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  • 1.
    Abdelmoez, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies, Middle Eastern Studies.
    “The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Sends its Condolences”: Rhetorical criticism of Saudi Arabian governmental authorities’ social media responses to foreign acts of terror and violence2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at exploring the rhetorical processes underpinning condolences, as expressed by Saudi Arabian governmental authorities on social media, with a focus on Twitter. Taking its starting point in January of 2015, when the Charlie Hebdo shooting took place in Paris, this study looks comparatively at several acts of terror in order to answer whether these different attacks elicited different responses, and if so, what knowledge can be drawn from this conclusion. Furthermore, this study examines the role of social media in public diplomacy, and in the production and distribution of political discourse, especially as it relates to statements of condolences and expressions of solidarity mediated through twitter. In order to explore this, rhetorical criticism (Mral 2008; Foss 2004; Peirce 2003) is combined with pentadic criticism (Burke 1945) and performativity theory (Rosenberg 2018; Zivi 2016; Gregson and Rose 2014) to form the methodology. A key theoretical concept in this study is “grievability,” which aims at understanding why some deaths are grieved and others are not (Butler 2009; Butler 2004; Butler 2003). As this study shows, mourning itself can be understood as rhetoric, serving political and diplomatic functions rather than being an expression of actual, sincere solidarity or grief. This study also shows that tweets from official government sources can be seen as a performance of public diplomacy, and as performative of the official’s own position. Lastly, it is argued that offering condolences are a way to purchase “humanitarian capital,” which is becoming increasingly important in global politics.

  • 2.
    Agurell Swedmark, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Horrific images in East and West: A qualitative and comparative analysis of the visual representation of Syrian and Ukrainian refugees in three Swedish news outlets2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis compares the visual representation of Syrian refugees during the 2015 refugee crisis and Ukrainian refugees during the Russian invasion 2022 in news outlets Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dabladet and Aftonbladet. The aim of the study is thus to investigate how ethnic groups are framed in a photojournalistic setting. The theoretical concept otherness is used to analyze the selected visual images and the concept of visualities highlight how photographs published in the media communicate political messages and how images reflect immigration discourse. Additionally, photojournalistic regimes of visibility and responsibility are used to illuminate similarities and dissimilarities in the material. In total, 200 images made up the sample for the performed qualitative visual analysis.

    The findings reveal that empathetic portrayals dominate the Swedish narrative. Syrian refugees were overrepresented in imagery alluding to otherness painting a picture of Syrians as ethnic, cultural and dangerous others. Photography triggering social and political engagement were crucial in the forming of visualities, relating visual images to the political and public arena. The sampled images did reflect immigration discourses of intimidation and humanity.

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  • 3.
    Agö, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Out of the dark: A qualitative field study of Kenyan reporters' role in the Somalia conflict2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to find out how Kenyan journalists look at their own role in the development of the Somalia conflict and how they work to make sure that they have a positive impact on the situation. The empirical material consists of seven semi-structured interviews with journalists who work in print- or broadcast media in the Kenyan capital Nairobi and who specialises in conflict reporting in general and Somalia more specifically. The interviews were summarised, analysed and presented in a thematic order, based on the initial research questions stated below: 

     

    • Do Kenyan journalists believe that they can help bring peace and stability in Somalia and if so, how?
    • How do Kenyan journalists look at their own role in reporting about the Somalia conflict?
    • How do Kenyan journalists reason when choosing subjects to report about, angles and sources?

    The result of the study is very clear: all journalists interviewed believe that they can help bring peace and stability in Somalia. Some even believe that without the media, there won’t be peace in Somalia. However, they look slightly different at their individual roles as reporters covering a conflict in a neighbouring country where their own nation is militarily involved. Some look at themselves as objective messengers that report the truth no matter the implications. Others are sensitive when it comes to showing pictures of dead people or publishing the number of casualties, afraid that it might stir up emotions and cause retaliatory attacks. One journalist stands out as the only one openly supporting a patriotic line that he believes is needed for the Kenyan military to defeat the enemy and in the end achieve peace and stability in the region. They all consider it difficult to remain objective when reporting from Somalia, since they most often need to work embedded with the troops for security reasons.

    African journalists need to highlight the plight of the Somali people and also report about the positive sides of the region, all journalists believe. It is important to paint a brighter picture of Somalia in order to bring new investments to the poor country. Also, they all emphasise the need to talk to the people of Somalia, to let them speak for themselves, because in the end, only Somalis can bring peace to their country. 

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    Out of the dark
  • 4.
    Ahlqvist, Olivia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Social stereotypisering på sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie om hur män tolkar kvinnliga stereotyper på Instagram2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier av (Bailey et al, 2013) beskriver att vanligt förekommande är: kvinnor som söker uppmärksamhet från män, genom att lägga upp sexualiserade bilder av sig själva på sociala nätverksplatser. Med detta sagt hade forskarna som mål att öka förståelsen för hur unga kvinnor tolkar dessa kvinnors stereotypiska självrepresentationer på Facebook (ibid). Till följd av ett intresse för studien ville jag ta reda på hur istället män får erfara kvinnliga stereotyper på sociala nätverksplatser. Syftet med min undersökning var således att utforska hur kvinnliga stereotyper på Instagram kan förstås. Forskningsdeltagarna i min studie var totalt 10 män uppdelade i semistrukturerade fokusgrupper. Teman och stimulimaterial valdes ut efter de kännetecken som Baileys studie menar att denna stereotypiska kvinnliga självrepresentation innefattar (Bailey et al, 2013). Resultatet visade bland annat att männen betraktade den kvinnliga självporträtteringen som oäkta och tolkade den som ett sätt för kvinnor att övertyga andra och sig själva, om att de lever åtråvärda liv. Det fanns även en enighet om att självporträtteringen är typisk för just kvinnor. Åsikterna var varierande i den yngre och äldre gruppen om huruvida det är fördelaktigt eller ej med denna typ av kvinnliga instagramprofiler när de är öppna för allmänheten. Samtliga män i den yngre gruppen, menade att en kvinna med en stängd profil är mer åtråvärd. Detta på grund av att det visar att personen i fråga inte är lika beroende av vad andra tycker. En äldre forskningsdeltagare menade istället raka motsatsen. Det vill säga att en stängd profil med samma innehåll tyder på osäkerhet och rädsla för potentiella elaka kommentarer från allmänheten. Utifrån svaren blev det tydligt att det fanns några återkommande teman i resultat och analys, vilka var: äkthet, normativitet och påverkan. 

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  • 5.
    Akar, Yasin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    En kris, tre parter: Retorisk analys av Scandinavian Airlines, Svensk Pilotförenings och SvenskaFlygbranschens externa kriskommunikation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAS, Svensk Pilotförening och Svenska Flygbranschen fick under juni 2016 genomgå en pilotkris. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka den externa kriskommunikationen för de tre parterna och observera om det fanns några skillnader. Detta förverkligades genom att undersöka vilka argumentationstyper det fanns i pressmeddelanden från respektive aktör. Dessa argument analyserades med hjälp av image repair teorin som utvecklades av William Benoit och appellformerna logos, ethos och pathos. För att kunna tillgodose syftet ställdes två undersökningsfrågor med tillhörande följdfrågor som sammantaget går ut på att fråga vilka retoriska strategier och appellformer som återfinns i var och en organisations pressmeddelanden och vilka som är mest framträdande. Resultaten visade att SAS använt mer logos argument samtidigt som mortification. Svensk Pilotförening hade däremot använt fler ethos argument och bolstering. Svenska Flygbranschen utmärkte sig genom att både ha en jämnare blandning av alla tre appellformer och dessutom använda två strategier som mest, vilka var shift blame och attack accuser. Resultaten visar således att alla tre aktörer använt olika argumentationstyper och hanterat en och samma kris på olika sätt.

