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  • 1.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Bentley, R. Alexander
    Biases in cultural transmission shape the turnover of popular traits2014In: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 35, p. 228-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neutral model of cultural evolution, which assumes that copying is unbiased, provides precise predictions regarding frequency distributions of traits and the turnover within a popularity-ranked list. Here we study turnover in ranked lists and identify where the turnover departs from neutral model predictions to detect transmission biases in three different domains: color terms usage in English language 20th century books, popularity of early (1880–1930) and recent (1960–2010) USA baby names, and musical preferences of users of the Web site Last.fm. To help characterize the type of transmission bias, we modify the neutral model to include a content-based bias and two context-based biases (conformity and anti-conformity). How these modified models match real data helps us to infer, from population scale observations, when cultural transmission is biased, and, to some extent, what kind of biases are operating at individual level.

  • 2.
    Adenfelt, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Home-leaving and Parenthood: Timing of home-leaving and the relation to childbearing behavior in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This thesis examines the timing of having the first child in relation to when Swedish men and women leave the parental home. The aim is to explain if any childbearing trends can be detected based on whether one leaves the parental home at a younger or older relative age than the current age norms. The timing of having the first child might be affected by either a speed up/slow down effect (one continues to experience other stages of adulthood faster or slower relative to people of the same age) or an age-norm effect (one tries to counter-act deviation from the home-leaving norm by speeding up or delaying childbearing to align with people of the same age).

     

    Method and Data: Event history analysis is applied using a multivariate piece-wise constant hazard model. The data comes from Swedish register data based on records of the entire Swedish population between 1 January 1953 and 31 December 2012.

     

    Results: The results indicate that Swedish women who leave the parental home younger than the norm run a greater risk of having their first child sooner after leaving the parental home relative to women of the same age. Swedish men who leave the parental home younger than the norm, on the other hand, run a greater risk of having the first child later after leaving the parental home relative to men of the same age. Swedish men who leave the parental home later than the norm run a greater risk of having their first child sooner after leaving the parental home relative to men of the same age while the opposite is true for women. However, the effects of timing of leaving the parental home are relatively small, which can be explained by the very long and stable mean durations found. The peak durations of intensities, i.e. number of years between leaving the parental home and having the first child, for men and women can be found after 10–12 years. The peak durations of intensities are remarkably similar between the genders.

     

    Conclusion: Swedish women who leave the parental home earlier than the norm are more likely to experience a speed-up effect in terms of childbearing and a slow down effect when leaving the parental home later than the norm. Thus, women stick to breaking the normative timing of the life course events once they have started. Swedish men, on the other hand, are more likely to try and catch up with age norms and instead postpone having the first child when leaving the parental home earlier than the norm and speed up having a child when leaving the parental home later than the norm. Men are thus more likely to time having children with men of the same age.

  • 3.
    Agnarson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Integration of Ethiopian immigrants in Sweden, 1990-20002006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this Master Essay is to analyse the integration of Ethiopian immigrants in Sweden between 1990 and 2000. My hypothesis has been that Ethiopian immigrants in Sweden constitute a group whose prospects to integrate are fairly low, but whose prospects to integrate also depend on the sex-composition and the length of staying in Sweden. In my analysis of the chosen group’s immigration pattern and integration, I have used a longitudinal database of the Swedish population where information on income and employment are included. I have analysed the group’s labour market participation and their prospects to reduce and eventually close the income gap in relation to the working aged population in Sweden.

    The regime of control in Ethiopia between 1977 and 1991 forced hundreds of thousands of mostly young Ethiopians to flee to Europe and USA. Between 1985 and 2000, 8033 Ethiopians immigrated to Sweden. The peak years were 1989 and 1991, preceded by a dramatic increase of the number of Ethiopians who immigrated to Sweden. After 1991 the immigration from Ethiopia to Sweden declined rapidly to a similarly low level as before 1985.

    Nevertheless, when analysing the age-composition, those aged 18-29 years were shown to be in majority throughout the whole period as mostly young Ethiopians were forced to flee before 1991. Also, younger persons are more likely to migrate than older persons. The spectacular decrease of Ethiopian immigration to Sweden was probably linked to the former regime’s capitulation in 1991. In addition, Eritrea’s outbreak from Ethiopia in 1991 also had consequences on the numbers of Ethiopian immigrants to Sweden as Eritreans were no longer categorized as Ethiopians. Up to 1991, men were more likely to immigrate, but after then females were clearly in majority.

    The frequency of not being employed has decreased considerably among Ethiopian immigrants throughout the period. At the same time, the income gap between them and the population in general was reduced even though it remained large in the whole period. The decrease in the proportion of Ethiopian immigrants without employment was larger for the females than for the males, and even if men had higher incomes throughout the period, women’s income approached that. Thus it seems that the integration process is on its way for Ethiopian immigrants, especially for the women. The age-composition is probably an important factor behind the group’s relatively successful integration given the large share of working aged persons.

