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  • 1.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Literature and History of Ideas.
    "What is it like to be one of these people?": Narrativa strategier för att skapa inlevelse i reportage2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The eyewitnessed reportage has a pronounced character of narrating. The imaginative power of the text helps the reader to empathise with the characters. That makes constructing empathy a necessary skill of reporters. But how can this be done?

    Despite a tradition of story telling among reporters, narratologists virtually have neglected the reportage genre. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how narrative strategies can be used in reportages and, at the same time, suggest methods for investigating those strategies. The main question is: How can empathy be constructed? Empathy is here defined as a function of presence, perspective, selection and disnarration. A screen of covert values is also added.

    The study applies a narratological and a media rhetorical approach to journalistic narratives, and focus is on basic discussions supported by analysis samples. Theories by Gérard Genette, Dorrit Cohn, Seymor Chatman, William C. Booth, Gerald Prince, Göran Rossholm, Bengt Nerman and others are discussed.

    Even though a reportage is about real events, it always represents a personal interpretation. It presents the readers with a represented reality. In a narratological model for the macro level of the reportage I identify the trait of construction as an interaction between three instances: the producer (i. e. the implied author), the narrator and the experiencing reporter. On a micro level this model helps me to explain, for example, how a homodiegetic narrator can be combined with external focalisation, and how another character than the experiencing reporter can be focalised. In the former case I examine the interplay between showing and telling relative to the narrator’s visibility. In the latter case I especially focus on a complex technique for shifting perspectives, both those concerning thoughts, like Free, Indirect Discourse (FID), and those concerning perception. At the same time I study different degrees of perspectivity.  

  • 2.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory patterns and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian: Inhalation amplitude in multiparty conversations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous multiparty conversations held in Estonian. Respiratory activity is recorded with Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. The main focus is on how inhalation amplitude varies between the inhalations produced directly before turn onset compared to the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results indicate a significant difference in amplitude, realised mainly by an increase in inhalation end lung volume values. One of the possible functions of this pattern is to signal an intention of taking the conversational turn. Another could be a phrasing or grouping function connected to lower inhalation amplitudes within turns.

  • 3.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Backchannels and breathing2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, 47-52 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the timing of backchannel onsets within speaker’s own and dialogue partner’s breathing cycle in two spontaneous conversations in Estonian. Results indicate that backchannels are mainly produced near the beginning, but also in the second half of the speaker’s exhalation phase. A similar tendency was observed in short non-backchannel utterances, indicating that timing of backchannels might be determined by their duration rather than their pragmatic function. By contrast, longer non-backchannel utterances were initiated almost exclusively right at the beginning of the exhalation. As expected, backchannels in the conversation partner’s breathing cycle occurred predominantly towards the end of the exhalation or at the beginning of the inhalation. 

  • 4.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian conversations2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015 Lund, June 8-10, 2015 / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Joost van de Weijer, Lund: Lund University , 2015, 1-5 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn management in four approximately 20 minute long spontaneous multiparty conversations in Estonian. The main focus of interest is whether inhalation amplitude is greater before turn onset than in the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results show that inhalations directly before turn onset are greater in amplitude than those later in the turn. The difference seems to be realized by ending the inhalation at a greater lung volume value, whereas the initial lung volume before inhalation onset remains roughly the same across a single turn. The findings suggest that the increased inhalation amplitude could function as a cue for claiming the conversational floor.