  • 6.
    Aldsjö, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Ahmed, Nada
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Ett (o)frivilligt uppkopplat liv: En kvalitativ studie om individers sociala medier vanor.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skulle du kunna leva utan din mobiltelefon? Det var en av frågorna som ställdes när denna studie genomfördes. Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka hur individer reflekterar över sin aktivitet på sociala medier och hur beroende individer är av att uppdatera sig. Detta gjordes i en kvalitativ forskningsstudie. Studien tittade närmare på sociala mediers inverkan på individers liv. I studien diskuterades vilka för- och nackdelar sociala medier har bidragit med, hur stort behov individer känner för att ständigt vara uppkopplade på sociala medier. Känslan ”fear of missing out” var signifikant för vad studiens respondenter känner när det kommer till uppdatering på sociala medier. Studien utgick från teorin uses and gratifications, utifrån den reflekterades det över hur den kan kopplas till dagens sociala medier-samhälle. För att ha möjligheten att se samband och diskutera ett fenomen användes fenomenologi som teoretiskt angreppssätt. Den generella slutsatsen blev att individernas huvudsakliga syfte för att använda sociala medier är för att kommunicera. Det kom inte direkt som en chockande nyhet. Studien bekräftar det tidigare studier sagt men klargör ännu tydligare att mobiltelefonen på många sätt den viktigaste pryl vi äger.

    Den här studien handlar om livet med mobiltelefonen fastklistrad i handen och varför vi är beroende av den. 

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    Ett (o)frivilligt uppkopplat liv: En kvalitativ studie om individers sociala medier vanor.
  • 7.
    Alegria, Maria Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Erdogdu, Betul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Representationer av sexuella övergrepp: - En kvalitativ studie om incest i svensk media2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om hur incestfall presenteras i svensk media. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur incest framställs i media under åren 2007–2018 genom att studera hur mediernas språkanvändning påverkat framställningen av incestövergrepp. Med hjälp av forskningsfrågorna: “Hur representeras incest i de valda artiklarna?” och “Hur påverkar språkval i medias representationer tolkningen av sexuella övergrepp med inriktning på incest?”, önskar studien kunna svara på syftet.

    Vid denna studie var det lämpligt att använda diskursanalys och metod Faircloughs tredimensionella modell och med hjälp av den kunna analysera fyra olika artiklar från svenska medier. Resultatet studien kom fram till tyder på att två av artiklarna består av intervjuer av dem utsatta medan i de andra två artiklarna får vi inte ta del av de utsatta personernas uttalanden. Studien kom fram till att det krävs objektivitet vid representationer av incestbrott på svensk media eftersom text skapar diskurs som har en påverkar på samhället.

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  • 8.
    Alentola, Anni Emilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Changing the narratives of marginalised bodies - a study about body positivism2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explain and analyse the body positivity movement in the social media platform Instagram, as well as its empowering effects on women active in this movement. The phenomenon based on visuality, body positivism, has more than three million pictures on Instagram, hashtagged under two popular hashtags examined in this thesis: #bodypositivity and #bodypositive. The goal of this movement is to show diversity in the portrayal of women, as well as to encourage acceptance of all body types, skin colours and body flaws - especially marginalised bodies that are often invisible in the current society. The research is conducted with methods of visual content analysis and interviews with women participating in the body positivity movement. This study is framed in feminism theory and this study includes theories of gender-norms, Western beauty standards, the male gaze and questions about identity and body image. The results of this study show that most of the people participating in the movement are white women and are pictured often in their underwear. In the pictures hashtagged with body positivity related hashtags, there are, however, not that many flaws visible - such as cellulite or stretch marks. Nevertheless, after interviewing the women active in this movement - active as picture publishers, conversation holders and as body positive Instagram-user followers - this movement is empowering to the women and helps develop a positive body image and better self-esteem. In addition, this phenomenon can change the narratives of the people with marginalised bodies and modify the image of how women are represented and portrayed in society.

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  • 9.
    Alestig Blomqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Från folkmord till pressfrihet?: En studie av medieklimatet i Rwanda 19 år efter folkmordet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    1994 genomfördes ett av de mest brutala folkmord som världen har skådat. Platsen var Rwanda, ochlandets medier spelade en avgörande roll i att hetsa folkgruppen hutuer mot tutsier. Den här studien utfördes i Sverige och Rwanda 19 år efter att folkmordet startade, under våren2013, med syftet att undersöka hur medieklimatet i landet ser ut i dag. Totalt sju informanterintervjuades, varav två exiljournalister som i dag befinner sig i Sverige och fem journalister iRwanda. Frågeställningarna var som följer: 1) Hur kan det rwandiska medieklimatet klassificeras,utifrån intervjuer med rwandiska journalister? 2) Hur kan den rwandiska medieetiken beskrivas,utifrån intervjuer med rwandiska journalister? 3) Hur påverkar de rwandiska exiljournalisternamedieklimatet i landet, enligt de rwandiska journalisterna?Som teoretisk grund i studien används dels teorier om offentlighet, dels teorier omklassificering av mediesystem och dels normativa teorier om medieetik. Utifrån intervjuernaanalyseras och diskuteras hur mediesystemet i Rwanda ser ut i dag, hur det kan klassificeras, hurmedieetiken ser ut, vilken påverkan exiljournalisterna kan tänkas ha på utvecklingen avmedieklimatet – och avslutningsvis, vart Rwandas medieklimat kan tänkas vara på väg. Resultaten av studien visar att mediesystemet i Rwanda först och främst är i konstantförändring. De senaste åren har, att döma av de fem inhemska journalisternas syn på saken, flerasteg tagits mot ett öppnare medieklimat. I dag har det flera likheter med länder som hör hemma iHallin & Mancinis (2004) Polarized Pluralist Model. Men det är lång väg kvar innan landet kansägas fylla samtliga kriterier, eller motsvarar de västliga ideal som finns inom journalistisk etik.Medierna är inte någon tredje statsmakt, de är fortfarande starkt begränsade och journalisterna ärfortfarande rädda i vissa situationer. Lågt förtroende för journalistkåren är ett problem. Brist påkompetens hos medierna och oseriösa aktörer är ytterligare ett problem som journalisterna pekar på.Samtidigt finns tecken på att medieklimatet fortsätter att röra sig i riktning mot ett mer västligtideal, även om det finns motstridiga krafter. Såväl teknikutveckling, till exempel genom ökatgenomslag av sociala medier, och indirekt påverkan från exiljournalister genom internationellaorganisationer, drar i riktningen mot ett öppnare medieklimat. Ytterligare en kraft är journalisternasegna utmaningar av de uttalade eller outtalade gränserna för yttrandefriheten. Att döma avjournalisternas svar är en stark kraft som verkar i den motsatta riktningen den politiskt oroligasituationen i regionen, med konflikten i grannlandet Kongo som största problem. Direkta hot ochvåld mot journalister har minskat de senaste åren, men rädslan finns kvar och leder till självcensur.

