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  • 1.
    A. Manneh, Ilana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Supporting Learning and Teaching of Chemistry in the Undergraduate Classroom2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is agreement in research about the need to find better ways of teaching chemistry to enhance students’ understanding. This thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of how we better support teaching and learning of undergraduate chemistry to make it meaningful and intelligible for students from the outset. The thesis is concerned with examining the interactions between student, specific content and teacher in the undergraduate chemistry classroom; that is, the processes making up the three relations of the didactic triangle. The data consists of observations of students and tutors during problem-solving activities in an introductory chemistry course and interviews with graduate students.

    Systematic analyses of the different interactions between the student, the chemistry content, and the tutor are made using the analytical tool of practical epistemology analysis. The main findings of the thesis include detailed insights into how undergraduate chemistry students deal with newly encountered content together with didactic models and concrete suggestions for improved teaching and for supporting continuity and progression in the undergraduate chemistry classroom. Specifically, I show how students deal with the chemistry content through a complex interaction of knowledge, experiences, and purposes on different levels invoked by both students and tutors as they interact with each other. Whether these interactions have a positive or negative effect on students’ learning depends on the nature of knowledge, experiences and purposes that were invoked. Moreover, the tutor sometimes invoked other purposes than the ones related to the task at hand for connecting the activity to the subject matter in general. These purposes were not always made continuous with the activity which resulting in confusion among students. The results from these analyses were used for producing hypotheses and models that could support continuity and progression during the activity. The suggested models aim to make the content more manageable and meaningful to students, enabling connections to other experiences and purposes, and helping teachers and tutors to analyze and reflect on their teaching. Moreover, a purpose- and activity-based progression is suggested that gives attention to purposes in chemistry education other than providing explanations of chemical phenomena. The aim of this ‘progression in action’ is to engage students in activities were they can see the meaning of chemical concepts and ideas through their use to accomplish different chemical tasks. A general conclusion is that detailed knowledge about the processes of teaching and learning is important for providing adequate support to both undergraduate students and university teachers in the chemistry classroom.

  • 2.
    A. Manneh, Ilana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    The role of anthropomorphisms in students’ reasoning about chemical structure and bonding2018In: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1609-4913, E-ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 19, no 2, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropomorphisms are widespread at all levels of the educational system even among science experts. This has led to a shift in how anthropomorphisms are viewed in science education, from a discussion of whether they should be allowed or avoided towards an interest in their role in supporting students’ understanding of science. In this study we examine the role of anthropomorphisms in supporting students’ understanding of chemistry. We analyze examples from undergraduate students’ discussions during problem-solving classes through the use of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). Findings suggest that students invoked anthropomorphisms alongside technical relations which together produced more or less chemically appropriate explanations. Also, anthropomorphisms constitute potentially productive points of departure for rendering students’ explanations more chemically appropriate. The implications of this study refer to the need to deal with anthropomorphisms explicitly and repeatedly as well as to encourage explicit connections between different parts of the explanation - teleological as well as causal.

  • 3.
    A. Manneh, Ilana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tutor-student interaction in undergraduate chemistry: a case of learning to make relevant distinctions of molecular structures for determining oxidation states of atoms2018In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 40, no 16, p. 2023-2043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore the issues and challenges involved in supporting students’ learning to discern relevant and critical aspects of determining oxidation states of atoms in complex molecules. We present a detailed case of an interaction between three students and a tutor during a problem-solving class, using the analytical tool of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). The results show that the ability to make relevant distinctions between the different parts of a molecule for solving the problem, even with the guidance of the tutor, seemed to be challenging for students. These shifts were connected to both purposes that were specific for solving the problem at hand, and additional purposes for general learning of the subject matter, in this case how to assign oxidation states in molecules. The students sometimes could not follow the additional purposes introduced by the tutor, which made the related distinctions more confusing. Our results indicate that in order to provide adequate support and guidance for students the tutor needs to consider how to sequence, move between, and productively connect the different purposes introduced in a tutor-student interaction. One way of doing that is by first pursuing the purposes for solving the problem and then successively introduce additional, more general purposes for developing students’ learning of the subject matter studied. Further recommendations drawn from this study are discussed as well.

  • 4.
    Abdulla, Tavga
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nyanlända elevers svårigheter i algebra: En studie om nyanlända elevers uppfattningar om undervisning i algebra samt textuppgifter inom algebra i introduktionsprogram2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka matematiska och språkliga svårigheter nyanlända gymnasieelever har när de arbetar med algebra, både deras uppfattningar om undervisning i algebra och hur de löser textuppgifter inom algebra. Samtliga elever i studien är nyanlända och går ett introduktionsprogram och de har ett annat modersmål än svenska.

    Flera studier visar på att elever som har ett annat modersmålspråk än svenska har svårare att klara matematik i skolan och därmed presterar sämre i matematikundervisningen än andra elever som har svenska som modersmål (Malmer, 2002). I denna studie undersöks vad detta beror på och hur undervisningen kan anpassas för att bättre gynna den berörda elevgruppen.

    För att besvara frågeställningarna gjordes elevintervjuer med åtta elever samt ett test i algebra med eleverna som deltog i intervjuerna. Resultaten i denna studie visar på att eleverna hade språkliga svårigheter som påverkade deras problemlösningsförmåga i algebra. En orsak till detta är språkliga svårigheter och detta kan delvis bero på bristfälliga svenskkunskaper som leder till svårigheter att förstå textuppgifter och svårigheter att uttrycka sig när man kommunicerar inom matematik.

  • 5. Abdullah, Ailin
    et al.
    Berglund, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    State Neutrality and Islamic Education in Sweden2018In: European Perspectives on Islamic education and Public Schooling / [ed] Jenny Berglund, Sheffield, UK: Equinox Publishing, 2018, p. 312-334Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public debate about Islam and Muslims often focuses on contradictions, conflicts, and contrasting value systems. Since 9/11, the bombings in Madrid and London and the recent rise of ISIS this debate has to a large extent included a fear that Muslim immigrants will be disloyal to their new Western countries, and thus requires increased surveillance and control. Conversely, others argue that Muslim populations in the West have wrongly suffered from the increasing intolerance and suspicion resulting from terrorist acts committed by a small number of radicals. Such voices point to a need to safeguard religious freedom and the right to equal treatment regardless of a group’s ethnic, cultural, linguistic, or religious background. In many European countries, these discussions have directed attention toward places of Islamic education such as Muslim schools, mosques, and Islamic organizations, focusing on the sometimes controversial manner in which they have been depicted in the media, public discourse, and, within Muslim communities themselves (Aslan 2009; Birt 2006). Religious education is both an essential and a challenging objective for minorities since the “transmission” of religious tradition to future generations is crucial to the survival of any religion. In Sweden as elsewhere in Europe many Muslim children and teenagers and even adults attend privately-run, extra-curricular Islamic classes. Some attend Islamic schools or are taught at home. Publically funded Islamic education options provided by the state are an emergent option in several European countries. These classes lie not only at the heart of debates over religious freedom, equal rights to education, and integration, but are also connected to matters of securitization and the state control of Islam. This paper will present an overview of publicly funded, mainly pre-university Islamic education in Sweden, a European Western secular Christian majority country with a Muslim minority population. Firstly, I will establish a definition of Islamic education and a description of the state funding of education and religion in general. Then, the paper will move on to describe different types of Islamic education that are available in Sweden.

