Elliot, J. (1991). Action Research for Educational Change. Open University Press, Bristol.

    Engeström, Y. (2001). Expansive learning at work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 133-156.

    European commission (2007). Science Education Now: A Renewed Pedagogy for the Future of Europe. Expert Group Community Research Report. Directorate-General for Research Information and Communication Unit. Brussels.

    Feinstein, N. (2011), Salvaging science literacy. Science Education, 95, 168–185.

    Gyllenpalm, J., Wickman, P-O. & Holmgren, S-O. (2009). Teachers’ Language on Scientific Inquiry: Methods of teaching or methods of inquiry? International Journal of Science Education, 32, 1151-1172.

    Harlen, W. (2009). Evaluation of inquiry-based science education pedagogy and programs. Presentation at European Conference on Primary science education Berlin, May 29 2009.

    Lederman, N. (2007). Nature of science: Past, Present and Future. In N. Lederman & S. Abel (Eds.), Handbook of research on science education (pp. 831-879). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Lemke, J. (1993). Talking science: Language, learning, and values. Norwood: Ablex.

    Lena, P. (2009). A long term model for IBSE in primary schools Lessons from La main à la pâte in France. Presentation at European Conference on Primary Science Education Berlin, May 29.

    Leontiev, A. (1986). Verksamhet, medvetande personlighet. Moskva/Göteborg: Progress/Fram.

    Roth, W-M., Eijck,M. Reis, G. & Hsu, P-L. (2008). Authentic science revisited: In praise of diversity, heterogeneity, hybridity. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

    Roth, W-M., Lee, Y.J. & Hsu, P-L. (2009). Cultural-historical activity theory and science education. Studies in Science Education, 45, 131-167.

    Windschitl, M., Thompson, J. & Braaten, M. (2008). Beyond the scientific method: Model-based inquiry as a new paradigm of preference for school science investigations. Science Education, 92, 941-967.

  • 27.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Formation of students’ investigative expertise in the school science laboratory – a study of practical work in lower secondary school2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work in the school science laboratory has been criticized for being pseudo-experimental, resulting only in a reproduction of already well-known facts and theories. The point of departure in this paper is rather what students actually have the possibility to learn. What we learn must be understood as an aspect of the activities we engage in. In this article the formation of students in the school science laboratory is analyzed within a cultural historical tradition. The research approach is ethnographic. Two science classes, grade six and seven, were studied in a Swedish midsized compulsory school during one school-year. A conclusion is that both students’ laboratory skills and their abilities to discern, classify, and represent nature and the physical reality is developed.

  • 28.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Levda läroplaner i individorganiserad NO-undervisning2010In: Uppdrag undervisning: - kunskap och lärande / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Viveca Lindberg, Eva Österlind, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 97-107 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Motsträviga medverkande och orädda genier: Om elevers deltagande och delaktighet i grundskolans NO-undervisning2007In: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, Vol. 19, no 3, 4-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Ny forskning om naturvetenskapens och teknikens didaktik2007In: LMNT-nytt, ISSN 1402-0041, no 2, 26-28 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Några nya avhandlingar2009In: LMNT-nytt, ISSN 1402-0041, no 1, 34-35 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Recension: Elftström, Nilsson, Sterner & Wehner-Godée: Barn och naturvetenskap - upptäcka, utforska, lära2008In: LMNT-nytt, ISSN 1402-0041, no 2, 42-42 p.Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Student participation and motive development in school science: The case of Helena’s mistaken acid.2010In: Socio-cultural and Human Values in Science and Technology Education / [ed] Slavko Dolinšek, Ljubljana: IRI UL, Institute for Innovation and Development of University of Ljubljana , 2010, 94-101 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on science education has described various factors influencing students' participation and produced categorizations of students based on e.g. cultural background. In this article it is argued, theoretically and empirically, that an understanding of students‘ participation in science education needs to begin with an analysis of what activity students are engaged in. The aim is to shed light on student participation in science classroom practice and how altered conditions of classroom practice can make additional space for developing motives for learning science. Activity is conceptualized in a cultural-historical activity theoretical perspective as what transformation of objects students are engaged in. Drawing on an ethnographic study in a Swedish compulsory school, a critical incident of the participation in science education of a 7th grade girl called Helena is analyzed. The results show that altered conditions of classroom practice may produce new possibilities for student participation, and point to the impossibility of determining students as different kinds of students based on a priori categories.