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    Från folkmord till pressfrihet?
  • 10.
    Allen, Axel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Imagining intelligent artefacts: Myths and a digital sublime regarding artificial intelligence in Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence (AI) has over the past years become a hot topic for discussion in Sweden, as the technology presents exciting unique possibilities and challenges for the country and its citizens. Coverage of AI in Swedish news media presents imagined scenarios with both current and future AI that contribute to myths about how the technology is able to radically transform life, that spring out of a central digital sublime. Through a mixed-method study of 55 newspaper items about AI from Svenska Dagbladet from 2017 to 2018, the thesis studies what evident AI myths occur in coverage and how such discourses spring out digital sublime regarding AI. A total of four AI myths are found in news media coverage that revolve around existing and future intelligent computers, robots, machines and perceptions with them. Myths and hopes and concerns with them point to digital sublime regarding AI as a force of intelligent digitization that promises to empower a sublime citizen, economy, and welfare state. Emotional values with sublime AI are understood to reflect a general Swedish techno-optimism as digital artefacts have allowed Sweden to become prosperous.   

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  • 11.
    Allern, Sigurd
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Journalistiken och kommersialiseringen2012In: Medierna och demokratin / [ed] Lars Nord, Jesper Strömbäck, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, 2, p. 233-262Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Allern, Sigurd
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Bødker, Henrik
    Eide, Martin
    Lauk, Epp
    Pollack, Ester
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Introduction: New Nordic Journalism Research2013In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 34, p. 7-10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Allern, Sigurd
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Kantola, Anu
    Ester, Pollack
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Blach-Ørsten, Mark
    Increased Scandalization: Nordic Political Scandals 1980-20102012In: Scandalous: the mediated construction of political scandals in four nordic countries / [ed] Sigurd Allern, Ester Pollack, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2012, p. 29-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Allern, Sigurd
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Pollack, Ester
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    New Nordic Noir: Political Scandals as Drama and Media Hunts2019In: The Routledge Companion to Media and Scandal / [ed] Howard Tumber, Silvio Waisbord, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 129-137Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the basis of Nordic research, present data about the incidence, types and consequences of scandals in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden as well as discuss the political and societal effects of scandal journalism. It discusses the way in which mediated political scandals are launched, dramatized and interpreted. For Nordic news media, information on norm violations that can be reported, staged and dramatized as a political scandal is a competitive resource and a strategic, market-related investment in terms of reputation and audience interest. In practice, professional standards in Nordic scandal journalism vary considerably. The most typical Nordic “sex scandals” are accusations of rape or sexual harassment, buying sexual services from prostitutes or intercourse with minors, actions prohibited by law. Several factors may have influenced the increased importance of scandals in Nordic countries after the millennium. The liberalization and deregulation of the public sector in all Nordic countries has created opportunities for more private competition, but it has also increased the importance of lobbyism.

  • 15.
    Allern, Sigurd
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Pollack, EsterStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Scandalous: The Mediated Construction of Political Scandals in Four Nordic Countries2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the questions discussed is how important are the norm violations that have led to political scandals? Have the types of scandals changed over time? How may rivals and political opponents use mediated scandals? Are character assassination and demonization typical traits of a scandalization process? Are male and female politicians treated differently? Scandalous! is based on case studies and content analyses of mediated political scandals in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, including an analysis of the frequencies, types, characteristics and consequences of national political scandals in 1980 – 2010.

  • 16.
    Allern, Sigurd
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Pollack, Ester
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    The Marketplace of Scandals2012In: Scandalous: The Mediated Construction of Political Scandals in Four Nordic Countries / [ed] Sigurd Allern, Ester Pollack, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2012, p. 181-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Amini, Trifeh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Flexibilitetens konsekvenser: En intervjustudie om tillfälliga anställningar och dess påverkan på svenska journalister2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The media industry has been evolving for several hundred years and this change is still ongoing today, and with it the forms of employment in journalism have also changed. There has been an increase in staffing companies and temporary employment within the flexible labor market. Within the Swedish journalism industry, temporary employment has increased, especially among journalists under the age of 35, where over half do not have permanent employment. The purpose of the essay is to investigate whether temporary forms of employment affect Swedish journalists and whether they feel that such forms of employment affect the journalism they produce. Using John Atkinson's (1984) economic theory of the flexible market and Mark Deuze's (2005) theory of journalism's professional ideology, the results of the study are analyzed and interpreted. The material consists of 14 qualitative interviews with people who work or have worked as journalists and have experience in temporary forms of employment. The results show that the respondents experience stress and worry about finances and career as a direct consequence of the form of employment. The results show that the respondents do not feel that the employment in itself leads to them producing lower quality journalism. However, temporary employment gives them less time to devote to thinking about their professional role and trying to live up to the professional ideals they themselves have. The study indicates that temporary employment within the journalistic field causes stress and insecurity, which in turn can lead to a weaker professional identity. 

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    fulltext
  • 18.
    And, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Det mångfacetterade klassbegreppet i journalistiken: En studie av klassbegreppet i Dagens Nyheters artikelserie Den Nya Klassdebatten, 2012-06-18 – 2012-06-222013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet klass har mer eller mindre varit frånvarande från media sedan 60- och 70-talet. Nu när det åter har fått spridning har klassbegreppet blivit ämne för debatt.

    Mot denna bakgrund har jag genomfört två studier med syfte att undersöka hur Dagens Nyheter, Sveriges största morgontidning, har behandlat ämnet i en artikelserie kallad Den Nya Klassdebatten under sommaren 2012 samt hur artiklarna kan tas emot av läsare. Frågeställningarna var: 1. Vilka innebörder och betydelser ges klassbegreppet i Dagens Nyheters artikelserie "Den Nya Klassdebatten"? 2. Hur kontextualiseras och diskuteras klasserna i artiklarna? 3. Vilka klasser tillhör de som framträder i artiklarna? 4. Hur förhåller sig läsarna, det vill säga respondenterna, till artikelserien? Påverkar den deras sätt att se på klass?

    För att få svar på frågorna 1-3 genomfördes en textanalys av artiklarna med karaktären kritisk diskursanalys (CDA). Fråga 4 besvarades av (separata) kvalitativa intervjuer med 5 personer.

    Resultatet visar att "den uppåtgående klassresan" beskrivs som eftersträvansvärd och att klassbegreppet används för att rymma allt från utbildning till yrkesroll, kulturell smak, ekonomiskt kapital, socialt kapital och livsstil. Respondenternas uppfattningar enligt de intervjusvar de gav divergerade något från varandra, och deras förförståelser kvarstod närmast oreviderade.

  • 19.
    Andermo, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Sökord: Cameron, Riot, Speech: En analys av David Camerons uttalanden hämtade från ITN’s nyhetskanal på YouTube i samband med ”England Riots” 20112012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen undersöker David Camerons hantering av upploppen i England, augusti 2011. Fyra stycken uttalanden som David Cameron gjorde i samband med upploppen ligger till grund för analysen vilka analyseras utifrån en kritisk diskursanalytisk metod. Syftet med uppsatsen är att förstå och problematisera de diskurser som David Cameron artikulerar med sina uttalanden samt ta en närmare titt på nyheter i den remedierande kontexten YouTube som hans uttalanden är hämtade från. Den teoretiska ramen består av fyra delar; en statsvetenskaplig översikt av nyliberalismen som ideologi, en kritisk ansats mot det existerande nyliberala samhället, en del om protester och upplopp i media och en teoretisk ingång till fenomenet YouTube. Nyhetskanalen ITN har lagt upp Camerons uttalanden i samband med upploppen som korta klipp på sin YouTube-kanal och det är dessa klipp som ligger till grund för min analys. Analysen är uppdelad i tre delar. Den första delen tar upp den distributionskontext talen befinner sig i, den andra delen handlar om vilka olika diskurser David Cameron artikulerar i sina uttalanden och den tredje delen diskuterar remedierat material samt medierad kontext för Camerons uttalanden. Avslutningsvis diskuterar jag hur Cameron genom upploppen fått blomma ut i sin politik, vad det innebär att nyheter remedieras som klipp tagna ur sin ursprungliga publiceringskontext samt ger några korta förslag till vidare forskning.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Filip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Brasilien i svensk dagspress före och efter Lula: Stormakt eller evigt framtidsland?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen undersöker hur representationen av Brasilien har förändrats i svensk dagspress. Syftet är att granska vilken roll de olika sociopolitiska och geopolitiska förutsättningarna som rådde i Brasilien vid presidentvalen 1998 respektive 2010 spelade för representationen av landet. Huvudfrågan är hur representationen av landet och rapporteringens omfång påverkades under en period av stora förändringar. Uppsatsen försöker också svara på hur representationen av Brasilien och brasilianarna har förändrats i termer av huvudteman och ämnesområden, andrifiering och stereotyper samt vilka röster/aktörer som kommer till tals i artikelmaterialet.