  • 6.
    Ablhad, Reem
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Ny teknik i förskolan: En netnografisk studie kring iPad-projekt i tio kommuner i Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7. Acher, Andrés
    et al.
    Krabbe Sillasen, Martin
    Febri, Maria I. M.
    Lyngved Staberg, Ragnhild
    Karlström, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    McDonald, Scott
    Teaching Practices in Preservice Science Teacher Education2018In: Electronic Proceedings of the ESERA 2017 Conference: Research, Practice and Collaboration in Science Education / [ed] Odilla Finlayson, Eilish McLoughlin, Sibel Erduran, Peter Childs, Dublin, Ireland: Dublin City University , 2018, p. 1903-1914Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent efforts to design and study Pre-service Science Teacher Education have focused on engaging future teachers in teaching practices. This focus on practices comes with an explicit intention to blend aspects of knowledge and doing that has been historically separate in other efforts to teach novice learners practical aspects of their profession. This intention brings particular challenges to EU preservice teacher preparation programs that need to reconsider how to incorporate aspects of practices into their science education courses. These challenges not only emerge from the novelty and interrelated nature of these practices, but also from lack of clear ways of articulating what these practices are and look like across international teacher educational contexts. This paper brings together four EU studies and an international discussant that explore possibilities to embrace and respond to these challenges and being a cross-contextual conversation about science teacher education. 

  • 8.
    Ahlström, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lesant, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    ”Barnen är ju redan där, de är ju hur nyfikna och intresserade som helst”: IKT i förskolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka vilka faktorer som är avgörande när det gäller implementering av IKT i förskolan samt hur arbetet med IKT kan integreras på ett kreativt sätt i den pedagogiska verksamheten. För att försöka ta reda på detta har vi genomfört en kvalitativ studie där vi intervjuat medie/IKT-pedagoger för att kunna ta del av deras tankar och erfarenheter. Resultatet visar att ledning och chefer som satsar på och prioriterar IKT är en viktig aspekt. Att tid avsätts för regelbundna reflektionstillfällen är av mycket stor betydelse för att kunna utveckla arbetet med IKT, ett arbete som måste förstås som en ständigt pågående process. Medutforskande pedagoger med ett nyfiket och öppet förhållningssätt är en avgörande faktor för att IKT ska integreras på ett kreativt sätt i förskolans verksamhet. Studien visar även på vikten av att barn ges möjlighet att utveckla digital kompetens för att kunna vara delaktiga i ett digitalt samhälle.

  • 9.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A Social Semiotic Approach to Teaching and Learning Science2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation I will discuss the application of social semiotics to the teaching and learning of university science. Science disciplines leverage a wide range of semiotic resources such as graphs, diagrams, mathematical representations, hands on work with apparatus, language, gestures etc. In my work I study how students learn to integrate these resources to do physics and what teachers can do to help them in this process. Over the years, a number of theoretical constructs have been developed within the Physics Education Research Group in Uppsala to help us to better understand the different roles semiotic resources play in learning university physics. In this presentation I will explain some of these terms and give examples of their usefulness for teasing out how learning is taking place.

  • 10.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Building on higher education research - How can we take a scholarly approach to teaching and learning2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Linnæus University, Sweden.
    CLIL: Combining Language and Content: Tarja Nikula, Emma Dafouz, Pat Moore and Ute Smit (Eds.). CONCEPTUALISING INTEGRATION IN CLIL AND MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION (2016), Bristol: Multilingual Matters2017In: ESP Today, ISSN 2334-9050, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 297-302Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Disciplinary Affordance vs Pedagogical Affordance: Teaching the Multimodal Discourse of University Science2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The natural sciences have been extremely successful in modeling some specific aspects of the world around us. This success is in no small part due to the creation of generally accepted, paradigmatic ways of representing the world through a range of semiotic resources. The discourse of science is of necessity multimodal (see for example Lemke, 1998) and it is therefore important for undergraduate science students to learn to master this multimodal discourse (Airey & Linder, 2009). In this paper, I approach the teaching of multimodal science discourse via the concept of affordance. Since its introduction by Gibson (1979) the concept of affordance has been debated by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Fredlund, 2015 for a recent example). Here, Kress et al (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. In the presentation the interrelated concepts of disciplinary affordance and pedagogical affordance will be presented. Both concepts make a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the perception of an individual, they refer to the disciplinary community as a whole. Disciplinary affordance is "the agreed meaning making functions that a semiotic resource fulfills for a disciplinary community". Similarly, pedagogical affordance is "the aptness of a semiotic resource for the teaching and learning of some particular educational content" (Airey, 2015). As such, in a teaching situation the question of whether these affordances are inherent or perceived becomes moot. Rather, the issue is the process through which students come to use semiotic resources in a way that is accepted within the discipline. In this characterization then, learning can be framed in terms of coming to perceive and leverage the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources. In this paper, I will discuss: the disciplinary affordances of individual semiotic resources, how these affordances can be made “visible” to students and how the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources are ultimately leveraged and coordinated in order to make science meanings.

  • 13.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden; Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Disciplinary Literacy: Theorising the Specialized Use of Language and other Modes in University Teaching and Learning2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation I use the work of Basil Bernstein (Bernstein, 1990, 1999, 2000) to discuss the role of disciplinary differences in university teaching and learning.  Drawing from my own work on the theme of disciplinary literacy (Airey, 2012, 2013; Airey & Linder, 2008, 2011) I argue that all university lecturers are teachers of disciplinary literacy—even in monolingual settings. 

    I define disciplinary literacy as appropriate participation in the communicative practices of the discipline (Airey, 2011a, 2011b)and suggest that disciplinary literacy is developed for three specific sites (academy, workplace and society). I will illustrate the multilingual and multimodal nature of disciplinary literacy with empirical evidence from a comparative study of the disciplinary literacy goals of Swedish and South African physics lecturers (Linder, Airey, Mayaba, & Webb, 2014). 

    Finally, I will conclude by demonstrating how two of Bernstein’s dichotomies: disciplinary knowledge structures (hierarchical vs horizontal) and disciplinary classification (singular vs region) can be used together with the disciplinary literacy triangle to better understand the literacy goals of particular disciplines.