  • 5.
    Aarni, Teddy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    The Kalunga concept in Ovambo religion from 1870 onwards1982Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Abarca, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies, Japanese Studies.
    Förebyggandet av självmord: En komparativ studie mellan Sverige och Japan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Abdollahian Barough, Somaje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Perspectivation in narratives in Persian L2 English2011In: Eurosla 21, 21st Annual Conference of the European Second Language AssociationStockholm University, 8-10 September 2011: Book of Abstracts, 2011, 216-216 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Acquiring L2 Syllable Margins: Studies on the simplification of onsets and codas in interlanguage phonology2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with developmental, universal, grammatical, and functional factors involved in the acquisition of L2 syllable structure. More specifically, using speech data from Spanish and Chinese learners of Swedish, the thesis examines the production and development of syllable onsets and codas—that is, syllable margins. In doing so, the present work draws on various theoretical considerations and empirical findings from research on L1 and L2 acquisition, phonology and phonetics, language variation and language typology. The thesis includes three empirical studies, all of which are based on longitudinal conver­sational data. Study I deals with the acquisition of word-initial /sC(C)/ onsets by one native Spanish speaker, whereas Study II and Study III focus on the acquisi­tion of word-final codas by three native Chinese speakers. Study I and Study II both showed that onset and coda length and phonetic environment are influen­tial factors in the production of syllable structure, while sonority may not be as reliable a predictor of production difficulty. Next, both Study I and Study III provide evidence of a U-shaped rather than linear development of pronunciation accuracy. This pattern is interpreted as an effect of initial increase in fluency, with more focus on content and less on form. In addition, Study III showed that L2 proficiency is related to the epenthesis-deletion differential. An increasing ratio of epenthesis-to-deletion is the first-order indicator of increasing L2 profi­ciency during early stages of acquisition, but increased target-like production becomes the first-order indicator of development at later stages. Finally, Study III showed that learners are aware of potential ambiguity resulting from simpli­fication in different grammatical/functional categories. Codas that are essential for the retention of semantic information are preserved through higher accuracy rates and higher relative levels of epenthesis errors.

  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of onset and nativelike L2 ultimate attainment of morphosyntactic and phonetic intuition2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, 187-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has consistently shown there is a negative correlation between age of onset (AO) of acquisition and ultimate attainment (UA) of either pronunciation or grammar in a second language (L2). A few studies have indeed reported nativelike behavior in some postpuberty learners with respect to either phonetics/phonology or morphosyntax, a result that has sometimes been taken as evidence against the critical period hypothesis (CPH). However, in the few studies that have employed a wide range of linguistic tests and tasks, adult learners have not exhibited nativelike L2 proficiency across the board of measures, which, according to some, suggests that the hypothesis still holds. The present study investigated the relationship between AO and UA and the incidence of nativelikeness when measures of phonetic and grammatical intuition are combined. An additional aim was to investigate whether children and adults develop the L2 through fundamentally different brain mechanisms-namely, whether children acquire the language (more) implicitly as an interdependent whole, whereas adults learn it (more) explicitly as independent parts of a whole.

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Andraspråksinlärning2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna grundbok belyser fenomenet, ämnet och forskningsfältet andraspråksinlärning. Med utgångspunkt i 1960-talets brytning med behavioristisk inlärningspsykologi och kontrastiv språkanalys diskuteras de mest centrala frågeställningarna inom den därefter följande moderna, mentalistiskt orienterade andraspråksforskningen.

    I bokens tio kapitel presenteras de huvudsakliga empiriska upptäckterna och teorierna om andraspråkets utveckling och variation, dess kognition, processning och universella egenskaper, liksom inflödets, interaktionens och undervisningens roll, effekter av sociala och individuella skillnader samt modersmålets inverkan. Många exempel ges från studier av svenska som andraspråk. Boken avslutas med en termordlista med förklaringar till centrala begrepp inom fältet.

    Boken vänder sig främst till universitetsstuderande på grundnivå i ämnen som tvåspråkighet, svenska och nordiska språk samt till blivande och verksamma lärare i svenska som andraspråk och modersmålssvenska.

  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH)2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, 146-151 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Development and recoverability of L2 codas: A longitudinal study of Chinese/Swedish interphonology2003In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, Vol. 25, no 3, 313-349 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the development and recoverability of word-final codas in Chinese-Swedish interlanguage. The relation between consonant deletion and vowel epenthesis is investigated from both a developmental perspective and a grammatical-functional one. Longitudinal, conversational data from three Chinese beginner learners of Swedish were analyzed. First, it is shown that for these learners the acquisition of Swedish codas was U-shaped rather than linear such that they exhibited relatively high accuracy rates at early stages, lower accuracy rates at later stages, and again high accuracy rates at more advanced stages. It is also demonstrated that the epenthesis-deletion differential is closely related to second language proficiency in that the proportion of epenthesis to deletion errors increases over time. Furthermore, the data show that word-final codas that are relatively important for the retention of semantically relevant information generate lower overall frequencies of simplification and greater epenthesis-deletion proportions than codas containing information that is relatively recoverable from other segments or features in the context.