    Studien använder ett socialkonstruktionistiskt angreppssätt tillsammans med Galtung och Ruges nyhetsvärderingsteori, Stuart Halls teorier om representationen av de(n) Andra, andrifiering och stereotyper samt Faircloughs kritiska diskursanalys.

    Uppsatsen består av en kvantitativ del och en kvalitativ, diskursanalytisk del. Den kvantitativa undersökningen består av den årliga Brasilienrelaterade artikelfrekvensen mellan 1998 och 2010 och artikelfrekvensen under de brasilianska presidentvalsåren 1998, 2002, 2006 och 2010. Artiklarna som publicerades i samband med presidentvalen 1998 och 2010 har kategoriserats efter huvudtema, genre och avsändare. Ett urval baserat på uppsatsens frågeställningar bestående av 15 artiklar från 1998 och 33 från 2010 blev därefter föremål för den kritiska diskursanalysen.

    Medan den allmänna Brasilienrapporteringens omfång ligger på en stabil nivå skrevs det avsevärt mer om presidentvalet 2010 än 1998, sannolikt beroende på Brasiliens växande ekonomiska och politiska inflytande internationellt. Tematiskt överskuggades 1998 års presidentval av Brasiliens dåvarande ekonomiska kris, som till övervägande delen representerades av elitröster och journalisterna själva och ur marknadens perspektiv. Artikelurvalet från 2010 innehåller fler valfrågor, mer skiftande perspektiv och fler olika röster/aktörer, däribland ”vanliga” människor och representanter från folkrörelser. Andrifieringar och stereotyper var i princip lika vanliga 2010 som 1998. Huvudslutsatsen är att den svenska dagspressens Brasiliendiskurs befinner sig på glid mellan en nyare framgångsdiskurs och en mer traditionell, negativ representation. Glidningen resulterar i en aningen mer mångfacetterad representation av Brasilien år 2010 än 1998 men att representationerna av det ”nya” och det ”gamla” Brasilien i de allra flesta fall uppträder var för sig, utan någon större grad av nyansering och problematisering.

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    Representationen av Brasilien i svensk dagspress 1998 och 2010
  • 21.
    Andersson, Geska
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Brecevic, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Morrison, A
    Skjulstad, S
    Disquiet in the Plasma2009In: Digital Creativity, ISSN 1462-6268, E-ISSN 1744-3806, Vol. 20, no 1&2, p. 3-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Med Hitler som slagträ: Hitler och nazismen i nutida dagspress2012In: Hitler für alle: Populärkulturella perspektiv på Nazityskland, andra världskriget och Förintelsen / [ed] Eva Kinsepp, Tanja Schult, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2012, p. 29-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att Adolf Hitler varit död i ett drygt halvt sekel är det inte helt ovanligt att den svenska dagspressen än idag gör rubriker på hans namn. En sökning i mediearkiv visar att hans namn förekommer i pressen i betydligt högre grad än andra med honom samtida ledare, och faktiskt i högre grad än dagens tyska ledare Angela Merkel. De frågor som reser sig här, och som föreliggande artikel ämnar besvara, är när, var, hur och varför Hitler nämns. Syftet är att genom kvantitativ innehållsanalys beskriva och karaktärisera hur Hitler (och nazismen) förekommer i ett urval svenska dagstidningar år 2009 och början av år 2010. Fokus ligger på fem större dagstidningar: Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, Aftonbladet, Expressen och Metro.

    Resultaten visar att Hitlers förekomst i nutida dagspress inte främst förklaras av ett stort historieintresse i dagspressen. Det är inte många tillbakablickande artiklar. Däremot förekommer allehanda kuriosaartiklar om Hitler, av närmast anekdotisk karaktär, samt recensioner av olika verk (fakta och fiktion i olika medier) där Hitler förekommer.

    Ytterligare en anledning till att Hitler (och nazismen) nämns i så stor utsträckning är att dessa har kommit att bli argument eller retoriska strategier i texter som handlar om helt andra saker än Hitler och nazism. Särskilt i opinionsbildande sammanhang riktas Hitler som argument mot främst enskilda politiker eller politiska partier i Sverige, eller i något annat land, och oftast på ett tämligen oprecist och osakligt sätt. Hitler är främst ett pathos-argument, avsett att väcka känslor, som blivit så töjbart att det används åt såväl höger som vänster på den politiska skalan och riktas mot politisk-religiösa grupperingars protektionister lika väl som mot dess antagonister.

    Att Hitler och nazismen är i högsta grad levande i dagspressen innebär således inte att kunskaperna och resonerandet kring dessa lever i samma utsträckning. Hitler (och nazismen) har snarare blivit ett underförstått ont vilket används som slagträ och mediestrategi: för att få uppmärksamhet och medialt genomslag.

  • 23.
    Andén-Papadopoulos, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Archives of/as resistance: On the justice potential of eyewitness image records documenting the Syrian conflict2024In: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the new possibilities of enacting justice through the vast archives of digital eyewitness images and self-representations produced since 2011 by the grassroots Syrian opposition movement amidst both a nascent revolution and a war entailing gross human rights violations? Based on in-depth interviews with 15 anti-regime Syrian video activists, my article considers how the image makers themselves narrate the role and meaning of these archival records in efforts to reckon with Syria's tormented past and build a more just future. I thus seek to recognize the ongoing agency of the Syrian media activists who struggled, by centering them and their wishes in the current debate about the role that this new type of activist-fueled human rights records can play in helping to build roads to justice and healing in Syria.

  • 24.
    Andén-Papadopoulos, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Eqnuete: Image Wars2011In: Ekfrase: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Visuell Kultur, ISSN 1891-5752, E-ISSN 1891-5760, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 91-93Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Larsson, Mariah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Benefits of the in-between: Swedish men’s magazines and sex films 1965–19752014In: Sexuality & Culture, ISSN 1095-5143, E-ISSN 1936-4822, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 310-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes a content-based market position that developed during the mid-1960s, situated in-between the pornographic and the accepted. By studying Swedish men’s magazines and sex films from the time period, the argument is made that these media products profited from both the advantages of pornography, i.e., more or less sexual explicit images, and the advantages of the accepted, i.e., common distribution channels, the possibility of having regular advertising and placards and being sold in ordinary kiosks (for magazines) and shown at ordinary cinemas (for films). For some years, this balancing act between the accepted and the pornographic was maintained, and the genre became enormously popular. From the mid-1970s onward, however, the division between pornography and accepted media became more clear-cut. The critique against pornography and the in-between media products intensified, and the uncertainty about pornography’s future role after the legalization in 1971 was followed by new ways of separating the pornographic from the accepted. While there were some differences between the two media formats, such as their degree of internationalization and the importance of advertising, they shared much in terms of content formulas and used the same female actors and models. It is argued that both formal regulations and the informal norms of gender and sexuality at the time and their change throughout the 1970s are key for understanding the development and the disappearance of the in-between genre.