  • 4.
    Ahmad, Farhan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Male immigrants’ fertility in Spain2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Declining fertility in developed countries along with rising number of immigrants and different fertility behavior exhibited by the immigrants make the immigrants’ fertility an interesting topic in field of demography. However most of the studies on immigrants’ fertility consider the female immigrants as their subject on the assumption that they represent the immigrants’ fertility. This study took another perspective and tries to study male immigrants’ fertility. Spanish Immigrants’ Survey 2007 was used to see how the different migration related factors affect the male immigrants’ fertility. Poisson regression was applied on a sample of 3797 childless males who are 16 or older. This study found tentative support to selection hypothesis but no clear support to adaptation hypothesis on male fertility behaviors. There exist differences in the fertility between male immigrants from different regions. Effect of education, number of parent’s siblings and mother language on male immigrants’ fertility was also analyzed.

  • 5.
    Ahrne, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Att se samhället2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att se samhället är en introduktion till sociologiämnet. Boken visar på olika sätt att upptäcka och synliggöra samhället. Att studera och forska i sociologi handlar om att det som är välbekant och vardagligt i ett nytt ljus och i nya sammanhang.

  • 6.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

  • 7. Albertini, Marco
    et al.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. European University Institute, Italy.
    Moving back to “mamma”? Divorce, intergenerational coresidence, and latent family solidarity in Sweden2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 6, article id e2142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most obvious consequences of divorce is the moving out of one or both ex‐partners from the formerly common household. Here we focus on a particular postdivorce residential move, the return to the parental home in Sweden, where intergenerational coresidence is uncommon. We ask whether family dissolution increases the likelihood of intergenerational coresidence among separated/divorced individuals who have at least 1 child below age 18. Furthermore, we ask whether the strength of the effect depends on socio‐economic and geographical factors. Our analysis of 670,777 individuals from Swedish population register data shows that even if living with parents is, in absolute terms, not a common intergenerational support strategy, its likelihood increases considerably after a family dissolution. This event increases the probability of living with one's parents especially among men, those with low incomes, and those who live close to their parent(s). We discuss the implications of our findings for the literature on patterns of intergenerational support across Europe.

  • 8. Allamani, Allaman
    et al.
    Voller, Fabio
    Olsson, Börje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Roumeliotis, Filip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Balance of power in alcohol policy. Balance across different groups and as a whole between societal changes and alcohol policy2012In: Alcohol Policy in Europe: Evidence from AMPHORA / [ed] Peter Anderson, Fleur Braddick, Jillian Reynolds and Antoni Gual, Barcelona: Amphora project , 2012, p. 32-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Isolating the effect of eviction on criminal convictions: Results from a Swedish study2018In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 263-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On an individual level, criminal offending is linked to resource deficiencies. Since evictions tend to affect society’s weakest groups, we would expect evicted individuals to be convicted of crime to a higher degree than others even before eviction. But is there also a direct effect of eviction on criminal convictions? The aim of this study was to isolate the effect of eviction on criminal convictions. Propensity score matching was used and the analyses included all individuals evicted in Sweden from 2009 to 2010 (n = 5050), and a 10% sample of the adult population (n = 770,000). After matching based on relevant background factors, the analyses showed a significant increase in criminal convictions from the year of eviction until the end of the period studied, two to three years later. The pattern was similar for men and women. Future research should investigate eviction in relation to different types of crime.

  • 10.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The resurgence of mass unemployment: studies on social consequences of joblessness in Sweden in the 1990s2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Openness to Gender Atypical Occupations in Youth: Do Peer Groups and School Classes Matter?2015In: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions show that gender composition is significantly related to openness to gender-atypical occupations at peer-group level only. As the causal direction of this relationship can be questioned, the result should be interpreted with caution. Concerning aspects of dominance, quite substantive effects on individual openness to gender-atypical occupations are found for girls, albeit not for boys. Thus, for girls, the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of the most central girl in the school class significantly affects the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of individual girls in that school class.