  • 14.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Learning and Sharing Disciplinary Knowledge: The Role of Representations2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a large amount of interest in the roles that different representations (graphs, algebra, diagrams, sketches, physical models, gesture, etc.) play in student learning. In the literature two distinct but interrelated ways of thinking about such representations can be identified. The first tradition draws on the principles of constructivism emphasizing that students need to build knowledge for themselves. Here students are encouraged to create their own representations by working with materials of various kinds and it is in this hands-on representational process that students come to develop their understanding.

    The second tradition holds that there are a number of paradigmatic ways of representing disciplinary knowledge that have been created and refined over time. These paradigmatic disciplinary representations need to be mastered in order for students to be able to both understand and effectively communicate knowledge within a given discipline.

    In this session I would like to open up a discussion about how these two ways of viewing representations might be brought together. To do this I will first present some of the theoretical and empirical work we have been doing in Sweden over the last fifteen years. In particular there are three concepts that I would like to introduce for our discussion: critical constellations of representations, the disciplinary affordance of representations and the pedagogical affordance of representations.

  • 15.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Research on physics teaching and learning, physics teacher education, and physics culture at Uppsala University2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project compares the affordances and constraints for physics teachers’ professional identity building across four countries. The results of the study will be related to the potential consequences of this identity building for pupils’ science performance in school. The training of future physics teachers typically occurs across three environments, the physics department, the education department and school (during teaching practice). As they move through these three environments, trainees are in the process of building their professional identity. However, what is signalled as valuable for a future physics teacher differs considerably in different parts of the education. In educational research, professional identity has been used in a variety of ways (See for example overviews of the concept in Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009; and Beijaard, Meijer, & Verloop, 2004). In this project we draw on the work of Sfard and Pruzak (2005) who have defined identity as an analytical category for use in educational research. The project leverages this concept of identity as an analytical tool to understand how the value-systems present in teacher training environments and society as a whole potentially affect the future practice of trainee physics teachers. For identities to be recognized as professional they must fit into accepted discourses. Thus the project endeavours to identify discourse models that tacitly steer the professional identity formation of future physics teachers. Interviews will be carried out with trainee physics teachers and the various training staff that they meet during their education (physics lecturers, education lecturers, school mentors). It has been suggested that the perceived status of the teaching profession in society has a major bearing on the type of professional identity teachers can enact. Thus, in this project research interviews will be carried out in parallel across four countries with varying teacher status and PISA science scores: Sweden, Finland, Singapore and England. These interviews will be analysed following the design developed in a pilot study that has already carried out by the project group in Sweden. The research questions for the project are as follows: In four countries where the societal status of the teaching profession differs widely: What discourse models are enacted in the educational environments trainee physics teachers meet? What are the potential affordances and constraints of these discourse models for the constitution of physics teacher professional identities? In what ways do perceptions of the status assigned by society to the teaching profession potentially affect this professional identity building? What are the potential consequences of the answers to the above questions for the view of science communicated to pupils in school? In an extensive Swedish pilot study, four potentially competing discourse models were identified: these are: the critically reflective teacher, the practically well-equipped teacher, the syllabus implementer and the physics expert. Of these, the physics expert discourse model was found to dominate in both the physics department and amongst mentors in schools. In the physics expert discourse model the values of the discipline of physics dominate. Thus, the overarching goal of physics teaching is to create future physicists. In this model, the latest research in physics is seen as interesting and motivating, whereas secondary school subject matter is viewed as inherently unsophisticated and boring—something that needs to be made interesting. The model co-exists with the three other discourse models, which were more likely to be enacted in the education department. These other models value quite different goals such as the development of practical skills, reflective practice, critical thinking and citizenship. We claim that knowledge of the different discourse models at work in four countries with quite different outcomes on PISA science will useful in a number of ways. For teacher trainers, a better understanding of these models would allow informed decisions to be taken about the coordination of teacher education. For prospective teachers, knowledge of the discourse models at work during their education empowers them to question the kind of teacher they want to become.

  • 16.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Semiotic Resources and Disciplinary Literacy2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research project we focused on the different semiotic resources used in physics (e.g. graphs, diagrams, language, mathematics, apparatus, etc.). We were interested in the ways in which undergraduate physics students learn to combine the different resources used in physics in order to become “disciplinary literate” and what university lecturers do to help their students in this process. Comparative data on the disciplinary literacy goals of physics lecturers for their students was collected at five universities in South Africa and four universities in Sweden.

    One of the main contributions of the project concerned what we termed the disciplinary affordance of a semiotic resource, that is, the specific meaning-making functions a particular resource plays for the discipline. We contrasted these meaning-making functions with the way that students initially viewed the same resource.

    We proposed two ways that lecturers can direct their students’ attention towards the disciplinary affordances of a given resource. The first involves unpacking the disciplinary affordance in order to create a new resource with higher pedagogical affordance. Our second proposal involved the use of systematic variation in order to help students notice the disciplinary relevant aspects of a given resource. A total of 19 articles/book chapters were published as a direct result of this funding.

  • 17.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The Concept of Affordance in the Teaching and Learning of Undergraduate Science2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its introduction by Gibson (1979) the concept of affordance has been debated by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman(1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Fredlund, 2015 for a recent example). 

    In the presentation the interrelated concepts of disciplinary affordance and pedagogical affordance will be presented. Both concepts make a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the perception of an individual, they refer to the disciplinary community as a whole. Disciplinary affordance is "the agreed meaning making functions that a semiotic resource fulfills for a disciplinary community". Similarly, pedagogical affordance is "the aptness of a semiotic resource for the teaching and learning of some particular educational content" (Airey, 2015). As such, in a teaching situation the question of whether these affordances are inherent or perceived becomes moot. Rather, the issue is the process through which students come to use semiotic resources in a way that is accepted within the discipline. In this characterization then, learning can be framed in terms of coming to perceive and leverage the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources. 

  • 18.
    Airey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Using variation and unpacking to help students decode disciplinary-specific semiotic resources2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation I will describe a social semiotic approach (Halliday 1978; van Leeuwen 2005) to the multimodal teaching and learning of a discipline that takes variation theory (Marton & Booth 1997; Runesson 2005) as its theoretical framing. Following Airey and Linder (2017:95) I define social semiotics as “the study of the development and reproduction of specialized systems of meaning making in particular sections of society”

    Learning at university level involves coming to understand the ways in which disciplinary-specific semiotic resources can be coordinated to make appropriate disciplinary meanings (Airey & Linder 2009). Nowhere is this more true than in undergraduate physics where a particularly wide range of semiotic resources such as graphs, diagrams, mathematics and language are essential for meaning making.  In order to learn to make these disciplinary meanings, students need to discover the disciplinary affordances(Fredlund et al. 2012, 2014; Airey & Linder 2017) of the semiotic resources used in their discipline. 