  • 26.
    Bakke, Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Gränd Bäck, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    En avbetald skuld eller en morgonrock i guld?: En semiotisk analys om hur rikedom framställs i två reklamfilmer från LeoVegas och Svenska Spel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats att undersöka hur rikedom framställs och skiljer sig i reklamfilmerna “Jackpotsfesten - 124 miljoner” från spelbolaget LeoVegas och “Lotto - Färjan” från spelbolaget Svenska Spel. Utifrån teorier om semiotiska begrepp och Bourdieus teorier om kapital, smak, habitus och det sociala rummet analyseras framställandet av rikedom i två reklamfilmer från två olika spelbolag. Detta med hjälp av en semiotisk analysmetod, som är en kvalitativ innehållsanalytisk metod. Det utförs även ett kommutationstest där viktiga och betydande paradigm byts ut för att testa deras relevans i reklamernas bild av rikedom.

    Utifrån denna analys kan vi se hur LeoVegas spelreklam framställer rikedom genom att visa upp tecken i form av materiella ting som konnoterar lyx och exklusivitet och i sin tur ett högt ekonomiskt kapital. Vi kan även se hur tydliga tecken på ett högt kulturellt kapital, där den rena smaken ligger i fokus. Svenska Spel visar istället upp rikedom i form av en färja i en exklusiv miljö, samt genom lingvistiska tecken i form av ett berättande, vilket skapar en uppfattning om ett högt ekonomiskt kapital och inte genom lyxiga detaljer.

    Till skillnad från LeoVegas visar Svenska Spel upp en bild av den barbariska smaken och det kulturella kapitalet är något som endast hamnat i bakgrunden. Slutligen ser vi i denna reklamfilm tydliga tecken på en nyrikhet eller en parveny som inte syns i LeoVegas. 

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  • 27.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, Cinema Studies.
    Eine kurze Geschichte des Scheiterns: Googles Nexus Q und die Grenzen von Streaming-Technologien2017In: Montage/AV. Zeitschrift für Theorie und Geschichte audiovisueller Kommunikation, ISSN 0942-4954, Vol. 26, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, Cinema Studies.
    Netflix2017In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of the Internet / [ed] Barney Warf, Sage Publications, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, Cinema Studies.
    Shadow economies and digital disruption2014In: NECSUS : European Journal of Media Studies, E-ISSN 2213-0217, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 331-337Article, book review (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 30.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, Cinema Studies.
    Sweden: Circumvention and the Quest for Privacy2016In: Geoblocking and Global Video Culture / [ed] Ramon Lobato, James Meese, Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures , 2016, p. 140-149Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    Sweden: Circumvention and the Quest for Privacy
  • 31.
    Bazina, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Mourning on VKontakte: An exploratory study of the process of mourning in the context of national culture and global digitalization2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digital age has changed the way we live and die. A large variety of social networking services (SNS) have become our everyday context. Profiles on SNS register all important moments of a user’s life. Death, one of the most essential concepts of human existence, is also reflected on SNS in different ways. The digital era offers a wide variety of options for online mourning. The bereaved can create an online memorial, put a candle for the deceased’s soul in a virtual church, or even arrange funerals.

    Current research is focused on the role of communication in the process of online mourning on SNS: it examines how members of an online community communicate with a dead user and with each other, how this communication differs before and after death, and how offline death culture corresponds with online mourning rituals. Almost all of the studies on online death culture published so far have referred to the Western mourning tradition and analyzed online mourning in an English-speaking environment. This work suggests that the process of online mourning differs in different cultural contexts, depending on local mentality, culture, and traditions and intended to be the first study on death in an online environment conducted on Russian material (social networking service VKontakte).

    Methodologically this study follows a mixed-methods approach. The results from content analysis conducted on the groups of commemoration on VKontakte have shown to whom these groups are dedicated and how members of commemoration groups communicate with the deceased and with each other. Discourse analysis complement the results of content analysis by showing how communication in online communities differs before and after death. The results of the research were discussed in connection to Russian death culture, the meaning of death and dying in Russian society.

    The study is relevant on several levels. It is meant as a contribution to a conceptualization of online mourning, which is clearly based on the social and cultural norms and therefore should be examined through the prism of different cultures. It brings together national culture and global digitalization and can be relevant not only for digital death studies but also for understanding contemporary Russian death culture.

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    Master thesis Elena Bazina
  • 32.
    Becker, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Performing the News2013In: Photographies, ISSN 1754-0763, E-ISSN 1754-0771, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photographs of non-professionals taking pictures are a common feature of contemporary journalism. Drawing on theories of photography as performance and ritual, this article addresses what it means when professionals include these photographing “others” in their images ofnews events. It argues that the image of the amateur, performing photography in the news, shifts and destabilizes journalistic discourse. Using examples from the daily press, the article accounts for these “meta-pictures” as a manifestation of participatory visual culture dating from 9/11, examines specific ways they challenge the authority of the professional andconsiders how they alter the significance of the media event.

  • 33.
    Becker, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Hauserman, Nancy
    The Diaspora on Display: Production, Performance and Media Practices in Urban Space2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure in a broader study of street vendors and the positions they occupy in the mix of urban public life.   In many city environments vending and other forms of public practice have been increasingly subject to regulation. Debates arise over how public space is used, focusing on the visual quality and aesthetics of a particular display or practice, without directly addressing the often equally controversial issue of the social or ethnic group responsible for the display.

    In the present paper we select two aspects of the initial study for a closer examination among a broader sample of vendors. First, we examine the ways street vending is often extended into a range of media practices.  While they rarely rent a locale, vendors are quite likely to have a home page and an email address, linked to the marketing of their wares.  The sale of records, DVDs and other media products may also be part of their business. Second, we look more specifically at vending as a migratory phenomenon, with links between individuals and communities in different countries.  In what sense do the vendors who are not “native” to the place where they are selling their wares see themselves as linked to other places and communities?  Whereas in some cases vending provides a way of establishing a base in a new country or community, for others it provides experience and income that is needed in order to support and return home.

  • 34.
    Becker, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Kautsky, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Widholm, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Watching Football in the Fan Park: Mediatization, Spectatorship and Fan Identity2014In: The Ashgate Research Companion to Fan Cultures / [ed] Linda Duits, Koos Zwaan, Stijn Reijnders, Burlington VT: Ashgate, 2014, p. 275-288Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The football fan park, originally a surrogate stadium for fans without tickets, has now become a live venue in its own right, and a new arena in the culture of football fandom. In these sites of exceptionally high media density, football fan identities become increasingly flexible and mobile as participants in these venues interact with an increasingly mediatized social environment. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in FIFA Fan Parks during the 2010 World Cup, we argue that the fan park, as a mediatized space, has become a site where fan identities are constructed in new ways, facilitating a cosmopolitan understanding of football.