  • 34.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Vardagsanknytning som pedagogiskt redskap2012In: Skola och naturvetenskap: - politik, praktik, problematik i belysning av ämnesdidaktisk forskning / [ed] Helge Strömdahl & Lena Tibell, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 95-111 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hansson, Lena
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Fler ungdomar till naturvetenskapliga utbildningar? Om rekryteringsförsök, kunskapsemfaser och identitet.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Satsningar för att öka ungdomars intresse för naturvetenskap och naturvetenskapliga utbild-ningar görs av aktörer, med olika agenda och ekonomiska resurser. Aktuell forskning visar att ungdomars val av utbildning också är en fråga om identitet. Frågan är därför i vilken utsträck-ning olika rekryteringsförsök faktiskt öppnar för att naturvetenskap kan få plats i fler ung-domars identitetsskapande jämfört med idag. Syftet i artikeln är att, utifrån ett identitets-perspektiv, problematisera satsningar för att öka ungdomars intresse för naturvetenskapliga utbildningar. I artikeln analyseras exempel på två svenska rekryteringsförsök. Gemensamt för rekryteringsförsöken är att de innehåller filmer som riktar sig till elever i grundskolans senare del. Det första initiativet är

    Kemi-Julkalendern – en webbkalender (ett filmat experiment/dag), producerad och publicerad av Lunds Tekniska högskola. Initiativet är ett exempel på hur vetenskapssamhället självt försöker öka ungdomars intresse för naturvetenskaplig utbildning. Det andra initiativet är en kampanj från Teknikdelegationen. Delegationen är tillsatt av regeringen och kampanjen är ett exempel på ett politiskt initiativ som också engagerat industrirepresentanter. Kampanjen, som består av nio filmer, har syftet att få fler ungdomar att välja gymnasiets naturvetenskapliga program. Filmerna analyseras med utgångspunkt i Roberts kunskapsemfaser (Roberts, 1982; Roberts, 1998). Kunskapsemfaserna har tidigare använts vid läromedelsanalyser och läroplansanalyser. Här använder vi emfaserna för att analysera de budskap, om varför naturvetenskaplig kunskap/utbildning kan vara eftersträvansvärd, som förekommer i filmerna. I analysen identifieras både dominerande emfaser och emfaser som saknas. Dessa diskuteras i relation till elevers identitet, intresse och val. De preliminära resultaten visar att kemikalendern, genom filmernas "setting" och kommunicerade kunskaps-emfaser, bekräftar en stereotyp bild av naturvetare. Den dominerande emfasen är "Kunna för-klara själv". I filmerna visar en kemistudent hur han, tack vare kemikunskaper, kan manipulera och behärska föremål så att ovanliga och konstiga saker händer – primärt i syfte att ha roligt. Genom filmerna bjuds tittaren in och får tillgång till en del av den speciella kunskap kemisten besitter. I Teknikdelegationens filmer dominerar em-fasen "Den säkra grunden". Denna kommuniceras bl.a. genom att kända personer, som inte arbetar med natur-vetenskap, berättar att Nv-programmet ger en bred bas för fortsatta studier, en god grund för framtida arbete och tillträde till åtråvärda gemenskaper. Budskap om varför kunskap i och om naturvetenskap skulle kunna vara intressant eller användbart saknas, däremot nämns mate-matik och problemlösningsförmåga. Några säger också explicit att deras val av naturvetenskapsprogrammet inte handlade om ett intresse för naturvetenskap i sig. Istället uttrycks i filmerna intressen som fotboll, politik, teknik, musik och djur. Det ena av de två rekryterings-försöken bekräftar i stort en stereotyp bild av naturvetare, medan det andra undviker stereo-typen. Båda initiativen saknar t.ex. emfasen Naturvetenskap och beslutsfattande vilken kunde haft potential att attrahera ungdomar som vill göra något av skillnad för samhället. Inget av initiativen erbjuder sätt att förhålla sig till naturvetenskap som utgår från ett sådant intresse.