    Fredlund et al. (2015) propose a three-stage process that lecturers can use to help their students:  

    1. Identify the disciplinary relevant aspects needed for a particular task. 

    2. Select semiotic resources that showcase these aspects. 

    3. Create structured variation within these semiotic resources to help students notice the disciplinary relevant aspects and their relationships to each other.

    However, many disciplinary specific semiotic resources have been rationalized to create a kind of disciplinary shorthand(Airey 2009). In such cases the disciplinary relevant aspects needed may no longer be present in resources used, but are rather implied. In such cases the resources will need to be unpacked for students (Fredlund et al. 2014).  Such unpacking increases the pedagogical affordance of semiotic resources but simultaneously decreases their disciplinary affordance. 

  • 19.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Grundström Lindqvist, Josefine
    Kung, Rebecca
    What does it mean to understand a physics equation?: A study of undergraduate answers in three countries2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are interested in how undergraduate students in the US, Australia and Sweden experience the physics equations they meet in their education. We asked over 350 students the same simple question: How do you know when you understand a physics equation? Students wrote free-text answers to this question and these were transcribed and coded. The analysis resulted in eight themes (significance, origin, describe, predict, parts, relationships, calculate and explain). Each of these themes represents a different disciplinary aspect of student understanding of physics equations. We argue that together the different aspects we find represent a more holistic view of physics equations that we would like all our students to experience. Based on this work we wondered how best to highlight this more holistic view of equations. This prompted us to write a set of questions that reflect the original data with respect to the eight themes. We suggest that when students are working with problem solving they may ask themselves these questions in order to check their holistic understanding of what the physics equations they are using represent. In continuing work we are asking the same question to a cohort of physics lecturers. We are also trialling the themes and related questions that we generated in teaching situations. Here we are interested in whether students perceive the questions as helpful in their learning.

  • 20.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johanna
    Linder, Anne
    Investigating Undergraduate Physics Lecturers’ Disciplinary Literacy Goals For Their Students2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation we use the concept of disciplinary literacy (Airey, 2011a; 2013) to analyse the expressed learning goals of university physics lecturers for their students. We define disciplinary literacy in terms of learning to control a particular set of multimodal communicative practices. We believe it is important to document the expressed intentions of lecturers in this way, since it has previously been suggested that the development of such disciplinary literacy may be seen as one of the primary goals of university studies (Airey, 2011a).

    The main data set used in this presentation comes from a comparative study of 30 physics lecturers from Sweden and South Africa. (Airey, 2012, 2013; Linder et al, 2014). Semi-structured interviews were carried out using a disciplinary literacy discussion matrix (Airey, 2011b), which enabled us to probe the lecturers’ disciplinary literacy goals in the various semiotic resource systems used in undergraduate physics (e.g. graphs, diagrams, mathematics, spoken and written languages, etc.).

    The findings suggest that physics lecturers in both countries have strikingly similar disciplinary literacy goals for their students and hold similar beliefs about disciplinary semiotic resources. The lecturers also agree that teaching disciplinary literacy ought not to be their job. Here though, there were differences in whether the lecturers teach students to handle disciplinary-specific semiotic resources. These differences appear to be based on individual decisions, rather than being specific to a particular country or institution.

  • 21.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Simpson, Zachary
    Multimodal Science and Engineering Teaching: Perspectives from 8ICOM2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The previous international conference on multimodality – 8ICOM – featured two sessions devoted to multimodal, social semiotic approaches to science teaching and learning (c.f. Halliday1978; van Leeuwen 2005, Airey & Linder 2017). What the papers in these sessions shared was the argument that such perspectives on science, and science teaching, can, at least in part, respond to calls to ‘democratize’ science education by recognising diverse sets of semiotic resources and, in so doing, seeking to address impediments to equal participation (Burke et al., 2017). 

    The 8ICOM science sessions were particularly noteworthy given the backdrop against which 8ICOM had been organised. In the months leading up to the conference, South Africa (and Cape Town, in particular) had experienced campus unrest aimed at ‘decolonizing’ higher education in that country. As part of this movement, the phrase #ScienceMustFall briefly trended on social media. This emanated from the claim that ‘science’ is a western, colonial construct that needs to be dismantled and replaced with the teaching of indigenous, African knowledge. Although the #ScienceMustFall slogan has since departed from the wider public consciousness, the questions it raises nonetheless remain: why, and how, should science be taught?  Is science more than just a western colonial construction and, if so, why? And, what can the concept of multimodality offer by way of answering these questions? 

    In this paper, we offer an overview of the multimodal science papers presented in the two sessions at 8ICOM in the light of these questions. This is done with a view to assessing where the multimodality community finds itself regarding science education, and how it might address questions of the legitimacy of western science in the future. It is thus an attempt, as the conference theme suggests, to ‘move the theory forward’.      

  • 22.
    Aldén, Mona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Design och meningsskapande i förskolan: En multimodal designteoretisk studie av fyra lärandesammanhang kring matematik2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's purpose was, based on a design theoretical multimodal approach to describe, analyze and interpret how three preschool teachers design learning contexts, on the subject of mathematics. Besides, this was also the aim to gain insight on how context of learning designs could be understood and interpreted in terms of learning and meaning. The method I chose was built around a non-participating video observation with a qualitative approach where the goal was to try to understand what took place through the relevant interpretations. The results and conclusions that emerged was that the preschool teachers used a variety of semiotic resources in the form of physical tools along with facial expressions, voice and gestures in their communication with the children. Moreover, it appeared that the children also used a number of different semiotic resources in their work of creating meaning around the different learning situations, designed by the preschool educators, they participated in. It also became clear that the children's previous experiences had a significant role as they also used past experiences as a tool in the meaning-making process.

  • 23.
    Alexandersson-From, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Miladi, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hur beskriver studenter lärares bedömning?: Vad kan lärarstudenten som VFU-handledaren inte kan?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärare använder sig av allt från summativ bedömning och fingertoppskänsla till beprövad didaktisk erfarenhet och formativ bedömning, när elevers kunskaper ska bedömas. Forskning visar att den största framgången för elevers lärande och kunskapsutveckling sker då formativ bedömning används.

    Syftet med denna studie är att studera hur blivande lärarstudenter beskriver lärares bedömningspraktiker under den verksamhetsförlagda utbildningen. Vad upplever studenterna i praktiken av lärares bedömning jämfört med teorin från lärarutbildningen?