  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Development and recoverability of L2 codas: A longitudinal study of Chinese/Swedish interphonology.2001Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Developmental sequences2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, 173-177 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fonologiska aspekter på andraspråksinlärning och svenska som andraspråk2004In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inger Lindberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2004, 79-116 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fonologiska aspekter på andraspråksinlärning och svenska som andraspråk2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2. uppl., 85-120 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Natural phonology and second language acquisi­tion: problems and consequences1996In: EUROSLA 6: a selection of papers / [ed] Eric Kellerman, Bert Weltens, Theo Bongaerts, Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij , 1996, 9-22 p.Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Phonological acquisition2012In: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics / [ed] C. A. Chapelle, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Review of David Birdsong (ed.): Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999.1999In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, Vol. 20, no 4, 571-575 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Some observations of child-adult differences in second language pronunciation.1994In: Scandinavian Working Papers on Bilingualism, Vol. 9, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Universal constraints on L2 coda production: the case of Chinese/Swedish interphonology2003In: La fonologia dell'interlingua: principi e metodi di analisi / [ed] Lidia Costamagna, Stefania Giannini, Milano: FrancoAngeli , 2003, 131-162 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    U-shaped learning and overgeneralization2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, 663-665 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Vowel ‘epenthesis’ in the L2 production of L1 Spanish speakers: puzzle or evidence for natural phonology?1997In: New Sounds 97.: Proceedings of the Third Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Speech (University of Klagenfurt, 8-11 September 1997). / [ed] J. Leather & A. James, Klagenfurt: University of Klagenfurt , 1997Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Vowel epenthesis of /sC(C)/ onsets in Spanish/Swedish inter­phonology: A longitudinal case study1999In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 49, no 3, 473-508 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that vowel epenthesis of initial /sC(C)/ clusters in the L2 production of L1 Spanish speakers is conditioned by several variable constraints, such as preceding environment, onset length, and sonority relations among onset members. This case study was designed to investigate whether the patterns obtained from elicited speech also hold for conversational data. A longitudinal corpus of spontaneous/natural speech from 1 adult L1 Spanish learner of L2 Swedish was used. The study confirmed most of the results from previous research, for example, that the frequency of epenthesis varies with preceding phonetic environment. However, the study suggested that a lowering effect of preceding vowels must be present, not just the enhancing effect of preceding consonants suggested by Carlisle (1997).

  • 25.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bartning, Inge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Erman, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. English department, Stockholm.
    Fant, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Forsberg Lundell, Fanny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Föremålet för inlärning [kap. 3]2014In: avancerad andraspråksanvändning: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inge Bartning, Lars Fant, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag , 2014, no 2, 20-46 p., M2005-0459Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Andraspråksinlärning och förstaspråksutveckling i en andraspråkskontext2012In: Flerspråkighet – en forskningsöversikt / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Monica Axelsson, Inger Lindberg, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2012, 153-246 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of L2 acquisition and degree of nativelikeness – listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny.2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 2, 249-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of nativelikeness in adult second language acquisition is a controversial issue in SLA research. Although some researchers claim that any learner, regardless of age of acquisition, can attain nativelike levels of second language (L2) proficiency, others hold that attainment of nativelike proficiency is, in principle, impossible. The discussion has traditionally been framed within the paradigm of a critical period for language acquisition and guided by the question of whether SLA is constrained by the maturation of the brain. The work presented in this article can be positioned among those studies that have focused exclusively on the apparent counterexamples to the critical period. We report on a large-scale study of Spanish/Swedish bilinguals (n = 195) with differing ages of onset of acquisition (<1–47 years), all of whom identify themselves as potentially nativelike in their L2. Listening sessions with native-speaker judges showed that only a small minority of those bilinguals who had started their L2 acquisition after age 12, but a majority of those with an age of onset below this age, were actually perceived as native speakers of Swedish. However, when a subset (n = 41) of those participants who did pass for native speakers was scrutinized in linguistic detail with a battery of 10 highly complex, cognitively demanding tasks and detailed measurements of linguistic performance, representation, and processing, none of the late learners performed within the native-speaker range; in fact, the results revealed also that only a few of the early learners exhibited actual nativelike competence and behavior on all measures of L2 proficiency that were employed. Our primary interpretation of the results is that nativelike ultimate attainment of a second language is, in principle, never attained by adult learners and, furthermore, is much less common among child learners than has previously been assumed.