  • 35.
    Becker, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Tovar, Patricia
    Awakening the past, Expressing the present: Stories of photography, migration and belief in a Mexican village2014In: Photographic Powers: Helsinki Photomedia 2014 / [ed] Mika Elo, Marko Karo, Helsinki: Aalto University , 2014, p. 308-333Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How may the practice of photography shift ways of looking at oneself and at one's community? Can creating visual narratives also support reexamining the past, whereby old pictures and other objects gain new significance? This article addresses these questions in a study of several workshops on transmedial storytelling in the town of St. Ana Zegache, Oaxaca, Mexico. We chose photography as the primary medium for the workshops, based on our interest in the visual vernacular and the relative ease of using simple cameras to acquire first-person accounts of everyday experience. We did not anticipate that participants would seize the opportunity to work across media, to include other objects and images, weaving alternative histories into their stories.

    We found that telling stories through photographs opened possibilities for some participants to reinterpret experiences of the self in relation to place, community and beliefs. This became ‘empowering’ in the moment when each person presented his or her story, sharing this reinterpretation with other workshop participants, simultaneously re-enacting his or her place within the community. Examples included experiences of migration, familial relations, and their own creative practice.

    Old photographs and objects, as repositories of histories and memories, acquired new dimensions when incorporated into contemporary stories.  Participants also reflected on the value of their narratives beyond the immediate community, to people elsewhere who would be interested in the culture of Zegache, and ‘how we live here.’ They saw the digital interface as a network offering the possibility of sharing their stories with an audience from afar. The reflexive power of photography in this context revealed the image as multidimensional, beyond visual representation, encompassing both individual and collective experience.

  • 36.
    Becker, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Widestedt, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Trial by blogging: Taking the news into their own hands2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Beckman, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Freaks of Time: Reevaluating Memory and Identity through Daniel Knauf's Carnivale2012In: Time in Television Narrative: Exploring Temporality in Twenty-First-Century Programming / [ed] Melissa Ames, University Press of Mississippi, 2012, p. 178-189Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Belinskaya, Yulia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Outdoor Advertising and Gender Differences: Factors Influencing Perception and Attitudes2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines attitudes towards outdoor advertising, with strong emphasis on gender-based differences. The research intends to reveal the most influencing factors, including gender, format, different images and recall. Earlier researchers have argued that females are inclined to rate advertisements more positively than men. Five different, but interconnected studies, one content analysis and four surveys, were implicated in order to measure the responses to advertising. It is further suggested that positive attitude towards outdoor advertising affects the purchase intent. The theme of sexualised advertising is also discussed within this research. After detailed examination of the advertisements in the centre of St. Petersburg it was concluded that females’ rating is considerably more positive compared to males in the situation of high processing opportunity. However, men were more positive when respondents were asked about more general attitudes to outdoor advertising. Recall of advertising was studied within the field settings and showed that women indeed demonstrate better visual memory. Such factors as format, content were proved to have influence on the recall. In addition, different visual preferences were tested within one study. The findings prove that gender differences in perception of outdoor advertising do exist and should be taken into consideration by advertisers in order to raise the effectiveness of advertising campaigns.

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  • 39.
    Bengtner, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    The Cambodian Curse: A field study on the role of journalists in modern Cambodia2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The title enlightens the difficulties of democratic transition that Cambodia experiences post Khmer Rouge. Media in transitional democracies is often described as a forced compromise between what is ideal and what is actually possible. This thesis aims to understand how political agency and technological advances have affected journalistic agency in a transitional democracy. Three research questions were decided upon: How do journalists in Cambodia perceive their role in a democratic transition? What restrictions and limitations do journalistic practices face in Cambodia? And how do journalists in Cambodia perceive the impact of social media on democratic development?

    A field study was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. For ten weeks, eight editors and journalists currently active in Cambodia were interviewed and observed in their working environment. Normative media theory and developmental democracy theory have been used to analyze and understand the material that was generated through a combination of unstructured observations and semi-structured qualitative research interviews.

    Important findings were that the complicated structures of transitional democracies make journalists take on different roles, from very collaborative to extremely radical. Their different stand on journalistic practices is a mixture of their own choice and the force of historical, political and social constraints. Political power players treat them differently, which further separates them and has led to a segregated journalistic community. Even though they seem to share the same fundamental ideal of what journalism should be journalists are therefor unlikely to cooperate.

    Social media has been a catalyst for change in democratic development in Cambodia. By offering a place for uncensored conversations it has given the opposition access to media. Social media has brought along many new dilemmas though and is probably more beneficial to journalistic development than to democratic development. There is a lack of tolerance of diversity in Cambodia due to the fragile state of democratic transition. Therefor the immediate and unrestricted ways of expression in social media partially works against creating the social capital necessary for consolidation – fully completed democratization.

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  • 40.
    Bengtsson Lundin, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Appearance and photographs of people in flight: A qualitative study of photojournalistic practices in spaces of (forced) migration2021Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores photojournalistic practices by investigating how spaces of (forced) migration, as well as the people and objects moving in and across them, appeared in Swedish newspapers in 2015.

    Photographs are unique objects of study, as the presence of people in certain spaces becomes directly observable through them. By considering photographs as agentic entities resulting from the many encounters between people involved in the event of photojournalism, the focus is on the social and political relations that emerge from these encounters, which opens up for an examination of questions of citizenship and visibility in relation to photography.

    The inquiry scrutinises the traditional ontological framework for discussing photographs and the act of photography related to people in flight, which generally is limited to the content visible within the frame, implying that photographs are the products of one stable point of view – that of the photographer. This thesis offers insights into mediated and mediating ways of seeing and their implications by: (1) examining photojournalism and photographs as a combination of content, practice, and place-making that produces events of photojournalism; (2) linking these to the notion of spaces of appearance and the potential for political action that ensues; (3) providing a specific account of photojournalism as a practice that enables modes of self-presentation; and, (4) reflecting on encounters that unfold in the event of photojournalism due to the fact that photographs, as shareable stories, are reproduced and circulated in time and space.

    The analysis draws upon a primarily qualitative, multi-method approach, combining an interview study with photojournalists and a visual analysis of photographs published in four Swedish newspapers in 2015. Through an approach of watching photography, the study examines the spatial and temporal dimensions of photographs beyond the stillness imposed by the frame and offers an analysis centred on movement and place. Employing Arendt’s notion of appearance in terms of both photojournalists in spaces of (forced) migration and others who are moving in and across these spaces, the results indicate that photojournalism, as a space of appearance, potentially stretches beyond the moment of photography. The findings further show that photojournalism practices do not only visualise events of (forced) migration, but they facilitate the appearance of, and encounters with, people in flight. The event of photojournalism offers a space which recognises fleeing as an action. By appearing in photographs, people in flight regain part of the spontaneity that they have been deprived of as stateless individuals, giving them an opportunity to reappear before others as subjects of rights. The thesis concludes that photographs should not merely be construed as representations, but rather as presentations anew, with people’s appearance in photographs being testimony to their ability to self-present.

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    Appearance and photographs of people in flight
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  • 41.
    Bengtsson Lundin, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Using affective methodologies in visual research2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using affective methodologies in visual research

    While journalism is commonly “understood as the site for impartial, rational-critical discussion of matters of common concern”, journalistic practice has always been emotional (Wahl-Jorgensen, 2019, p. 31). Photographs, imagined as cultural texts, can be considered what Cvetkovich calls archives of feelings: that is as “repositories of feelings and emotions, which are encoded not only with the content of the text [photographs] themselves, but in the practices that surround their production and reception.” (2003, p. 7). Departing from challenges that I have encountered in developing a methodological framework for my doctoral thesis, this paper addresses the lack of affective engagement with photojournalistic practice and photographs within journalism studies. It further discusses some of the challenges and opportunities that arise when approaching visual research through a lens of affectivity and emotionality, specifically focusing on photojournalistic practice and visual reporting in Swedish newspapers. 