    Det empiriska materialet, bestående av 18 examinationsuppgifter från lärarstudenter i Didaktik II, sammanställs och tolkas med inspiration utifrån det hermeneutiska tankesättet. Studenttexterna tolkas utifrån de begrepp som studenterna enligt examinationsuppgiften förväntades att studera från sin VFU- verksamhet. Det empiriska materialet beskrivs, analyseras och resultatet jämförs i relation till forskningsfrågorna.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att lärare inte alltid gör som de säger samt att studenterna visar att de ännu inte helt erövrat den praktiska erfarenheten, som en lång lärarpraktik innebär. Studenterna har emellertid med sig de senaste teorierna om bedömning av och för elevers lärande och kunskapsutveckling. Denna studie visar att en viss diskrepans tycks råda mellan teori och praktik.

  • 24.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Brickhouse, Nancy
    University of Delaware.
    Lederman, Judith S.
    Illinois Institute of Technology.
    Lederman, Norman G.
    Illinois Institute of Technology.
    Ligozat, Florence
    University of Geneva, Schweiz.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sadler, Troy D.
    University of Florida.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Zeidler, Dana L.
    University of South Florida.
    Exploring themes of scientific literacy2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Alvring, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Laptops in English language teaching2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the use of laptops in English language teaching, its benefits and disadvantages. Three classroom observations, six student interviews and three teacher interviews were carried out to answer the study’s research questions, namely, what are the benefits and disadvantages of using laptops in the teaching of English at schools under study? How do teachers solve technical and pedagogical problems related to the use of laptops? What kinds of IT-support and possibility to develop teaching skills required by laptops are available for teachers of English?

    Results of the study indicate that easy access to authentic English through laptops is a benefit when teaching English at two Swedish compulsory schools and one high school. Furthermore, the study has shown that laptops are beneficial tools when teaching writing proficiency and working with problem-solving tasks in the classroom. The results of the study have also pointed to the disadvantage in the use of laptops during classroom activities, which are caused by students who are engaged in browsing off-task websites. However, a solution to this could be to include these websites into English language learning activities. The data from the interviews with the three English language teachers have provided evidence about different possibilities for IT-support and IT-development for these teachers.

    This study makes it clear that a successful implementation of one-to-one laptop programs requires teachers who can invest their time and energy into learning new technology, IT-development provided by the school and municipality through courses, workshops and visits at IT-fairs and other schools with one-to-one laptop program as well as a functional IT-support.

  • 26.
    Anderhag, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Taste for Science: How can teaching make a difference for students’ interest in science?2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the thesis is to describe and analyse aspects of home background and teaching that may be important for students’ capability and will to participate in science. The purpose is to make explicit how teaching can support students in developing an interest in science and so counter-balance the restricted opportunities some students may have due to upbringing. In study 1 population data is used to make evident what associations there are between home background variables and the students’ choice of applying for the Swedish post-compulsory Natural Science Programme (NSP). The findings show that home background is important for Swedish students’ choice of the NSP but also that some lower secondary schools can make a difference. Students’ interest in science has usually been examined through questionnaires and rarely studied as constituted in classroom action as a result of teaching. In study 2 therefore an action-oriented methodology is developed based on the concept of taste to study what difference a teacher can make for the constitution of interest in the science classroom. The concept of taste is grounded in pragmatism and the works of Pierre Bourdieu and acknowledges the affective, normative, and cognitive dimensions of situated science learning. In study 3 this methodology is used to examine how a teacher located through Study 1 supports his students in developing an interest in science. The results of study 3 suggest how teaching can make the object of science the focus of students’ interest and so showing that science, with its aims, norms, and values, can be enjoyed in itself. Study 4 draws on the findings of studies 1-3 to discuss the possibility of an overlooked field in studying interest in science; namely whether primary, secondary, tertiary students in effect have different objects of interest. The findings of studies 1-4 are used to discuss how teaching may make a difference to a continued student interest in science.

  • 27.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Danielsson Thorell, Helena
    Andersson, Carina
    Holst, Andreas
    Nordling, Johan
    Syften och tillfälligheter i högstadie- och gymnasielaborationen: en studie om hur elever handlar i relation till aktivitetens mål2014In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 63-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purposes and contingencies in the lower and upper secondary school lab

    Studies have shown that students’ awareness of the goals and purposes of the laboratory activity is important for their possibility to participate in and learn from the activity. While practical activities often have been considered to be a central part of science education, relatively few studies have examined laboratory work in situ. In this paper we addressed these issues by examining (a) what purposes are distinguished when students’ work with a laboratory assignment and (b) how these purposes are made continuous with the teacher’s aim with the assignment. The data was based on classroom observations from two ordinary laboratory settings, one from a chemistry class in lower secondary school and one from a physics class in the natural science programme in upper secondary school. Although both student groups acknowledged their teacher’s intentions with the practical and could act towards the more student centered purposes of the activity, e.g. describe what happens with the copper and measure the speed of a small vessel respectively, there were differences regarding the possibilities the students had to act toward the activity’s final aim. The results showed that these factors can be referred to the amount of purposes introduced by the teacher as well as those that arose because of contingences, and the connection of these purposes to students’ prior experiences.

  • 28.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    What can a teacher do to support students’ interest in science?: A study of the constitution of taste in a science classroom2015In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 749-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined how a teacher may make a difference to the way interest develops in a science classroom, especially for students from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. We adopted a methodology based on the concept of taste for science drawing on the work of John Dewey and Pierre Bourdieu. We investigated through transcripts from video recordings how such a taste is socially constituted in a 9th grade (ages 15–16) science classroom, where there was evidence that the teacher was making a positive difference to students’ post-compulsory school choice with regard to science. Salient findings regarding how this teacher supported students’ interest are summarized. For example, the teacher consistently followed up how the students acknowledged and enjoyed purposes, norms, and values of the science practice and so ensuing that they could participate successfully. During these instances, feelings and personal contributions of the students were also acknowledged and made continuous with the scientific practice. The results were compared with earlier research, implications are discussed, and some suggestions are given about how these can be used by teachers in order to support student interest.

  • 29.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    An evalutation of how NTA is helping schools to attain the Science Studies syllabus goals at the grade 5 level2007Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Signs of taste for science: A methodology for studying the constitution of interest in the science classroom.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Taste for science: bridging the Cartesian divide between interest and cognitive learning in science?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions, aesthetics and affect are natural elements in everyday science classroom practice, but our understanding of their role for learning in science is limited. It has been suggested that the epistemological tradition of approaching human conduct as essentially separated intovarious dualisms, such as social-mental, emotion-cognition, fact-value, body-mind and so forth, can explain why affect and learning have received so relatively little attention from the science education research field. This theoretical paper addresses some of these issues by discussing how the concept of taste, which is grounded in the works of Pierre Bourdieu and pragmatism research on aesthetics and learning, can be used for approaching cognition, norms, and values as simultaneously transacted in classroom action.