  • 28.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 2, 249-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Barndomen - en kritisk period för språkutveckling?2010In: Barn utvecklar sitt språk: (2:a reviderade upplagan) / [ed] Louise Bjar och Caroline Liberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 2, 29-56 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Barndomen – en kritisk period för språkutveck­ling?2003In: Barn utvecklar sitt språk / [ed] Louise Bjar, Caroline Liberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2003, 1. uppl., 29-56 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, KennethStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    High-Level L2 Acquisition, Learning, and Use: Special Issue2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Inlärningsålder och uppfattad inföddhet i andraspråket – lyssnarexperiment med avancerade L2-talare av svenska2006In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 1, no 1, 9-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mognadsbegränsningar och den kritiska perioden för andraspråks­inlärning2004In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inger Lindberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2004, 221-258 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mognadsbegränsningar och den kritiska perioden för andraspråksinlärning2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2. uppl., 221-257 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, no 4, 481-509 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a number of recent studies suggest that nativelike adult second language (L2) learners possess a high degree of language learning aptitude, the positive effects of which may have compensated for the negative effects of a critical period in these learners. According to the same studies, child learners seem to attain a nativelike command of the L2 regardless of high or low aptitude, which has led researchers to conclude that this factor plays no role in early acquisition. The present study investigates the L2 proficiency and language aptitude of 42 near-native L2 speakers of Swedish (i.e., individuals whom actual mother-tongue speakers of Swedish believe are native speakers). The results confirm previous research suggesting that a high degree of language aptitude is required if adult learners are to reach a L2 proficiency that is indistinguishable from that of native speakers. However, in contrast to previous studies, the present results also identify small yet significant aptitude effects in child SLA. Our findings lead us to the conclusions that the rare nativelike adult learners sometimes observed would all turn out to be exceptionally talented language learners with an unusual ability to compensate for maturational effects and, consequently, that their nativelikeness per se does not constitute a reason to reject the critical period hypothesis.

  • 36.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, no 4, 481-509 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Stölten, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Effects of age on voice onset time: The production of voiceless stops by near-native L2 speakers2008In: Processes and Outcomes: Explaining Achievement in Language Learning, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Brooklyn College, USA.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Regulatory traits: Cultural influences on cultural evolution2014In: Evolution, Complexity and Artificial Life / [ed] Stefano Cagnoni, Marco Mirolli, Marco Villani, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, 135-147 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the term regulatory traits to indicate traits that both regulate cultural transmission (e.g., from whom to learn) and are themselves culturally transmitted. In the first part of this contribution we study the dynamics of some of these traits through simple mathematical models. In particular, we consider the cultural evolution of traits that determine the propensity to copy others, the ability to influence others, the number of individuals from whom one may copy, and the number of individuals one tries to influence. We then show how to extend these simple models to address more complex human cultural phenomena, such as ingroup biases, the emergence of open or conservative societies, and of cyclical, fashion-like, increases and decreases of popularity of cultural traits. We finally discuss how the ubiquity of regulatory traits in cultural evolution impacts on the analogy between genetic and cultural evolution and therefore on the possibility of using models inspired by evolutionary biology to study human cultural dynamics.

  • 39.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Honors Academy and Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College, New York, US.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Regulatory Traits in Cultural Evolution2012In: Proceedings of WiVACE 2012, Università degli Studi di Parma , 2012, 1-9 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We call \regulatory traits" those cultural traits that aretransmitted through cultural interactions and, at the same time, changeindividual behaviors directly inuencing the outcome of future culturalinteractions. The cultural dynamics of some of those traits are studiedthrough simple simulations. In particular, we consider the cultural evolu-tion of traits determining the propensity to copy, the number of potentialdemonstrators from whom one individual may copy, and conformist ver-sus anti{conformist attitudes. Our results show that regulatory traitsgenerate peculiar dynamics that may explain complex human culturalphenomena. We discuss how the existence and importance of regulatorytraits in cultural evolution impact on the analogy between genetic andcultural evolution and therefore on the possibility of using evolutionarybiology{inspired models to study human cultural dynamics.