    Empirically, I explore conditions set by newspapers for collectively receiving and interpreting visual reporting on refugee migration, focusing on photojournalistic practices and photographs published in four Swedish newspapers during the so-called “refugee crisis” in 2015. Through interviews with photojournalists, photo editors and others involved in visual reporting, I aim to understand the ideals, practices and routines that drive them in their work. Departing from their own experience, I consider the norms and ideals that guide them, the roles that they take in relation to different factors that set the conditions for their practice, as well as the approaches they take in photographic encounters with individuals in precarious situations. To further contextualise the accounts of the interviewees, I use content analysis to collect and analyse photographs published in Swedish newspapers to understand how refugees were visually reported. While the content analysis is useful to systematically approach the material, and allows for a descriptive analysis, it lacks ways to make meaning beyond descriptive levels. Researchers need to engage with emotions, not as a way of dealing with bias or the possible influences on our research, but rather to engage emotions into theoretical explorations (Jaggar in Harding & Pribam, 2009). Photographs, I argue, work beyond verbal and visual language, at the level of emotion and affect, as “affective-discursive practice” (Wetherell, 2013). I use (visual) affective- discourse analysis, not only to address the lack of affective engagement with photojournalistic practice within journalism studies, but because, as argued by Åhäll, applying affective dissonance as a methodological tool offers ways to identify the political in the affective-discursive because affect in itself generates questions of how the world works (2018). 

  • 42.
    Berndt, Jaqueline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies.
    Manga Flows: Reading the Paneled Spread Against Handscroll and Webtoon2021In: Love, Fight, Feast: The Multifaceted World of Japanese Narrative Art / [ed] Khanh Trinh, Zurich: Scheidegger & Spiess , 2021, p. 50-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 43.
    Berr, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Slaves to our Screens?: A Critical Approach to Self-Regulation of Smartphone Use at the Example of Apple’s Screen Time Feature2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasingly ubiquitous role of smartphones in our everyday lives causes concerns regarding our relationship with the devices. While some raise the question whether smartphones are addictive (Alter 2017; Lopez-Fernandez 2019), others regard this concern as the most recent manifestation of moral panics (Cashmore, Cleland & Dixon 2018; Leick 2019). Meanwhile advocates of the attention economy argument claim that the problem is the design of technology occupying users’ attention (CHT 2019a-d). Somewhere in between, media and communication studies search for empirical evidence.

    From this vantage point of ideas this study explores the role of Screen Time, shaping and being shaped by this discourse. As a feature of Apple’s iOS software it is supposed to support users in regulating their smartphone use. Applying the walkthrough method as proposed by Light, Burgess & Duguay (2018) combined with an analysis of user experiences, shows how the technology company shapes a concept of self-regulation for users to adopt to. A concept, which first and foremost follows corporate and not the users’ best interest.

    This thesis poses the the question whether we are slaves to our screens, but arrives at the conclusion that we carry chains of self-regulation. The question remains, how we can create more sustainable and meaningful environments for protecting our attention.

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  • 44.
    Bertilsson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Apotekskedjornas visuella kommunikation: En jämförande studie av butiksmiljöer och dess kommersiella attribut2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats rör de fyra största svenska apotekskedjorna och dess visuella kommunikation samt användning av kommersiella attribut. Med visuell kommunikation menas här det budskap som sänds ut till kunden genom butiksutformningen och som kunden kan uppfatta med sina sinnen, exempelvis färgval, exponerade produkter och personalens bemötande. Dessa attribut kan sedan användas på kommersiella vis i den mån att man till exempel vill locka till sig en speciell målgrupp eller sälja extra mycket av en specifik vara, exempelvis genom specialexponering eller genomtänkt placering av produkter. De frågor som besvaras i denna uppsats berör vilka visuella attribut apoteken använder sig av, hur dessa visuella attribut skiljer sig åt från kedja till kedja samt hur kommersiella attribut används. Genom standardiserade observationer baserade på empirisk forskning, rörande visuella och kommersiella attribut som har en bevisad effekt på kunden, utfördes observationerna på Apoteket AB, Apoteksgruppen, Apoteket Hjärtat samt Apoteket Kronan. Syftet med observationerna var att får en upplevelse likt den kunden kan tänkas få när denna kliver in i butiken. Observationerna gav ett resultat som påvisade att apotekskedjorna skilde sig åt i användandet av kommersiella och visuella attribut. Detta gav upphov till ett analyskapitel där teorier rörande hur de olika attributen bör kategoriseras och vidare hur dessa kategorier bör vara i symbios och således kommunicera ett enhetligt budskap till kunden. Det kunde sedan konstateras att Apoteket Kronan, Apoteket AB samt Apoteksgruppen inte kommunicerade ett enhetligt budskap till kunden via sin visuella kommunikation. Personalen i dessa apotekskedjor kommunicerade inte, vid observationens tillfälle, samma budskap till kunden som de materiella attributen gjorde. Apoteket Hjärtat ansågs dock inte ha detta problem, däremot diskuteras huruvida deras visuella kommunikation och därmed den tänkta målgruppen är för bred. Apoteket Hjärtat erbjuder många varierande tjänster i kombination med, för ett apotek icke-typisk, visuell kommunikation och detta kan antas skapa förvirring.

     

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  • 45.
    Björck, Catrine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Children and visual/media literacy2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In my research I am looking at art teachers’ roles when the pupils use the computer as a tool, and use visual material from their own everyday visual experiences and cultures. I will observe what kind of problems/questions they have to tackle in lessons. I will also study if and in what way teachers interact with their pupils to stimulate them to develop their visual/media literacy. I have just started my work in observing art classes when they are working with computers. At this point in my research it would be helpful to get the opportunity to hear others opinion about what visual/media literacy might include, and to discuss what it means and can be. The opportunity, to hear others opinion about visual/media literacy, will help me broaden my horizon. This would help me to find different angels in my own material in the future when I start analyzing, and it will hopefully also help me in my observations in knowing what to look for.

  • 46.
    Björkman, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Pressen och piraterna: En studie i representationen av fildelning och upphovsrätt i svenska storstadspress2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks svensk storstadspress representation av fenomenen fildelning och upphovsrätt. Fenomenen är en del av en pågående debatt kring Internets utveckling och reglering, inte sällan ingår begreppen då man talar om integritet och informationsfrihet. Politiska beslut tas som har juridiska påföljder, dessa påverkar människors vardag.

    Syftet med denna studie är att se hur diskurser, sätt att tala om, förstå och konstituera fenomen, ser ut och formar representationen av fenomenen i pressen. Press och media har stora maktpositioner i samhället, som granskare av makten och som frambringare av information till allmänheten. Utifrån objektivitets- och neutralitetsideal arbetar journalister med dagliga arbetsrutiner. Studien synar dessa utifrån fenomenens inverkan på pressen som en aktör på den kommersiella marknaden.

    Det teoretiska ramverket för studien är Kovach & Rosenstiels (2007) framställningar av journalistikens praktiska arbete, hur objektivitetsbegreppet kan impliceras till en arbetsmetod. Mot detta ställs McChesneys (2008) kritik av bakomliggande strukturer som påverkar journalistikens arbete, däribland efterlevnaden av objektivitetsidealet och pressens position på den kommersiella marknaden. Studiens metodtillämpning tilldelas Norman Faircloughs (1995) kritiska diskursanalys. Men hjälp av denna analyseras texterna och deras samband med sociala strukturer. Studien tillämpar Faircloughs tredimensionella modell för analys av kommunikativa händelser.