  • 32.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    What difference can a teacher make for the constitution of taste in the science classroom?:  2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    How can teaching make a difference to students’ interest in science? Including Bourdieuan field analysis2015In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 377-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we respond to the discussion by Alexandra Schindel Dimick regarding how the taste analysis presented in our feature article can be expanded within a Bourdieuan framework. Here we acknowledge the significance of field theory to introduce wider reflexivity on the kind of taste that is constituted in the science classroom, while we at the same time emphasize the importance of differentiating between how taste is reproduced versus how it is changed through teaching. The contribution of our methodology is mainly to offer the possibility to empirically analyze changes in this taste, and how teaching can make a difference in regard to students’ home backgrounds. However, our last two steps of our taste analysis include asking questions about how the taste developing in the classroom relates more widely in society. Schindel Dimick shows how these two steps can be productively expanded by a wider societal field analysis.

  • 34.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Signs of taste for science: a methodology for studying the constitution of interest in the science classroom2015In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 339-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a methodological approach for analyzing the transformation of interest in science through classroom talk and action. To this end, we use the construct of taste for scienceas a social and communicative operationalization, or proxy, to the more psychologically oriented construct of interest. To gain a taste for science as part of school science activities means developing habits of performing and valuing certain distinctions about ways to talk, act and be that are jointly construed as belonging in the school science classroom. In this view, to learn science is not only about learning the curriculum content, but also about learning a normative and aesthetic content in terms of habits of distinguishing and valuing. The approach thus complements previous studies on students’ interest in science, by making it possible to analyze how taste for science is constituted, moment-by-moment, through talk and action in the science classroom. In developing the method, we supplement theoretical constructs coming from pragmatism and Pierre Bourdieu with empirical data from a lower secondary science classroom. The application of the method to this classroom demonstrates the potential that the approach has for analyzing how conceptual, normative, and aesthetic distinctions within the science classroom interact in the constitution of taste for, and thereby potentially also in the development of interest in science among students.

  • 35.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jakobson, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Why do secondary school students lose their interest in science?: A possible overlooked explanationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36. Andersson, Annica
    et al.
    Österling, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Democratic Actions in School Mathematics and the Dilemma of Conflicting Values2019In: Values and Valuing in Mathematics Education: Scanning and Scoping Territory / [ed] Philip Clarkson, Wee Tiong Seah, JeongSuk Pang, Springer, 2019, p. 69-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reports and problematizes relationships between the expected democratic actions as part of the politically expected democratically inclusion of students’ wishes and concerns; and students’ valuing of mathematical activities in mathematics classrooms, departing from the Swedish results from a large-scale quantitative cross-cultural survey. We asked what are the conflicts between most valued activities by Swedish students and the valuing of democratic actions. The quantitative study showed that students value “knowing the times tables” and “teachers’ explanations” and “correctness” over explorative, communicational and collaborative activities. We discuss the cultural and historical reasons behind these results and argue that we must understand the valuing of times tables or teachers’ explanations as an expression of enculturated and therefore culturally valued actions in mathematics classrooms, where this enculturation takes place not only in school, but in conversations with parents, grandparents, in media and in children’s books. We also argue that the conflict between the political expectations of democratic participation and actions, and the invitation to students to influence teaching on the one hand, and on the other hand students use of this influence through valuing teacher explaining, mastering times tables and understanding why the answer is incorrect, rather conserve a mathematics teaching organised around values as objectism and control than through openness and rationalism.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Fia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Berthén, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Collective Remembering - Möjlighet till synliggörande av en förändrad bedömningspraktik2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bedömning av kunskapsutveckling har länge varit lågprioriterat i grund- och gymnasiesärskolan. Enkla uppgifter med ett minimum av variation har tenderat att fragmentarisera undervisningen och lett till en förenklad bedömningspraktik. Nuvarande läroplaner innebär krav på mer komplexa bedömningspraktiker - dock saknas fördjupade uppföljningsstudier. Tillsammans med studenter verksamma i grund- och gymnasiesärskolan genomfördes vårterminen 2017 en studie inom speciallärarutbildningen, specialisering mot utvecklingsstörning, för att undersöka förändringar över tid i grund- och gymnasiesärskolans bedömningspraktiker. Studien inspirerades av tidigare arbeten med gruppsamtal inom ramen för Collective remembering (Konkola, 2000; Berthén, 2007; Berglund & Lindberg, 2015). Samtalen genomfördes med studenterna under ledning av två lärare/forskare. En tidslinje, som visualiserade den kronologiska ordning i vilken deltagarna anställts i särskolan, användes som redskap för att organisera samtalet där korta berättelser fokuserade lokala förhållanden gällande bedömning och bedömningsredskap i särskolans undervisning. Studenterna genomförde därefter gruppsamtal på motsvarande sätt med kollegor på sina arbetsplatser. Analysarbetet genomfördes gemensamt utifrån en verksamhetsteoretisk ansats och innehållet organiserades kronologiskt. Lärdomar av projektet:- studenterna kunde urskilja tydliga spår av kvarvarande traditioner och även skönja förändringar som skett i samband med läroplansreformerna.- studenterna uttryckte att genomförandet av Collective remembering med kollegor erbjöd ett redskap att tillsammans utforska den egna praktiken och tydliggjorde behovet av kollegialt utvecklingsarbete.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Embodied experiences of ‘decision-making’ in face of uncertain and complex sustainability issues2019In: Sustainable Development Teaching: Ethical and Political Challenges / [ed] Katrien Van Poeck, Leif Östman, Johan Öhman, London: Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘wicked’ character of sustainability issues points to the need for education to prepare students to make decisions (also) in the absence of clear guidelines and regulation. This chapter contributes to this need by presenting teaching approaches that offer students embodied experiences of decision-making in face of sustainability problems characterised by uncertainty and complexity. Short practical examples illuminating situations in business education at upper secondary level are provided to illuminate: (a) when different worldviews regarding how sustainability problems should or could be addressed come to the fore, and (b) emancipatory educational qualities in terms of subjectification. The different worldviews that comes to fore in the practical examples relates to whether or not trade automatically leads to socially and environmentally optimal outcomes, and whether a business (person) should be guided by an a-moral/a-political or moral/political business ideal. The practical examples illuminate what could be described as dislocatory moments. Drawing on the concept of ‘dislocatory moments’ the chapter presents a didactic model that could be used to identify room for subjectification processes together with a change of views regarding sustainability issues.  The ambition is to facilitate teachers’ development of teaching that could contribute to change for sustainability without compromising emancipatory education ideals. 