  • 40.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Nunn, Charles
    Harvard University, Department of Human Evolutionary Biology.
    Predation and the phasing of sleep: an evolutionary individual-based model2011In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 81, no 4, 801-811 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All mammals thus far studied sleep, yet important questions remain concerning the ecological factors that influence sleep patterns. Here, we developed an evolutionary individual-based model to investigate the effect of predation pressure on prey sleep. We investigated three ecological conditions, including one that assumed a dynamic interaction between predator and prey behaviour. In condition 1, we found that monophasic predators (i.e. with one sleep bout per 24 h) select for monophasic prey that sleep perfectly out of phase with predators. In condition 2, predators were monophasic but the safety of prey varied as a function of their activity (sleeping versus awake). In this condition, the prey adjusted their sleeping behaviour to lower the risk of predation. Finally, in condition 3, we modelled a more dynamic interaction between predator and prey, with predator activity dependent on prey activity in the previous hour. In this scenario, the prey adjusted their behaviour relative to one another, resulting in either greater or lesser synchrony in prey as a function of predator searching behaviour. Collectively, our model demonstrates that predator behaviour can have a strong influence on prey sleep patterns, including whether prey are monophasic or polyphasic (i.e. with many sleep bouts per 24 h). The model further suggests that the timing of sleep relative to predator behaviour may depend strongly on how other potential prey partition the activity period.

  • 41.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    O. Jacquet, Pierre
    Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Tennie, Claudio
    Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology ,Leipzig, Germany.
    Behavioral constraints and the evolution of faithful social learning2012In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 58, no 2, 307-318 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral “traditions”, i.e. behavioral patterns that are acquired with the aid of social learning and that are relativelystable in a group, have been observed in several species. Recently, however, it has been questioned whether non-human sociallearning is faithful enough to stabilize those patterns. The observed stability could be interpreted as a result of various constraintsthat limit the number of possible alternative behaviors, rather than of the fidelity of transmission mechanisms. Those constraints canbe roughly described as “internal”, such as mechanical (bodily) properties or cognitive limitations and predispositions, and “external”,such as ecological availability or pressures. Here we present an evolutionary individual-based model that explores the relationshipsbetween the evolution of faithful social learning and behavioral constraints, represented both by the size of the behavioralrepertoire and by the “shape” of the search space of a given task. We show that the evolution of high-fidelity transmissionmechanisms, when associated with costs (e.g. cognitive, biomechanical, energetic, etc.), is only likely if the potential behavioralrepertoire of a species is large and if the search space does not provide information that can be exploited by individual learning.Moreover we show how stable behavioral patterns (“traditions”) can be achieved at the population level as an outcome of bothhigh-fidelity and low-fidelity transmission mechanisms, given that the latter are coupled with a small behavioral repertoire or with asearch space that provide substantial feedback. Finally, by introducing the possibility of environmental change, we show that intermediaterates of change favor the evolution of faithful social learning

  • 42.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Tennie, Claudio
    Nunn, Charles
    Modeling imitation and emulation in constrained search spaces2011In: Animal Learning and Behavior, ISSN 0090-4996, Vol. 39, no 2, 104-114 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social transmission of behavior can be realized through distinct mechanisms. Research on primate social learning typically distinguishes two forms of information that a learner can extract from a demonstrator: copying actions (defined as imitation) or copying only the consequential results (defined as emulation). We propose a decomposition of these learning mechanisms (plus pure individual learning) that incorporates the core idea that social learning can be represented as a search for an optimal behavior that is constrained by different kinds of information. We illustrate our approach with an individual-based model in which individuals solve tasks in abstract “spaces” that represent behavioral actions, results, and benefits of those results. Depending on the learning mechanisms at their disposal, individuals have differential access to the information conveyed in these spaces. We show how different classes of tasks may provide distinct advantages to individuals with different learning mechanisms and discuss how our approach contributes to current empirical and theoretical research on social learning and culture.

  • 43.
    Ackehed, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bjelkert, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Skillnader mellan pojkars och flickors läslust av skönlitteratur: En undersökning om hur lärare och elever ser på läsning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar skillnader mellan pojkars och flickors läslust av skönlitteratur. Det finns ett elev-, lärar- och genusperspektiv som genomsyrar hela uppsatsen. Uppsatsen besvarar följande tre frågor. Hur ser läslusten ut hos pojkar respektive flickor? Är svårigheter med läsning korrelerad med läslusten? Vad motiverar till att känna läslust? För att besvara de här frågorna använde vi oss av en kombinerad kvalitativ och kvantitativ analys med hjälp av intervjuer med lärare och enkäter med elever. Resultatet vi har fått visar att det är skillnad på pojkars och flickors läslust då flickor har en högre läslust än pojkar. Flickor läser även mer än pojkar. Vi har belägg för att säga att elever som tycker att det är svårt att läsa ofta samtidigt tycker att det är tråkigt och det beror på att det krävs så stor ansträngning för att lyckas ta sig igenom texten. Det finns flera faktorer som motiverar till att känna läslust. Böcker som intresserar eleven och som är lagom utmanade ger större läslust. Läsande förebilder både i skolan och hemmet bidrar till läslust hos eleven. Utbudet av böcker är en viktig faktor för att eleven ska känna läslust och det är viktigt att det finns ett stort och bra utbud av böcker. Biblioteket är en viktig källa till utbudet.