    För att öppna upp för att fler ungdomar ska kunna se sig själva välja naturvetenskaplig utbildning bör rekryteringsförsök ta utgångspunkt i hur människor, utifrån olika utgångspunkter och positioner i samhället finner kunskap i och om naturvetenskap meningsfull.

  • 36.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hansson, Lena
    Marketing the ‘Broad Line’: Invitations to STEM education in a Swedish recruitment campaign2013In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 35, no 1, 147-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Western societies, there is a concern about the tendency of young people not choosing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and occupations. In response, different initiatives have been launched. If one believes that science should have a place in more young people's lives, an important question is to what extent recruitment campaigns communicate messages that open up for STEM education to become relevant in young people's identity formation. Here, we analyse a Swedish government-initiated, primarily Internet-based recruitment attempt (‘The Broad Line Campaign’) aimed at increasing the number of young people choosing the natural science programme in upper secondary school. The campaign is based on marketing principles and deliberately draws on identity issues. The data analysed consists of campaign films and written resources describing the campaign. Data are analysed by use of the constant comparative approach in order to produce categories describing different messages about why to engage in STEM education. These messages are then analysed from an identity perspective using the concept of subjective values. Our results show that the messages communicated in the Broad Line campaign emphasise utility value, attainment value and relative cost rather than interest-enjoyment. The campaign communicates that the natural science programme is to be associated with a high attainment value without establishing relations to the field of science. Finally, potential consequences of the communicated messages in the campaign are discussed in light of previous research.

  • 37.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hansson, Lena
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Ideland, Malin
    Malmö högskola.
    Political rationalities in science education: a case study of teaching materials provided by external actors2018In: Cultural, Social, and Political Perspectives in Science Education: A Nordic View / [ed] A. ArvolaOrlander, K. Otrel-Cass, & M.K. Sillasen, Springer Netherlands, 2018, 75-92 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a collection of critical thinking that concern cultural, social and political issues for science education in the Nordic countries. The chapter authors describe specific scenarios to challenge persisting views, interrogate frameworks and trouble contemporary approaches to researching teaching and learning in science. Taking a point of departure in empirical examples from the Nordic countries the collection of work is taking a critical sideways glance at the Nordic education principles. Critical examinations target specifically those who are researching in the fields of science education research to question whether conventional research approaches, foci and theoretical approaches are sufficient in a world of science education that is neither politically neutral, nor free of cultural values.  Attention is not only on the individual learner but on the cultural, social and political conditions and contexts in science education. The different chapters review debates and research in teacher education, school teaching and learning including when external stakeholders are involved. Even though the chapters are contextualized in Nordic settings there will be similarities and parallels that will be informative to the international science education research community.

  • 38.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lager Nyqvist, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Students' Ways of Using Prior Experience in Inquiry Based Science Education – the case of NTA2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inquiry has been identified as a 'key-approach' and recommended as an important pedagogy to improve primary science education in Europe. Inquiry is also a key component in the US national science education standards. In Sweden, inquiry pedagogy in primary science has been introduced through a large curriculum program called NTA (Science and Technology for all). The aim of this paper is to shed light on what inquiry based science education (IBSE) practices are emerging in Swedish primary schools through the introduction of the NTA-program and what activities students are engaging in, in these practices. In particular we focus on ways of working with 'what is already known' which is held to be a central aspect to IBSE in e.g. the definition of inquiry in the US national science education standards. The research questions investigated are: In what actions do students engage in when working with ‘what is already known’ in IBSE practice? How is 'what is already known' acted with in practice? Data was collected, during a 10-week-period using video- and audiotape recordings of classroom work, in two 6th grade classes where teachers and students worked with an NTA-unit called 'the Chemistry of food'. Our analysis is conceptualized within a cultural-historical activity-theoretical perspective. Results show that students participate in three different actions: A) separation of tasks, B) playing the lottery and C) challenging test results with ‘what is already known’. These different actions involve different types of use of 'what is already known' , and the actions correspond to, and acquire meaning in relation to, different goals. Common to the different ways of working is that we can discern two different types of ‘what is already known’: (1) referring to facts, and (2) making use of ideas about science culture.