  • 39.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Equipped for responsibility in light of uncertainty and complexity: Studies of business education for sustainability2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Calls for the inclusion of ‘sustainable development’ in the business curriculum have increased in the wake of financial crisis and increased concern about climate change. As a result, new initiatives are emerging and new teaching approaches are being developed. At the same time, the integration of sustainability in the business curriculum has been described as particularly challenging, which relates to assumptions underpinning mainstream business theories and different views about how business education should deal with values. In addition, sustainability issues are often complex and uncertain, which implies severe challenges for predominant responsibility regimes. With this background, we here draw on a typology of responsibility (Pellizzoni 2004) to analyse results from four previous empirical studies of business education and suggest how business students could become better equipped to address uncertain and complex sustainability issues. The results from the empirical studies, in the form of three categories of business roles articulated in educational practice, are based on analysis of textbooks, teacher interviews and classroom observations. The three business roles could be described in terms of ‘companion meanings’, ‘collateral teaching’ or what sometimes is referred to as ‘the hidden curriculum’. It is argued that students could become unequipped, ill-equipped or better equipped to address uncertain and complex sustainability issues, depending on the way in which ‘sustainable development’ is incorporated business education. It is therefore suggested that the three categories of business roles (adapting, adding or creating), could be useful to analyse and assess environment and sustainability education initiatives in general, and of initiatives to include ‘sustainable development’ in business education in particular

  • 40.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Equipped for Responsibility? Studies of business education for sustainability2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calls for the inclusion of ‘sustainable development’ in the business curriculum have increased in the wake of financial crisis and increased concern about climate change. As a result, new initiatives are emerging and new teaching approaches are being developed with the expectation that business students will be better equipped to address environmental and social challenges. However, in relation to the business curriculum, education for sustainable development has been argued as being particularly challenging (Springett 2005). The challenges relate to assumptions underpinning orthodox business theories (Hühn 2014) and that sustainability issues often are uncertain and complex. Uncertainty and complexity is particularly challenging for predominant responsibility regimes relying on science as a source of independent, objective and reliable knowledge.

    To facilitate an analysis of the applicability of different responsibility regimes for addressing complex and uncertain sustainability issues, Pellizzoni (2004) has developed a typology of responsibility regimes. Liability regimes are based on laws and regulations and can be likened to the ‘polluter-pays-principle’. Accountability regimes are characterised by ‘good governance’ or ‘the audit society’. Care regimes are based on normative beliefs, e.g. the idea that the welfare state should take care of its citizens or, from a business perspective, the ‘good master’ taking responsibility for the needs of his workers that he knows the best. Responsiveness regimes implies taking responsibility by anticipating the needs of others without being prompted or without the need for previously established principles. Different responsibility regimes have different implications for what a responsible business person needs to know and do. These include knowing and following laws and regulations in the juridical system (liability regime), formulating and following up on self-imposed principles (accountability regime), knowing and providing for the needs of one’s workers as the good master (care regime) and listening to what stakeholders want before deciding what to do (responsiveness regime).

    When acknowledging uncertainty and complexity as a permanent condition, a rupture occurs in the linear process from scientific knowledge to legislation that industry could rely on to operate ‘safely’. This implies a deficit with regard to liability regimes, because the system requires a state that knows what to ask for and how to apply control and sanctions. This deficit can be seen as a backdrop to the development of accountability regimes. Proponents of accountability regimes emphasise the benefits of the integration of environmental concern in corporate decision-making. However, in face of uncertainty and complexity, accountability regimes suffer from the same deficit as liability regimes, in that both regimes depend on predefined principles (expressed in law or in the form of voluntary regulations). In contrast to liability and accountability regimes, care or responsiveness regimes do not rely on pre-defined principles. Either one just knows, like a mother is assumed to know the needs of her child (care regime) or one makes a judgement by listening to others needs in a given situation (responsiveness regime). In the absence of principles, personal feelings are necessary ‘tools’ when listening to the needs of others and deciding what to do. Considering the deficits of liability and accountability regimes in the face of uncertainty and complexity, Pellizzoni argues (without discarding other regimes) for an increased attention to responsibility understood as responsiveness (Pellizzoni 2007).