  • 44.
    Adams, Jonathan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Ships, innovation and social change: aspects of carvel shipbuilding in northern Europe 1450-18502003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Adler, Aleksandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Perifera kulturer i kontakt?: Indirekt översättning av hebreisk skönlitteratur till svenska2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following product–oriented study deals with translational norms operating in indirect translation of Hebrew literature into Swedish. The research was conducted as a contrastive study of Extra–linguistic Cultural References (ECR) based on Toury’s (1995/2012) coupled pairs and supplemented with Pedersen’s typology (2011). The material consisted of 3 x 136 coupled pairs excerpted from a collection of short stories written by an Israeli high–prestige writer Amos Oz and translated into Swedish through English. Both translations were carried out by high–prestige translators. The results suggest that indirect literary translation follows the adequacy norm in accordance with the hypothesis on high–prestige translation (Lindqvist 2002). The hypothesis on acceptancy norms operating in indirect translation is rejected. 

  • 46.
    Adler, Samuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Counterfactuality, Determinism and Free Will in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, The Mayor of Casterbridge and The Return of the Native.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the themes of counterfactuality, determinism and free will in Thomas Hardy’s novels Tess of the D’Urbervilles, The Return of the Native and The Mayor of Casterbridge. The aim is to show how some literary strategies create a sensation that the characters are trying to diverge from an anticipated destiny, and how these measures contribute to the impression that the characters possess free will. In other words, Hardy’s literary devices create the notion that the characters are confined but paradoxically they appear independent. The tragic fate and the tragic past of the characters are the two main literary strategies which are investigated in order to show how the characters are confined by the plot, which influences the reader’s perception of the characters. The tragic fate of the character is expressed through the numerous coincidences, the characters’ choices and actions as well as the way the order of events is presented in the narrative. The tragic past is expressed through a history that is assigned to the character or by the events that the character experiences as part of the narrative. Highlighting these literary devices allows for a reading where many of these events have the ability to spark a counterfactual thought in the reader’s mind, an imagined possibility of how a causal chain could have developed differently. I claim that the moment the reader begins to construct a different possible outcome of the plot the feeling that the character has free will is strengthened. This is due to two separate, but related reasons. Firstly, a variety of possible plotlines, caused by counterfactual thinking, strengthens the image of a character with the choice to follow another causal line of events. Secondly. by claiming that the characters take part in creating their fate we are in a way making them responsible for their actions. 

  • 47.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Barn, skriftspråk och skola: Fyra lärare i förskoleklass och årskurs 1 berättar om sitt arbete med barns literacyutveckling.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att belysa och diskutera lärares didaktiska val i arbetet med barns literacyutveckling i förskoleklass respektive årskurs 1. Som grund ligger ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande samt forskning om barns literacyutveckling, och med utgångspunkt i detta samt i min studie har didaktiska val i arbetet med barns literacyutveckling kunnat belysas och diskuteras.

    Inför min studie ställde jag mig den vida forskningsfrågan: Hur arbetar ett par lärare i förskoleklass respektive årskurs 1 i två olika skolor för att befrämja barns literacyutveckling och vilka skäl anger de till detta? Studien bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med och observationer av fyra olika lärare från två olika skolor, som alla är eller nyligen varit verksamma i förskoleklass eller årskurs 1. I analysen av lärarnas tankar kring arbetet med barns literacyutveckling har olika kategorier vuxit fram, där den mest övergripande, som genomsyrar hela analysen och diskussionen, kom att bli huruvida arbetet med barns literacyutveckling sker i för barnen meningsfulla sammanhang eller ej.