  • 12.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Future Prospects, Deprivation, and Criminality – A Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study2018In: Deviant behavior, ISSN 0163-9625, E-ISSN 1521-0456, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 1280-1293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective deprivation in early adolescence on the one hand, and criminal offending in adolescence and early adulthood on the other. Data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study (n = 15,117), containing information from surveys and registers are used. Bivariate analyses confirm a relationship between low socioeconomic status and both subjective and objective deprivation. Subjective deprivation alone is related to offending only for those from less privileged background. Subjective and objective deprivation in combination is associated with a higher risk of offending for all individuals, although the less privileged background, the higher the risk.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nest leaving and social capital: channels, housing tenures and resourcesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Housing shortage can make it difficult for young adults to move away from their parents. This paper investigates nest leaving to understand resources and channels young adults use to move away from parents, with focus on the role of social capital and informal channels. Results show that both economic and social capital have positive effects on nest leaving. While social capital is linked to use of contacts and informal, “secondhand”, rental agreements, often transmitted via contacts, economic capital is instead related to formal housing tenure such as firsthand rental contracts and house ownership. Parental income does not have an effect on nest leaving, but is associated with a higher likelihood of living in an owned apartment. The study also indicates that immigrants are more likely to live with their parents, and discrimination as well as social capital shortage are discussed as possible explanations. The paper concludes that access to both economic and social capital make it more likely to move away from parents, but that each operates through a different channel and leads to different housing tenure.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Socioeconomic Segregation and Access to Social Capital: The effect of schools and neighborhoods on the social capital of young adultsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how schools and neighborhoods structure the social capital of young adults. Two waves of panel data are used to study a sample of young adults in Sweden. Social capital is defined as access to resources through a social network and measured by the number of the five closest friends in higher education and employment, as well as the extensity and class composition of the occupational positions respondents have access to. The result demonstrates that close friends very often share school context and somewhat less often neighborhood context, and that the socioeconomic composition of both upper secondary schools and neighborhoods structures an individual’s access to social capital. In addition, variation between the two waves in the neighborhood context composition is shown to lead to change in the socioeconomic composition of the network. Results indicate a substantial persistence of context effects over time. School friendships formed during adolescence continue to be important into early adulthood, and the effect of context composition is maintained over time. Thus, it is concluded that the “growing up context” matters for social capital in early adulthood.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    You can do it: The effect of social capital on self-efficacy, information, and job search in the process of labor market entryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital is known to be related to labor market outcomes, but less is known about the pathways between resources and labor market outcomes. To improve our understanding of the role of social capital in the process of labor market entry among young adults, this paper analyze whether social capital is related to labor market outcomes, mediating variables, and job search method. Analyzing two waves of panel data on young adults in Sweden, the results show that social capital is related to getting a job and that the effect varies according to the contact’s position. Social capital is positively related to the number of job leads, higher labor market self-efficacy, and the substitution of formal for informal job search. In conclusion, the labor market effects of access to social capital include both network mechanisms, such as information, and individual mechanisms, such as better self-efficacy.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Anton B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Networks and Success: Access and Use of Social Capital among Young Adults in Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis explores the role of social capital in shaping inequality among young adults. Social capital is defined as resources embedded in a social network and the thesis investigates differences in access to social capital, and the effects in the labor market and the housing market. The thesis consists of four empirical studies and an introductory chapter that develops the theoretical and empirical background. The four empirical studies use a Swedish survey titled “Social Capital and Labor Market Integration” that includes individuals born in 1990 living in Sweden. A gross sample based on three subsamples was selected based on the country of birth of the respondents’ parents (Sweden, former Yugoslavia, or Iran). The survey consists of two waves of panel data and most respondents were 19 years old at the time of the first survey and 22 at the time of the second. The four studies investigate: (1) the effect of social class and migration background on access to social capital through national and transnational ties, (2) the effect of socioeconomic segregation in schools and neighborhoods on access to social capital through occupational networks and close friendship ties, (3) the effect of social capital in the process of labor market entry, and (4) the effect of social capital on the likelihood to move away from parents. All four studies measure social capital with ego network measures and the main measurement is the position generator that asks the respondent about contacts in occupational positions spanning the socioeconomic structure. Results show that family background factors and socioeconomic segregation affects access to social capital, and that social capital affects labor market and housing market outcomes. The thesis concludes that social capital is an important factor to understand unequal outcomes among young adults.