    Against this background, it is important to contribute with knowledge about how education for sustainable development can enhance responsible business practices. The purpose of this article is thus to contribute knowledge about the roles of a business person that are articulated in business education when the concept of sustainable development is included in the curriculum, and how these roles can make students, as future business people equipped to address uncertain and complex sustainability issues.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Talking about sustainability issues when teaching business economics: the 'positioning' of a responsible business person in classroom practice2018In: Journal of Social Science Education, ISSN 1611-9665, E-ISSN 1618-5293, Vol. 3, p. 46-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Talking about sustainability issues when teaching business economics: the 'positioning' of a responsible business person in classroom practice2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been suggested that the ‘homo economicus’ assumption underpinning neo-classical economic theory is not limited to its theoretical function, but also has a ‘productive’ function by ‘creating’ individuals acting in accordance with the assumption. Nelson (2006) and Zaman (2013) offer some clues as to how this process can be understood. They describe how we have come to embrace the metaphorical understanding of economy as a machine, running on self-interest, as something real rather than a figure of speech. Along the way, the tools with which sustainability issues could be addressed have become limited to those that fit ‘homo economicus’. Against this background, this paper presents a study of the roles of a business person privileged by teachers when the concept of ‘sustainable development’ is incorporated into the subject of business economics. A logics approach to discourse analysis was used to analyse the empirical material, which consisted of video recorded observations in five teachers’ classrooms collected two years after the inclusion of the concept ‘sustainable development’ in the upper secondary school syllabus in Sweden. The results show how different rules and conditions for doing business are foregrounded in classroom practice. This in turn has different implications for whether a responsible business person is expected to: a) adapt to self-interest, b) respond to customers’ increasing interests in sustainable products, or c) be sensitive to the needs or interests of others (including humans, animals and nature), when making business decisions. These three roles could be described in terms of different ‘companion meanings’ or what sometimes is referred to as ‘the hidden curriculum’.  Empirical examples are provided to illuminate different aspects of the subject matter and/or particular classroom practices opening up for different roles. The results are discussed in relation to how students as future business people could be better equipped to address uncertain and complex sustainability issues.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Teaching business economics for sustainability: the roles of a business person priviledged in classroom practice2017In: DEE 2017: Abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New teaching approaches to include ‘sustainable development’ in the business curriculum are currently being developed with the expectation that students will become better equipped to address sustainability issues as budding business people. At the same time education for sustainable development has been argued as being particularly challenging in the context of business education due to assumptions underpinning orthodox business theories. This article presents a study of the roles of a business person privileged by teachers in the classroom when the concept of ‘sustainable development’ is incorporated in the subject of business economics. The empirical material, consisting of video recorded observations in five teachers’ classrooms, was collected two years after the inclusion of the concept in the upper secondary school syllabus in Sweden. The results show how different rules and conditions for doing business are foregrounded in classroom practice, which have different implications for whether a responsible business person is expected to: a) adapt to self-interest (in narrow terms), b) respond to consumers’ increasing interest for sustainable products, or c) be sensitive to stakeholders’ diverging interests. Detailed empirical examples illuminating how different classroom practices open up for different (egoistic vs altruistic) roles are provided with the aim that they should be useful for teachers (and anyone involved in design of lessons and/or educational materials) to develop a professional vision to identify when and how in educational practice ‘homo economicus’ becomes a norm as well as when and how other norms might emerge.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Teaching business economics for sustainability with different interests in focus2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calls for the inclusion of ‘sustainable development’ in the business curriculum has increased significantly in the wake of financial crisis and increased concern about climate change. New teaching approaches are being developed with the expectation that students will be better equipped to address environmental and social challenges. However, there is also a concern that the concept of ‘sustainable development’ has lost the potential to address environmental and social challenges. It has been described as having become a wolf in sheep’s clothing that merely provides superficial solutions and supports the status quo, thereby taking the wind out of the sails of ‘the real’ environmentalists (Blühdorn, 2007; Fergus & Rowney, 2005). In relation to the business curriculum, education for sustainable development has been argued as being particularly challenging (Springett, 2005). The challenge is in part related to assumptions underpinning orthodox business theories. In short, the argument is that the assumption that all humans are driven by self-interest has a detrimental effect for societies by creating the assumed selfish behaviour. Research show that economists and students in economics indeed act more egoistically (Cohn, Fehr, & Marechal, 2014), although there is a disagreement regarding the effect of education, mainly because of the potential selection effect (Etzioni, 2015). I here seek to make a contribution to this field, not by adding an answer to this particular debate but by a study of educational practice in situ.  Several studies show different kinds of socialisation effects (Wang, Malhotra, & Murnighan, 2011). However, there is a lack of empirical research focusing the particular aspects of economics education that could have these socialisation effects. In this paper, I will therefore illuminate situations in educational practice where certain perceptions of appropriate actions emerge, are reproduced or challenged. Considering the current development of new teaching approaches to include sustainability in the business curriculum and the potentially detrimental effect of the homo economicus assumption, it is relevant to pay attention to the roles of a business person that are privileged when ‘sustainable development’ is integrated in business education. The purpose of this paper is therefore to contribute with knowledge about the roles of a business person that are privileged in business education when the concept sustainable development is integrated in classroom practice, and how different parts of the subject matter and/or particular classroom practices open up for different roles.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    ”Vilken energikälla ska vi välja?”: Elevers vägar till agentiska beslut i frågor om energi och hållbar utveckling2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The planetary impact from human activities calls attention to education for sustainable development. Previous research shows the need for new practice like socio-scientific issues (SSI) education and accordingly brings new challenges for science teachers. In collaboration with a teacher the present study is developing a didactic model, specifically enhancing students’ agency in the context of a SSI aimed at making students decide on future renewable energy. The data consisted of audio-recordings from group talk between Swedish social science students in grade 10. An analytical framework was designed based on Sadler’s four aspects of SSI (Sadler, Barab & Scott, 2007) and the concept of agency defined by Biesta andTedder (2007). The results show a high level of three aspects; complexity, multiple perspectives and SSI as an ongoing inquiry and also a low level of students’ scepticism towards biased information. The study presents new knowledge of agency in science education and opportunities for teachers to reflect on strategies for designing SSI in a democratic setting.

  • 46.
    Andrews, Paul
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Finnish mathematics teaching from a reform perspective: A video-based case study analysis2013In: Comparative Education Review, ISSN 0010-4086, E-ISSN 1545-701X, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 189-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers a qualitative analysis of videotaped mathematics lessons taught by fourteachers in a provincial university city in Finland. My study is framed not only by Finnishsuccess on Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) but also by theobjectives of current mathematics education reform, which are consistent with PISA’sgoals of measuring mathematical literacy. The analyses indicated that conceptual understandingand procedural fluency were addressed by all four teachers. However, adaptivereasoning, strategic competence, and the development of a productive dispositionappear rarely. I observed few occasions where students were invited to solve authenticproblems.

  • 47.
    Andrews, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    What does PISA performance tell us about mathematics teaching quality? Case studies from Finland and Flanders2013In: Pisa, power and policy: the emergence of global educational governance / [ed] Heinz-Dieter Meyer, Aaron Benavot, Oxford: Symposium Books, 2013, p. 99-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade Finnish students’ performance on the mathematical literacy components of PISA has created much international interest. However, with respect to the two times Finland has participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Finnish students’ mathematical performance has painted a very different picture, particularly at grade 8. What is less well known is that Flanders, whose Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) achievements have been masked by those of Belgium as a whole, has performed as well as Finland with respect to mathematical literacy and, on the three TIMSS in which it has participated, it has been the most successful European system at grade 8. Thus, while Finnish performance on tests of technical competence, despite success on tests of mathematical applicability, has been moderate, Flemish students have led the Europeans on both. In this chapter, the author examines two sequences of videotaped lessons taught on percentages, a topic resonant with ambitions of both technical competence and mathematical applicability, by case-study teachers considered against local criteria to be effective. The evidence suggests that Finnish mathematics didactics are more likely to explain Finnish TIMSS failure than PISA success. Flemish didactics may have greater explanatory potential for both PISA and TIMSS success. Such findings suggest that performance on international tests of achievement may be unrelated to didactical quality as other, typically hidden, cultural factors intercede.

  • 48.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Altering conditions for student participation and motive development in school science: learning from Helena’s mistake2012In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 425-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on science education has described various factors influencing students’ participation and produced categorizations of students based on e.g. cultural background. In this article it is argued, theoretically and empirically, that an understanding of students’ participation in science education needs to begin with an analysis of what activity students are engaged in. The aim is to explore how altering conditions of classroom work may open up opportunities for students mainly participating in an activity of education or schooling to engage in an activity of science learning. Activity is conceptualized in a Cultural-Historical Activity Theory perspective as object-oriented and transformative. Drawing on an ethnographic study in a Swedish compulsory school, a critical incident of the participation in science education of a 7th grade girl called Helena is analyzed. The results show that altered conditions of classroom practice may produce new possibilities for student participation, and point to the impossibility of determining students as ‘different kinds of students’ based on a priori categories e.g. sex, ethnicity, socio-economic background.

  • 49.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community2014In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire ‘the right way’ of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  • 50.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Bodily formation of students in the school science laboratory2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work in the school science laboratory has been criticized for being pseudo-experimental, resulting only in a reproduction of already well-known facts and theories. The point of departure in this paper is rather what students actually have the possibility to learn. What we learn must be understood as an aspect of the activities we engage in. In this article the formation of students in the school science laboratory is analyzed within a cultural historical tradition. The research approach is ethnographic. Two science classes, grade six and seven, were studied in a Swedish midsized compulsory school during one school-year. A conclusion is that both students’ laboratory skills and their abilities to discern, classify, and represent nature and the physical reality is developed.

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