    I min studie framkom det att lärarna delvis arbetar enligt traditionell behavioristisk teori och ett syntetiskt synsätt, men också enligt en modernare sociokulturell teori och ett analytiskt synsätt. Att utgå från en meningsfull helhet, som läsning med meningsinnehåll, eget skrivande samt samtal och lek/dramatisering, och att i detta jobba med de viktiga beståndsdelarna, det vill säga bokstav ljudförhållandet, lyfts fram i detta arbete. Något annat som lyfts fram är hur lärarna individualiserar så att arbetet med barnens literacyutveckling ska bli meningsfullt för eleverna, samt hur de ser på förskoleklassens och årskurs 1:s roll i mötet med eleverna.

  • 48.
    Adolfsson, Herbert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Liber epistularum Guidonis de Basochis: edidit et adnotationibus instruxit1969Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Fäderneslandets kännedom: om svenska ortsbeskrivningsprojekt och ämbetsmäns folklivsskildringar under 1700- och 1800-talet2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the period c. 1720-1900 a large quantity of descriptions of rural areas in Sweden were set down on paper. Some 700 local descriptions were printed at the time or have appeared in print during the twentieth century. The most common geographical unit for local descriptions is the parish. As a rule the author was a public servant, and the clergy in particular were industrious local descriptive writers.

    In part the aim of this thesis is to present the Swedish local description projects and local descriptive literature as a phenomenon of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A further aim is to investigate the way the folklife descriptions which come into most of the local descriptions are constituted for the period c. 1750-1850.

    The local descriptions which form the main object of analysis and discussion in the thesis comprise contemporary delineations which came into being in order to achieve an economic-topographical description of the country, where agriculture and the individual economy of the common man were the focus of attention. These descriptions to a certain extent define the problems the authors associate with the economic life of the countryside and way of life of the population.

    Local descriptions constitute a particular category of geographical delineation and have either come into being on the author's own initiative, in reply to a particular institution or the questionnaire of a particular person, or as an academic dissertation. The authors of local descriptions are in most cases connected with the area they describe. The work was mainly carried out by voluntary effort.

    The idea of the need for a national and methodically organised inventorying of resources associated with the physical environment was the most important reason for undertaking local description projects. These Swedish local descriptions were one of several important cornerstones in the endeavours of the State to increase the population, income from taxes, and welfare in general. Local descriptions constituted materialised visions of optimism for growth, and a better and happier future for the country and its inhabitants, in the modern Sweden which was beginning to emerge in the mid-eighteenth century. Another overall aim was to improve the moral status of the peasantry and promote in them a moral and virtuous way of life. The enlightenment of the common man thereby became a didactic matter, touched on in many local descriptions. This process was not unique to Sweden; corresponding efforts took place in a whole host of other European countries.

    The selection of sixty or so local descriptions studied in this thesis are characterised to a great extent by dualistic tendencies on the part of the public servants in their writings about, and interpretations of, peasant character and the state of the agricultural economy. Descriptions of the noble and exemplary true Swedish peasant faithful to his king, hospitable and honest are combined with descriptions of those same people's immodest consumption of spirits, lack of foresight, inclination to the "superstitious", and pernicious love of material things. In actual fact local descriptive writings consisted of an encounter: on the one side between more abstract and political discourses which contained thoughts of an ideal social organisation and the true nature of a population; while on the other side were the everyday experiences of separate writers vis a vis the qualities and situations of the local peasant population, compiled from their position as objectively observing public servants.

  • 50.
    af Edholm, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Människooffer i fornnordisk religion: En diskussion utifrån arkeologiskt material och källtexter2016In: Chaos. Dansk-norsk tidsskrift for religionhistoriske studier, ISSN 0108-4453, E-ISSN 1901-9106, Vol. 1, no 65, 125-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion of ritual killing and sacrifice of humans in Old Norse religion has a long

    tradition. In the more text oriented discipline of history of religions, the opinion has

    sometimes been very critical to the theories that human sacrifices were performed, while

    the discipline of archaeology has been more inclined to interpret some finds as the traces

    of sacrifice, although sometimes due to a too wide definition of the word ‘sacrifice’. Since

    the two disciplines use different sources, the research needs an analysis of the religious

    phenomenon with a consideration of the archaeological material, and with respect to

    how the two disciplines may contribute to the analysis. The written sources mention and

    describe human sacrifices, but the question of their authenticity is problematic. Some new

    archaeological surveys have revealed finds that has raised the question of human sacrifices

    during Late Iron Age in the northern countries anew. The new archaeological material

    may provide an altered interpretation of the written texts. But then we need to discuss the

    definition of ‘human sacrifice’ from the perspectives of both disciplines.

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