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The intersection of class origin and immigration background in structuring social capital: The role of transnational tiesIn: British Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0007-1315, E-ISSN 1468-4446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates inequalities in access to social capital based on social class origin and immigration background and examines the role of transnational ties in explaining these differences. Social capital is measured with a position generator methodology that separates between national and transnational contacts in a sample of young adults in Sweden with three parental backgrounds: at least one parent born in Iran or Yugoslavia, or two Sweden-born parents. The results show that having socioeconomically advantaged parents is associated with higher levels of social capital. Children of immigrants are found to have a greater access to social capital compared to individuals with native background, and the study shows that this is related to transnational contacts, parents’ education and social class in their country of origin. Children of immigrants tend to have more contacts abroad, while there is little difference in the amount of contacts living in Sweden across the three groups. It is concluded that knowledge about immigration group resources help us predict its member’s social capital, but that the analysis also needs to consider how social class trajectories and migration jointly structure national and transnational contacts.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Contextual effects on educational attainment in individualized, scalable neighborhoods; differences across gender and social class2015In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 52, no 12, p. 2117-2133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses whether a multi-scale representation of geographical context based on statistical aggregates computed for individualised neighbourhoods can lead to improved estimates of neighbourhood effect. Our study group consists of individuals born in 1980 that have lived in Sweden since 1995 and we analyse the effect of neighbourhood context at age 15 on educational outcome at age 30 controlling for parental background. A new piece of software, Equipop, was used to compute the socio-economic composition of neighbourhoods centred on individual residential locations and ranging in scale from including the nearest 12 to the nearest 25,600 neighbours. Our results indicate that context measures based on fixed geographical sub-divisions can lead to an underestimation of neighbourhood effects. A multi-scalar representation of geographical context also makes it easier to estimate how neighbourhood effects vary across different demographic groups. This indicates that scale-sensitive measures of geographical context could help to re-invigorate the neighbourhood effects literature.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    11 år av partnerskap i Sverige2006In: Välfärd, no 2, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A Review of Policies and Practices Related to the “Highest-Low” Fertility of Sweden2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish family policies are not directly aimed at encouraging childbirth. Their main goal has rather been to support women’s labor-force participation and to promote gender equality. The focus is to strengthen individuals so that they are able to pursue their family and occupational tracks without being too strongly dependent on other individuals. The reconciliation of family and working life of women has been facilitated by (i) individual taxation and individual-based social-security systems, which makes it less attractive for couples to pursue gendered segregation of work and care, (ii) an income-replacement based parental-leave system, which gives women incentives to establish themselves in the labor market before considering childbirth, and (iii) subsidized child-care, which allows women to return to work after parental leave. Fertility has fluctuated during recent decades but, as in the other Nordic countries with a similar welfare-state setup, it has stayed well above the European average. The Swedish institutional context clearly is conducive to such “highest-low” fertility. In this review, I provide evidence that institutional factors appear to be far more decisive than cultural ones in shaping childbearing behavior, and demonstrate some specific impacts of family policies on childbearing dynamics.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    A review of policies and practices related to the ‘highest-low’ fertility of Sweden2008In: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, p. 89-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews research on the role social and family policies play for fertility in Sweden. Swedish family policies are not directly aimed at encouraging childbirth. Their main goal has rather been to support women’s participation in the labour force and to promote gender equality. They focus on enabling individuals to pursue their family and occupational pathways without being too dependent on other persons. The following measures have helped women to reconcile family and working life: individual taxation and individual-based social-security systems, which make gendered segregation of work and care less attractive for couples; an income replacement based parental-leave system, which gives women incentives to establish themselves on the labour market before considering childbirth; and subsidised child care, which allows women to return to work after parental leave. Fertility has fluctuated during recent decades but—as in the other Nordic countries with similar welfare state setups—it has remained well above the European average. The Swedish institutional context clearly is conducive to such ‘highest-low’ fertility. My review documents the importance of institutional factors in shaping childbearing behaviour and demonstrates some specific impacts of family policies on demographic behaviour.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Barnafödande i kristider2013In: Jordemodern, ISSN 0021-7468, no 4, p. 24-26Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Childbearing after migration: Fertility patterns of foreign-born women in Sweden2004In: International Migration Review, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 747-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study provides an investigation of patterns in child¬bearing among foreign-born women in Sweden during the 1960s to 1990s. Event-history techniques are applied to longitudinal population-register data on childbearing and migration of 446.000 foreign-born women who had ever lived in Sweden before the end of 1999. Period trends in parity-specific fertility appear to be quite similar for Swedish- and foreign-born women but important differences exist in levels of childbearing propensities between women stemming from different countries. Most immigrant groups tend to display higher levels of childbearing shortly after immigration. We conclude that migration and family building in many cases are interrelated processes and that it is always important to account for time since migration when fertility of immigrants is studied.