  • 39.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Spontaneous Play and Imagination in Everyday Science Classroom Practice2013In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 43, no 5, 1735-1750 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In science education, students sometimes create and engage in spontaneous science-oriented play where ideas about science and scientists are put to use. However, in previous research, little attention has been given to the role of informal spontaneous play in school science classrooms. We argue that, in order to enhance our understanding of learning processes in school science practices, research that investigates play as an aspect of everyday culture is needed. The aim of this paper is to explore students’ informal play as part of activity in lower secondary school science. The empirical study was conducted in two Swedish compulsory schools in grade 6. Data were collected throughout a teaching unit called ‘The Chemistry of Food’ during a 10-week period using video and audiotape recordings of classroom work. Our analyses show that the play students engage in involves the transformations of given tasks. We find that students’ spontaneous collective play offers opportunities for them to explore the epistemic values and norms of science and different ways of positioning in relation to science. Our findings contribute to the understanding of how learning in the school science classroom is socially and culturally–historically embedded and how individual students’ engagement through play may transform and transcend existing classroom practices.

  • 40.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Vad vi vet om fett – en studie av att ta elevers erfarenheter som utgångs-punkt för NO-undervisning.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idén att bygga på elevers tidigare erfarenheter och kunskaper har varit betydelsefulla i det som benämnts ‟konstruktivistisk undervisning‟ i naturvetenskapliga ämnen. Ett råd till lärare har varit att ta elevers tidigare erfarenheter och kunskaper som utgångspunkt för undervis-ningen. Dessa idéer är framträdande i svenska NO-läromedel och upplägg för praktiskt under-sökande arbetssätt (t.ex. NTA). Syftet med detta paper är att problematisera hur elever använ-der ‟vad de redan vet‟ i praktiskt undersökande arbete i NO-undervisnings-praktiken. Inne-börder av att ta utgångspunkt i elevers tidigare efterenheter eller vad de vet om något är inte okomplicerat. Tidigare studier pekar på att det för olika skolämnen utvecklats olika skoläm-nespraktiker. Användning av det som ibland kallas vardagserfarenheter blir begripligt utifrån den specifika skolämnespraktiken snarare än utifrån en vardagskontext. Tidigare forskning om användning av vardag och tidigare erfarenheter i skolan har dock inte fokuserat på vad elever gör när de gör bruk av egna erfarenheter och kunskaper i praktiskt undersökande arbete och i vilken utsträckning bruk av egna erfarenheter bidrar till elevers lärande i linje med det avsedda undervisningsinnehållet i praktiskt undersökande arbete. Vi redovisar här en studie av hur elever arbetar med ‟vad de vet om fett‟ inom ramen för arbete med uppdraget "Matens kemi" i NTA-programmet. NTA (

    Naturvetenskap och teknik för alla) är ett program för prak-tiskt undersökande arbete med naturvetenskap och teknik i grundskolans tidigare år. I arbetet med matens kemi inleds varje avsnitt med att eleverna ska diskutera ‟vad de vet om‟ olika näringsämnen och därefter undersöka i vilka olika sorters livsmedel som detta näringsämne finns. I det avsnitt som handlar om fett undersöker eleverna om det finns fett i t.ex. mjölk, vatten, äpple, mjöl o.s.v. Studien bygger på analys av transkriberade ljud- och video-inspel-ningar av 12 elevgrupper i två klasser, på vardera skolan, som arbetar med lektionen om fett i uppdraget "Matens kemi". Det empiriska materialet analyseras i ett verksamhets-teoretiskt perspektiv. Resultaten visar att eleverna gör bruk av ‟vad de vet om fett‟ på olika sätt, som del av olika verksamheter. Vi urskiljer tre verksamheter som svarar mot olika ledande motiv: ut-bildning, naturvetenskaplig enkulturering och sociala relationer. Med de exempel vi lyfter fram i analysen visar vi att hur och vilka tidigare erfarenheter elever använder i arbetet med fett inte bara handlar om vilka erfarenheter elever har i relation till fett utan vilka verksamhe-ter eleverna deltar i. Elevernas bruk av ‟vad de vet om fett‟ i relation till olika motiv känne-tecknas av olika tillgängliga resurser, olika gemenskaper, olika arbets-delning mellan elever och elever-lärare samt olika normer/regler för att åstadkomma det som eftersträvas. Samman-fattningsvis visar studien att det inte möjligt att urskilja elevers tidigare erfarenheter i relation till ett naturvetenskapligt fenomen eller begrepp som något i sig som kan utgöra utgångspunkt för undervisningen.