    Studien visar hur ett fåtal, tätt sammansatta och tillsammans välkoordinerade, diskurser konstituerar fenomenens representation i pressen. Främst juridisk diskurs och marknadsdiskurser återfinns i texterna. Texterna och diskurserna arbetar på ett sätt som gör att fenomenen ordnas på ett sätt som kan uppfattas som naturligt, självklart och ofrånkomligt. Individer och institutioner ordnas in i roller av diskurserna. Inga alternativ presenteras till den verklighet som diskurserna presenterar, diskurserna är ”sunt förnuft”.

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  • 47.
    Blixt, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Alternativa fakta eller faktiska alternativ: En kvalitativ studie om källkritik och falska nyheter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att söka inställningen till källkritik i dagens medielandskap hos ett antal intervjuade nyhetskonsumenter. I en värld med allt mer falska nyheter och större informationsmängd behöver vi se över hur vi ser på källkritik, vad det innebär att vara källkritisk och hos vem ansvaret för källkritiken ligger. För att söka dessa svar genomfördes en intervjustudie med semi-strukturerade intervjuer. Att källkritik är en komplex fråga framstod tydligt och den ökade mängden information gör den än mer komplex. Mängden information tillsammans med debatten om falska nyheter har bidragit till en ökad medvetenhet kring källkritik. Många intressanta frågor uppkommer som en följd av detta, bland annat hur en ska klara av att vara källkritisk.

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  • 48.
    Blomstedt, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Att blogga om självskada: En kvalitativ studie om unga tjejers skildring, identitetsskapande och skäl till att blogga om sitt självskadebeteende2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva och analysera hur bloggskribenter i sina bloggar skildrar sitt självskadebeteende, vilka olika identiteter som konstrueras samt varför de väljer att blogga om ett sådant personligt ämne offentligt på Internet för allmänheten att beskåda. Metoden som användes var kvalitativ, i form av en narrativ metod. Urvalet bestod av tre bloggar, där bloggskribenterna är tjejer mellan 16-20 år. Tio inlägg från varje blogg valdes ut för analys med hjälp av teorier och begrepp som självskadebeteendets funktioner, teorier om bloggande och självskadebeteende på Internet, bekännelse som tradition, identitetsbegreppet och stigmatisering. Resultatet och analysen visar på att bloggskribenterna på ett detaljerat sätt skildrar sitt självskadebeteende i bloggen, med ett kraftfullt målande språk samt bilder på skärsår, som en kommunikativ handling. Centrala teman handlar om varför de väljer att skada sig själva, där den vanligaste orsaken är affektreglering. Vidare utkristalliseras flera olika identiteter i bloggarna, som ”självskadare”, ”ångestfylld”, ”ensam”, ”utanför”, ”annorlunda”, ”emo”, ”attention whore” samt ”ängel” vilka konstrueras i relation till människor i tjejernas omgivning och även bloggens läsare. Skäl till att blogga om sitt självskadebeteende beskrivs vara skrivandets egenterapeutiska funktion, stöd och bekräftelse från läsare, ett rop på hjälp men också för att sprida kunskap om ämnet.

  • 49.
    Borg, Erika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Jones Pettersson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    POLITISKA MEDIEDREV: En komparativ studie om nyhetsmediernas framställning och gestaltning av Anna Kinberg Batra och Håkan Juholt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur gestaltas en politisk skandal i nyhetsmedia? Anna Kinberg Batra och Håkan Juholt är två exempel på politiska ledare som tvingats lämna sina poster, bland annat efter hårt tryck från medierna. Efter Kinberg Batras avgång som partiledare för Moderaterna väcktes debatten om hennes könstillhörighet samt roll som kvinnlig ledare inom den politiska sfären. Juholts politiska skandal bemöttes även den hårt i media och utgjorde det mediedrev som slutligen skulle leda till hans avgång.

    Genom att jämföra den politiska skandalen som kretsade kring Kinberg Batra samt den som cirkulerade kring Juholt, ämnar studien att undersöka om det går att utläsa några betydande skillnader i nyhetsrapporteringen av de båda fallen. De frågeställningar som studien utgår från behandlar Svenska Dagbladets gestaltning av Kinberg Batra och Juholt, samt de eventuella skillnader som går att se mellan de två politiska skandalerna. Genom en konkretisering av van Dijks kritiska diskursanalys studerades åtta stycken nyhetsartiklar från Svenska Dagbladet. Artiklarna avser perioden för partiledarnas avgångar och analyseras utifrån teorier som representation, genus och framing. Utöver dessa teorier presenteras även tidigare forskning inom politisk kommunikation, mediedrev samt kvinnlig och manlig representation i media. Resultatet av undersökningen påvisar skillnader och likheter mellan de två fallen. Slutsatserna av resultatet kan därmed konstatera att de skillnader som är framstående i rapporteringen främst kan härledas till frågan om genus samt nyhetsmedias framställning av de båda fallen. De likheter som kan utläsas i rapporteringen av de två före detta partiledarna visar på att de båda mer eller mindre har beskrivits utifrån personliga attribut.

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  • 50.
    Borgen, Turid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Mellom samfunnsoppdrag og marked: En studie av utviklingen av sjefredaktørrollen i utvalgte norske og svenske mediehus fra 1985 til 20152017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation analyses changes in the role of editors-in-chief in ten leading Norwegian and Swedish media houses – today owned by either Bonnier or Schibsted – in light of the potential tensions between journalistic ideals and market demands. This duality is studied over a period of 30 years, from 1985 to 2015. The most defining changes in the structural framework under which editors-in-chief work are the ongoing technological revolution, the transformation from an analogue into a digital society, and structural, economic changes related to this development. Methodologically, the study builds on data from qualitative in-depth interviews, mainly with 33 past and present editors-in-chief. It also contains a study of how the role of editors-in-chief has been reported and discussed in the magazines of two media branch organisations. The changing role of editors-in-chief is analysed within an institutional perspective. The main empirical results are as follows: (1) Owners and company management have considered the recruitment of editors-in-chief to be highly important throughout the period, and they have used their influence actively. Internal recruitment processes are a standard procedure. Very few of those chosen are women; men recruit other men. The last decade shows a recruitment process becoming more centralized and professionalized. (2) Most editors-in-chief represented in the study have a background in the newsroom. This has traditionally been the main qualification. (3) Regular meetings have structured most of the working hours for editors-in-chief. From an institutional perspective, meetings have played a norm-setting and ritualised role. During the last decade, some of those meetings have included not only journalists but also employees from other departments. (4) Those respondents who were active during the last period investigated perceive the increased speed of work on a daily basis and the more complex editorial role as the main changes and challenges. (5) Many of the respondents are so-called ‘silent’ editors. Due to a lack of time, they do not write much in their own papers. Lately, this has changed to some extent, especially among Swedish editors. This finding is one of the major differences between Norwegian and Swedish editors-in-chief. (6) Editors are still responsible for journalistic content, but demands on the part of commercial management have gradually become more important, and strategic decisions have become more centralized. The metaphor about the need to balance the demands of the ‘Marketplace and Cathedral’ has been replaced by the metaphor ‘We are all in the same boat’. The journalistic institution is under pressure. (7) Despite the immense technological and economic changes in the business and in the structural framework, there is also stability in the role due to the robust nature of journalism as an institution. The role of editor-in-chief is complex, and during the last 30 years, it has become even more so. The structural conditions have affected the role in various ways. While the basic tasks of editors-in-chief remain rooted in editorial work, downsizing and market demands have simultaneously undermined the autonomy and power of editors-in-chief, especially in relation to central media group management. 

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