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Childbearing developments in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden from the 1970s to the 1990s: A comparison2004In: Demographic Research: Special Collections, Vol. SC 3, no 7, p. 155-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative overview of recent trends and patterns in childbearing in the three Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. We use indexes produced by applying event-history techniques to register data of the three countries in order to describe and contrast fertility developments by birth order over the last three decades of the 20th century. By combining the same type of data from three countries, we get a very accurate picture of various cross-country differences in fertility levels. We can determine to what extent developments in one country are specific to that country, and to what extent they are part of a more general Nordic pattern of childbearing. We demonstrate how Swedish fertility has fluctuated relatively strongly during the whole period while Danish and Norwegian fertility have evolved more gradually. Nevertheless, trends in Norway and Sweden appear fairly synchronized. A turnaround from decreasing to increasing levels of childbearing is, for example, evident in 1977 in both Norway and Sweden. In Denmark, a similar turnaround occurs considerably later, in 1983. A shift to shorter birth intervals in Sweden during the 1980s is specific to that country and contributed to its stronger increase in fertility during that decade.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Childbearing trends in Sweden 1961-19971999In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to update a system of annual indices of birth rates and to display trends in childbearing for Swedish women over the years since 1961. Our indices are pro¬duced by applying indirect standardization to register data. They enable us to decompose the overall fertility trends, as measured by the period TFR, into its birth-order specific components. Swedish fertility has shown strong fluctuations during our study period and these fluctuations have been particularly dramatic during recent years. A postponement of the age at first birth and a sudden shift to shorter birth intervals are important components in the fertility trends. A peak in the level of childbearing at the beginning of the present decade has now been followed by a sharp drop in the propensity to give birth. This change in behaviour pertains to women of all parities.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Children’s experience of family disruption and family formation: Evidence from 16 FFS countries2002In: Demographic Research, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 343-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a number of descriptive measures on children’s experience of family disruption and family formation. We use data from the Fertility and Family Surveys of 15 European countries and corresponding data from the USA in order to find out what kind of family circumstances children are born into and what experience they subsequently have of various family-transformation events of their mothers. Our presentation reveals some similarities but also striking differences in the family-demographic experience of children in different countries. The USA stands out as one extreme case with its very high proportion of children born to a lone mother, with a higher probability of children who experience a union disruption of their parents than anywhere else, and with many children having the experience of living in a stepfamily. Italy stands out at the other end of the scale. Practically all children here are born to a married mother and very few of them experience the dissolution of their parents’ union before they turn 15.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Demographic trends in Sweden: An update of childbearing and nuptiality up to 20022004In: Demographic Research, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Dissolution of unions in Europe: A comparative overview2002In: Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 27, p. 493-504Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a number of descriptive measures of couples’ experience of union dissolution in a wide range of European countries. We use data from the last round of Fertility and Family Surveys in order to get a broad cross-country comparison of levels and basic patterns of union disruption in countries considered. We use corresponding data from the USA in order to find out to what extent patterns in Europe differ from those at the other side of the Atlantic. With a number of life-table estimations we display levels of union dissolution of couples in different types of unions. Evidently, the picture looks different if one follows marriages from the date of marriage formation than if one follows any union from the date when a couple moves together. In addition, the stability of unions that start as cohabitation differs from the stability of unions that begin with a direct marriage. Our presentation reveals that unions in any European country are much more stable than unions in the US. The latter country stands out as an extreme case no matter what type of union we choose to study. Nevertheless, a high degree of variation also exists within Europe; a number of Catholic countries in Southern and Eastern Europe impress with particularly low levels of union dissolution.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Divorce-risk trends in Sweden 1971-19931995In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 293-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an updated system of annual indexes of divorce risks and to use the sys¬tem to display trends in divorce risks for Swedish women over the years since 1971. Divorce-risk trends turn out to have been quite dif¬ferent for women at different parities. Trends for women in their first marriage (the majority) are also somewhat differ¬ent from trends in later marriages. After a spurt in divorces at parity 0 connected with a divorce reform in 1974, divorce risks have been quite stable for women at this parity, but they have increased steadily among married mothers, mostly as an effect of an increasing prevalence of premarital childbear¬ing. Our indexes are produced by an indirect standardization of register data with respect to a woman's age at marriage, du¬ration of marriage, and order of marriage. We also re¬commend standardization with respect to an indicator of premari¬tal childbearing, which is particularly important in a population with extensive nonmarital cohabitation.