  • 41.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    'What do you know about fat?' Drawing on diverse funds of knowledge in inquiry based science education2012In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 8, no 2, 178-193 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connecting students’ worlds, knowledge and experiences with school science has been a central issue in science education research. Here, we conceptualize processes of drawing on students’ personal experiences and knowledge in terms of ‘funds of knowledge’. We scrutinize two sixth grade classroom practices where the inquiry curriculum reform effort, Naturvetenskap och teknik för alla (NTA), is used. This curriculum material explicitly incorporates ideas of ‘learning science from experience’. Our aim is to contribute to a discussion on what conditions of inquiry based science education (IBSE) practices may open up opportunities for science to become personally relevant to students. The  research question investigated is: What do students do when they draw on funds of knowledge that are related to students’ memberships and experiences out-of-school in IBSE pratices? We then use Cultural-Historical Activity Theory framework to analyze how students’ actions of drawing on different funds of knowledge gain meaning in relation to different cultural-historical motives. Our findings indicate that students, when positioning themselves as part of different communities in relation to different goals and overall motives, make use of quite different funds of knowledge. Finally, we discuss possibilities for expanding and acknowledging students’ funds of knowledge when working with  investigations in the science classroom.

  • 42.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Play with Science in Inquiry Based Science Education2012In:  Science learning and Citizenship.  E-bok: http://lsg.ucy.ac.cy/esera/e_book/base/table-of-content.html.: The ESERA 2011 conference. / [ed] C. Bruguière, A.Tiberghien & P.Clément, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In science education students sometimes engage in imaginary science-oriented play where ideas about science and scientists are put to use. Through play, children interpret their experiences, dramatize, give life to and transform what they know into a lived narrative. In this paper we build on the work of Vygotsky on imagination and creativity. Previous research on play in primary and secondary school has focused on play as a method for formal instruction rather than students’ spontaneous informal play. Our aim is to explore students’ informal play as part of activity in lower secondary school science. The empirical study was conducted as part of a larger study on learning, narrative knowing and remembering in inquiry based science education in two Swedish compulsory schools. Data were collected during 10 weeks using video- and audiotape recordings. Our analyses of play show that the students step in and out of play when engaging in task completion. Play offers opportunities for sense-making, opposition and exploration of ways of enacting science identities. Implications for teaching science are that teachers, in order to promote students’ learning about science as a cultural endeavor and students’ learning about themselves in relation to science and scientist communities, may encourage students’ informal play.

  • 43.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Play with Science in Inquiry Based Science Education2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In science education students sometimes engage in imaginary science-oriented play where ideas about science and scientists are put to use. Through play, children interpret their experiences, dramatize, give life to and transform what they know into a lived narrative. In this paper we build on the work of Vygotsky on imagination and creativity. Previous research on play in primary and secondary school has focused on play as a method for formal instruction rather than students’ spontaneous informal play. Our aim is to explore students’ informal play as part of activity in lower secondary school science. The empirical study was conducted as part of a larger study on learning, narrative knowing and remembering in inquiry based science education in two Swedish compulsory schools. Data were collected during 10 weeks using video- and audiotape recordings. The results show that the studied classroom practices offer students a variety of resources that may be used to engage in spontaneous play with science. We discern two categories of play: role-playing and game-playing involving transformations of classroom tasks and opening up for different social positioning in relation to science. Implications for teaching science is that teachers, in order to promote students learning about science as a cultural endeavor and about themselves in relation to science and scientist communities may encourage students’ informal play.

  • 44.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lundegård, Iann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Argumentation and Critique in Science Citizenship Education and Scientific Literacy: Symposium on Literacy and Didactics: Perspectives, Practices and Consequences I2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How citizenship education should be designed and what it should aim for is debated. The Swedish national curriculum describes the democratic mission for the compulsory school as imparting respect for human rights, fundamental democratic values and preparing students to responsibly participate in societal life. This mission is to be implemented in all school subjects. Here, we aim to shed light on how these ideas are expressed in the curriculum documents for science education in compulsory school in terms of argumentation and critique. We perform an analysis of the national syllabuses and commentary materials and also discuss the results from educational philosophy perspectives. First, we scrutinize the idea of developing students’ abilities to engage in argumentation, argumentation as means to reach consensus and argumentation as dissensus and agonism from a radical democratic perspective. Second, we scrutinize the idea of critique as expressed in the documents in relation to what has been described as a neo-liberal discourse of independence and integrity. We summarize our findings in what we suggest to be a tension between consensus and agonism. We point to affordances and constraints in the curriculum documents concerning possibilities of bringing together argumentation and critique in what we call critical deliberative education.