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Familienpolitik und soziale Sicherung in Schweden2007In: Familienpolitik und soziale Sicherung in Europa: Erfahrungen aus Europa - Vorbild für Deutschland?, 2007, p. 9-11Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Family policies and fertility in Sweden2011In: Fertility and Public Policy: How to Reverse the Trend of Declining Birth Rates / [ed] Noriyuki Takayama and Martin Werding, Cambridge MA: MIT Press , 2011, p. 203-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Europe where most countries exhibit low or “lowest-low” fertility, the experience of Sweden and its Nordic neighbors has become of increasing interest to policy makers and social scientists concerned with the causes and consequences of low fertility. Nordic fertility can be labeled as “highest-low”: the fertility of Sweden and its neighbors is below the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman but still high as compared to many other developed countries. Fertility in Sweden has fluctuated during recent decades but, as in the other Nordic countries with a similar welfare-state setup, it has stayed well above the European average. The present chapter provides insights into the recent childbearing developments in Sweden and discusses the role of family policies in shaping childbearing behavior. Evidence is provided that institutional factors appear to be far more decisive than cultural ones in influencing childbearing behavior, and some specific impacts of family policies on childbearing dynamics are demonstrated. In this respect, it is important to note that Swedish family policies have never been aimed directly at encouraging childbirth. Their main goal has rather been to support women’s labor-force participation and to promote gender equality: any fertility-stimulating impact needs to be seen as a side effect of these policies. The reconciliation of family and working life of women in Sweden is supported by the design of the country’s taxation, social-security, and parental-leave systems, and the easy access to high-quality subsidized child-care.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. SUDA.
    Family Policies in Sweden and the Swedish Life-cycle Model2009In: Voneinender lernen - miteinander handeln: Aufgaben und Perspektiven der Europäischen Allianz für Familien, Baden-Baden: Nomos , 2009, p. 159-170Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns in family formation in Sweden display a number of regularities. After nest-leaving and a period of labor-market adjustments, union formation and union dynamics, couples tend to consider having children. A prerequisite for this normally is that both partners are established properly in the labor market. After becoming parents, both women and men remain active in the labor force. These patterns in behavior are supported by the impact of Swedish family policies whose main goal it is to support women’s and men’s labor-force participation and to promote social and gender equality. A side effect of these policies seems to be a relatively high fertility as the policy setup removes many of the obstacles for women to combine work and family life. The reconciliation of family and working life is facilitated by (i) individual taxation and individual-based social-security systems, which makes it less attractive for couples to pursue gendered segregation of work and care, (ii) an income-replacement based parental-leave system, which gives women incentives to establish themselves in the labor market before considering childbirth, and (iii) subsidized child-care, which allows women to return to work after parental leave. In this review, I discuss the role of Swedish family policy in shaping life-cycle behavior and demonstrate some specific impacts of family policies on childbearing dynamics.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Fertility developments in Norway and Sweden since the early 1960s2002In: Demographic Research, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 67-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of recent trends in childbearing in neighboring Norway and Sweden. We use indexes pro¬duced by applying indirect standardization to register data of these two countries in order to describe and contrast their fertility developments over the last four decades. Our indexes enable us to decompose overall fertility trends into birth-order specific components, and by combining the same kind of data from two countries we get a very accurate picture of various cross-country differences in fertility levels. We demonstrate how Swedish fertility has fluctuated relatively strongly during the whole period while Norwegian fertility has evolved more gradually, at least during the last two decades. A turnaround from decreasing to increasing levels of childbearing is evident in 1977 in both countries while a sudden shift to shorter birth intervals is specific to Sweden in the 1980s and contributed to its more spectacular increase in fertility during that decade.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gavin Jones, Paulin Tay Straughan and Angelique Chan (eds.): Ultra-low fertility in Pacific Asia2010In: Journal of Population Research, ISSN 1443-2447, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 241-242Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Giftermålsboom gav stabilare äktenskap1998In: Välfärdsbulletinen, no 4, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Låg skilsmässorisk bland medelålders1997In: Välfärdsbulletinen, no 5, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Mortality in Stockholm: Recent past, present, and future2001In: Nordic Demography in History and Present-Day Society, Umeå University , 2001, p. 387-408Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present some features of recent changes in patterns and levels of mortality in the county of Stockholm. Changes in life expectancy at birth and age distribution of deaths for men and women are described, as are patterns of prob¬abilities of death by age and sex of inhabitants of the region. Differentials in mortality patterns between different groups of municipalities in Stockholm are described, and it is shown that the regional variation in mortality is greatest among men of working age. Changes in probabilities of death for men and women between 1990 and 1996 are also presented, revealing a spectacular improvement in the survival chances of children and young adults. These changes do not however have much impact on calculated life expectancies and on the actual number of deceased persons since death rates at younger ages are already extremely low. When making population forecasts, it is therefore more important to consider what assumptions one should make about mortality changes among the elderly in the population. Finally, various assumptions about patterns of future mortality reductions are provided.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Nuptiality Trends in Sweden, 1971-19951997Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this licentiate thesis is to introduce a system of annual indexes of divorce risks and marriage risks and to use the sys¬tem to display nuptiality trends for Swedish women over the years since 1971. We give special attention to the effects of children on the nuptiality behavior in that we present parity specific indexes of risks for the various civil-status changes. Our indexes are produced by an indirect standardization of register data. The thesis consists of three separate papers. The first paper displays trends in divorce risks over the years since 1971. A second paper presents a deeper examination of the effect of children on these divorce risks. Separate effects of the number of children, of premarital childbearing, and of the age of the youngest child are examined and disentangled. A final paper displays the trends in risks of marriage formation and re-formation during our study period.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Rekordlågt barnafödande1996In: Välfärdsbulletinen, no 6, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Risken för skilsmässa ökar1996In: Välfärdsbulletinen, no 1, p. 19-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Selectivity in higher-order childbearing in Sweden2008In: Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, ISSN 1796-6183, Vol. XLIII, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this note, we present relative risks of giving birth for mothers with different numbers of children. We use Swedish register data and study the propensity to continue the childbearing beyond child number two. We pay special attention to births of those higher orders that are studied only rarely in conventional demographic analyses. As the parity increases to higher numbers, we expect to find some kind of selection so that the group of mothers increasingly consists of very birth prone women. For births after a fourth child, we indeed find such an effect in that the relative risk of giving birth to an additional child then increases with the birth order. In our intensity-regression models, we also check whether this selection effect of increasing birth risks can be picked up by the inclusion of a specific factor for unobserved heterogeneity in the mothers’ propensity to give birth. We find that the positive gradient in the propensity to give birth indeed disappears when such a factor is included into our model.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women1997In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 109-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of children on divorce risks in 1971-1994 for first-married Swedish women. This impact is examined using two measures of family composition, namely the number of children and the age of the youngest child, and we find an independent effect from each of these factors on the propensity to divorce. There is an additional impact of births prior to marriage on the subsequent divorce risk. We present time series of divorce risks for women with different types of children, showing trends for both the factors parity and age of youngest child. The general picture of Swedish divorce-risk trends shows a strong increase in 1974, mostly among childless women, in response to a reform of the divorce legislation. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the risks have increased steadily, mostly among mothers. Our study is performed by indirect standardization of register data and we also control for the effects of age at and duration of marriage.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    The impact of labor-force participation on childbearing behavior: Pro-cyclical fertility in Sweden during the 1980s and the 1990s2000In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 293-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the latest two decades, Sweden has experienced strong fluctuations both in its economy and in its level of childbearing. A period of high employment and increasing fertility has been followed by a period of lower employment and decreasing fertility since the beginning of the 1990s. In this paper, we use register data for Swedish women in order to examine how various types of attachment to the labor market affect women’s propensity to give birth at different parities. Specifically, we show what impact changes in women’s employment status have had on recorded fertility trends in Sweden. We find that women who have relatively low levels of income and women who are enrolled as students generally have lower fertility than other women. We also find that a rise in the number of women with such characteristics can explain part of the decrease in fertility during the 1990s. It is evident, however, that other factors, working at the macro level, also have to be considered when one wants to explain the fluctuating fertility of Sweden. Social policy is one such factor. In sum, we find a pattern of pro-cyclical fertility, where levels of female earnings are positively related to levels of childbearing.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Trends in childbearing and nuptiality in Sweden, 1961(71)-19972001In: Nordic Demography in History and Present-Day Society, Umeå University , 2001, p. 67-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of a system for presenting trends in family dynamics in contemporary Sweden. We use annual indexes of birth rates in order to display trends in childbearing for Swedish women over the years since 1961. We use similar annual indexes of marriage risks and divorce risks to display nuptiality trends in Sweden since 1971. We decompose the overall trends in fertility and nuptiality and present separate period indexes for women with different numbers of children. All our indexes are pro¬duced by applying indirect standardisation to register data which cover practically all of the Swedish female population. Our indexes give accurate information about changes in the propensity to give birth, to marry, and to divorce from one year to another.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Trends in Childbearing and Nuptiality in Sweden: A Period Analysis1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One purpose of this thesis is to introduce a system for presenting trends in family dynamics in contemporary Sweden. We use annual indexes of birth rates in order to display trends in childbearing for Swedish women over the years since 1961. We use similar annual indexes of marriage risks and divorce risks to display nuptiality trends since 1971. We give special attention to the effects of children on the nuptiality behavior in that we present parity specific indexes of risks for the different civil-status changes. Similarly, we present separate period indexes of birth rates for women with different numbers of children. All our indexes are pro¬duced by applying indirect standardization to register data which covers practically all of the Swedish female population. Standardization is performed by estimating intensity-regression models and our indexes give accurate information about changes in the propensity to give birth, to marry, and to divorce from one year to another.