  • 45.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lundegård, Iann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Who is the democratic citizen?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Remembering as Instructional Work in the Science Classroom2017In: Memory Practices and Learning: Interactional, Institutional and Sociocultural Perspectives / [ed] Åsa Mäkitalo, Per Linell, Roger Säljö, Information Age Publishing, 2017, 75-92 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Andrén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Barns och ungas livsfrågor och ämnet livskunskap: Existentiella teman på BRIS Diskussionsforum2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom åren har jag haft många samtal med barn på lågstadiet om deras livsfrågor. De senaste åren har jag även som volontär på BRIS fått möjlighet att möta barns skilda tankar om livet och sin livssituation. I min uppsats undersöker jag hur barns existentiella frågor kan förstås och tolkas i relation till ”skolämnet” livskunskap, ett ämne med skiftande innehåll och utformning som idag återfinns på många skolor i Sverige. Mina forskningsfrågor behandlar innehåll i barns och ungas existentiella frågeställningar så som de kommer till uttryck i deras inlägg på BRIS Diskussionsforum. Vidare undersöker jag hur ämnet livskunskap beskrivs och diskuteras i tidigare forskning och slutligen gör jag en jämförelse mellan svaren på dessa båda första frågor när jag analyserar hur livsfrågorna, så som de framträder i mitt material, kan relateras till livskunskapsämnet.

    Påverkad av min förförståelse för barns och ungas förmågor att både tänka om och samtala om livsfrågor har jag valt en hermeneutiskt fenomenologisk forskningsansats i analys och tolkning av mitt datamaterial. Den hermeneutiskt fenomenologiska analysen bidrar till att skapa en fördjupad förståelse för varför barnens frågor är just livsfrågor. Med utgångspunkt i Max van Manens fyra ”existentials”, lived other, lived body, lived time och lived space, har jag sökt, och hittat, dessa teman i barnens texter. Varje livsvärldstema, varje ”existential” är en egen dimension men samtidigt påverkar och förstärker den de övriga. Hur fond, i form av tid och plats, och speglingar upplevs möjliggör den mening som skapas i de mänskliga relationerna.

    Jag har gjort en kortfattad forskningsöversikt av livskunskapsämnets innehåll och utformning. Val av såväl ämnesinnehåll som lektionsutformning tycks bottna i uppfattningar om att barn har brister i bland annat social och emotionell kompetens samt att dessa brister kan undervisas bort genom olika övningar och färdighetsträning. Det privata betonas och man utgår ofta från manualbaserade individinriktade program.

    Vid en jämförelse mellan de existentiella frågeställningar som väcks av barn och unga i mitt material och den bild som forskningen ger av livskunskapsämnet framstår det senare som påtagligt vuxenstyrt och utan att varken tematiken i barnens texter eller deras påtagliga emotionella och sociala kompetens beaktas eller ges utrymme.