    The thesis consists of seven separate papers. The first paper gives an overview of our system of period indexes. The next four papers give a more detailed presenta¬tion of various aspects of the family dynamics in Sweden. Paper number two displays trends in divorce risks over the years since 1971. A third paper presents a further examination of the effect of children on these divorce risks. Separate effects of the number of children, of premarital childbearing, and of the age of the youngest child are examined and disentangled. A fourth paper displays trends in risks of marriage formation and re-formation during the same period, and a fifth paper displays trends in childbearing over the years since 1961.

    A sixth paper of this thesis provides a deeper examination of patterns of child¬bearing and of reasons behind the recent strong fluctuations in Swedish fertility. During the 1980s and the 1990s fertility has varied in concert with the business cycle. We use information on registered income of Swedish women during that period and find that women who have relatively low levels of income and women who are enrolled as students generally have lower fertility than other women. We also find that a rise in the number of women with such characteristics can explain part of the decrease in fertility during the 1990s. In sum, we find a pattern of “pro-cyclical” fertility, where levels of female earnings are positively related to levels of childbear¬ing. It is evident, however, that other factors, working at the macro level, also have to be considered when one wants to explain the fluctuating fertility of Sweden. Social policy is one such factor. In a final paper/note, we examine childbearing at higher birth orders. We find strong selection effects in that the relative risk of giving birth to an additional child increases rapidly with the birth order after the birth of a fourth child.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Trends in marriage formation in Sweden 1971-19931998In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 157-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a system of annual indexes of the risks of marriage formation and re-formation and to use the system to display such marriage risks for Swedish women over the years since 1971. Our indexes are produced by applying indirect standardization to register data. The propensity to marry decreased considerably during the 1970s and it has continued to decrease also during the first half of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. The decrease in marriage risks is mostly due to a decreased propensity to marry among never-married women with no children. The decrease is not so strong for never-married women with chil¬dren and for divorced women. A sharp, but only temporal, deviation from the general pattern of Swedish marriage-risk trends occurred in 1989, when the number of marriages formed increased dramatically in response to the near-abolition of the public widow’s pensions for women who were not married at the beginning of 1990.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Barnafödande och familjepolitik i kristider2010In: Global kris - Håller välfärdssystemen / [ed] Försäkringskassan, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2010, p. 49-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I vårt avsnitt diskuterar vi hur ekonomisk tillbakagång och ekonomiska kristider kan tänkas påverka barnafödandet i ett land som Sverige. Vi diskuterar även hur familjepolitiken påverkar barnafödandet och hur den kan modifiera eventuella samband mellan ekonomisk tillväxt och benägenheten att skaffa barn. Bakgrunden till bidraget är den senaste tidens ekonomiska kris, en utveckling som i Sverige inträffat under en period av relativt höga och stigande fruktsamhetstal.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Hank, Karsten
    Do child-care characteristics influence continued child bearing in Sweden?: An investigation of the quantity, quality, and price dimension2004In: Journal of European Social Policy, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 407-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We link population register data to information on regional child care characteristics in order to estimate the influence of the latter on second and third birth intensities of Swedish couples in 1997-98. Our analysis allows us to distinguish interactions and specific effects of different dimensions of the local day-care infrastructure, namely the provision rate, the child-to-staff-ratio, and the costs of care to parents. However, our results reveal no clear effects of these child care characteristics on Swedish couples’ continued childbearing. We interpret this absence of effects as a reflection of the generally very appropriate level of child care in Sweden, which is complemented by further supportive family policies. In such a context, moderate regional variations in the characteristics of day care may have no decisive impact on parents’ propensity to have another child.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Hank, Karsten
    Erwerbsstatus und Familienentwicklung in Schweden aus paarbezogener Perspektive2005In: Männer – Das ‚vernachlässigte’ Geschlecht in der Familienforschung, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden , 2005, p. 220-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Der Beitrag untersucht die Frage nach der Bedeutung von Erwerbsmerkmalen schwedischer Männer und Frauen für den Prozess der Familienentwicklung in Schweden aus paarbezogener Perspektive. Auf der Grundlage von Registerdaten der Jahre 1981 bis 1999 schätzen wir ereignisanalytische Modelle für die Geburt zweiter und dritter Kinder. Es zeigt sich, dass Einkommen und Erwerbstätigkeit beider Partner weitgehend unabhängig voneinander auf die Wahrscheinlichkeit wirken, ein weiteres Kind zu bekommen. Die Richtung der bei Männern und Frauen etwa gleich starken Effekte weist (im Gegensatz etwa zu Annahmen der ‚Neuen Haushaltsökonomie’) auf einen grundsätzlich positiven Zusammenhang zwischen unseren Erwerbsvariablen und der Familienentwicklung hin. Der Befund, dass ein traditioneller Familienkontext Geburten höherer Ordnung in Schweden eher blockiert, weist auf ein vergleichsweise hohes Maß an sozialer Gleichheit zwischen den Geschlechtern hin.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Engelhardt, Henriette
    Stichwort “Zensus”2002In: Wörterbuch der Soziologie, Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart , 2002, p. 714-715Chapter in book (Other academic)
1234567 1 - 50 of 604
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