  • 48.
    Anker-Hansen, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Assessing Scientific Literacy as Participation in Civic Practices: Affordances and constraints for developing a practice for authentic classroom assessment of argumentation, source critique and decision-making2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis takes a departure from a view of scientific literacy as situated in participation in civic practices. From such a view, it becomes problematic to assess scientific literacy through decontextualised test items only dealing with single aspects of participation in contexts concerned with science. Due to the complexity of transferring knowledge, it is problematic to assume that people who can explain scientific theories will automatically apply those theories in life or that knowledge will influence those people’s behaviour. A common way to more fully include the complexity of using science in different practices is to focus participation around issues and study how students use multiple sources to reflect critically and ethically on that issue. However, participation is situated in practices and thus becomes something specific within those practices. For instance, shopping for groceries for the family goes beyond reflecting critically and ethically on health and environment since it involves considering the family economy and the personal tastes of the family members. I have consequently chosen to focus my studies on how to assess scientific literacy as participation in civic practices. The thesis describes a praxis development research study where I, in cooperation with teachers, have designed interventions of assessments in lower secondary science classrooms. In the research study I use the theory of Community of Practice and Expansive Learning to study affordances and constraints for assessing communication, source critique and decision-making in the science classroom. The affordances and constraints for students’ participation in assessments are studied through using a socio-political debate as an assessment tool. The affordances and constraints for communicating assessment are studied through peer assessments of experimental design. The affordances and constraints for teachers to expand their assessment repertoire are studied through assessment moderation meetings. Finally, the affordances and constraints for designing authentic assessments of scientific literacy are studied through a review of different research studies’ use of authenticity in science education. The studies show that tensions emerge between purposes of practices outside the classroom and practices inside the classroom that students negotiated when participating in the assessments. Discussion groups were influential on students’ decisions on how to use feedback. Feedback that was not used to amend the designs was still used to discuss what should count as quality of experiments. Teachers used the moderation meetings to refine their assessments and teaching. However, conflicting views of scientific literacy as either propositional or procedural knowledge were challenging to overcome. Different publications in science education research emphasised personal or cultural aspects of authenticity. The different uses of authenticity have implications for authentic assessments, regarding the affordances and constraints for how to reify quality from external practices and through students’ engagement in practices. The results of the studies point to gains of focussing the assessment on how students negotiate participation in different civic practices. However, this approach to assessment puts different demands on assessment design than assessments in which students’ participation is compared with predefined ideals for performance.

  • 49.
    Anker-Hansen, Jens
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Affordances and Constraints of Using the Socio-Political Debate for Authentic Summative Assessment2015In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 37, no 15, 2577-2596 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports from an empirical study on the affordances and constraints for using staged socio-political debates for authentic summative assessment of scientific literacy. The article focuses on conditions for student participation and what purposes emerge in student interaction in a socio-political debate. As part of the research project, a socio-political debate was designed for assessing student competences of scientific literacy in classroom practices. The debate centred on a fictive case about a lake where a decline in the yield of fish had been established. The students were assigned the task of participating in the debate from appointed roles as different stakeholders. Data were collected with video recordings of the enacted student debates. Student participation was analysed with the theoretical framework of communities of practice. The results show that multiple conflicting purposes of the socio-political debate as an assessment task emerged. The emergent purposes were: (I) putting scientific knowledge on display versus staying true to one’s role, (II) putting scientific knowledge on display versus expressing social responsibility, (III) putting scientific knowledge on display versus winning the debate, (IV) using sources tactically versus using sources critically. As these purposes emerged in classroom practice, tensions between different ways of enacting participation in the debates became manifest. Based on these findings, this paper discusses the affordances and constraints for using a socio-political debate for classroom-based assessment of scientific literacy and argumentation in terms of validity, reliability and affordability.

  • 50.
    Anker-Hansen, Jens
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Challenging and Expanding Science Teachers’ Assessment Repertoires Through Social ModerationIn: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Curriculumreforms in Sweden have gradually shifted science education syllabi towards amore citizen-oriented science. Swedish science teachers have expresseduncertainty how to assess new syllabi standards concerning communication,source critique and decision-making. Research indicates that assessmentmoderation meetings, where teachers meet and assess together, are more helpfulto teachers in development of a joint assessment practice than externallyproduced tests. This article reports from an intervention study thatinvestigates the possibilities for using assessment moderation meetings forexpanding teachers’ assessment repertoires for challenging aspects of thescience subjects’ syllabi. Assessment moderation meetings were studied in twoschools with different discourses for assessing science and analysed with thetheory of expansive learning. Teachers for one of the schools constantlyelicited science and interpreted students’ answers, whereas the teachers fromthe other school demanded that their students elaborated scientific aspects intheir replies and expressed themselves clearly. The teachers in both schoolsalso expanded their assessment practices in different directions depending onhow they identified contradictions between prior assessment practices and newdemands. The meetings forced the teachers to listen to the multiple voices inthe group and negotiate collective changes in the assessment practice. However,teachers could choose not to follow the expansions of their colleagues.

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