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  • 1.
    Abdelmoez Wiklund, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för mellanösternstudier.
    Women’s status in Islamic texts and feminist interventions2017Ingår i: Orientaliska Studier, ISSN 0345-8997, nr 152, s. 5-14Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 2. Abdullah, Ailin
    et al.
    Berglund, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för de humanistiska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik.
    State Neutrality and Islamic Education in Sweden2018Ingår i: European Perspectives on Islamic education and Public Schooling / [ed] Jenny Berglund, Sheffield, UK: Equinox Publishing, 2018, s. 312-334Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Public debate about Islam and Muslims often focuses on contradictions, conflicts, and contrasting value systems. Since 9/11, the bombings in Madrid and London and the recent rise of ISIS this debate has to a large extent included a fear that Muslim immigrants will be disloyal to their new Western countries, and thus requires increased surveillance and control. Conversely, others argue that Muslim populations in the West have wrongly suffered from the increasing intolerance and suspicion resulting from terrorist acts committed by a small number of radicals. Such voices point to a need to safeguard religious freedom and the right to equal treatment regardless of a group’s ethnic, cultural, linguistic, or religious background. In many European countries, these discussions have directed attention toward places of Islamic education such as Muslim schools, mosques, and Islamic organizations, focusing on the sometimes controversial manner in which they have been depicted in the media, public discourse, and, within Muslim communities themselves (Aslan 2009; Birt 2006). Religious education is both an essential and a challenging objective for minorities since the “transmission” of religious tradition to future generations is crucial to the survival of any religion. In Sweden as elsewhere in Europe many Muslim children and teenagers and even adults attend privately-run, extra-curricular Islamic classes. Some attend Islamic schools or are taught at home. Publically funded Islamic education options provided by the state are an emergent option in several European countries. These classes lie not only at the heart of debates over religious freedom, equal rights to education, and integration, but are also connected to matters of securitization and the state control of Islam. This paper will present an overview of publicly funded, mainly pre-university Islamic education in Sweden, a European Western secular Christian majority country with a Muslim minority population. Firstly, I will establish a definition of Islamic education and a description of the state funding of education and religion in general. Then, the paper will move on to describe different types of Islamic education that are available in Sweden.

  • 3.
    Adami, Rebecca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Hållander, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Testimony and Narrative as a Political Relation: the Question of Ethical Judgment in Education2015Ingår i: Journal of Philosophy of Education, ISSN 0309-8249, E-ISSN 1467-9752, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 1-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore the role of film in educational settings and argue that testimony and narrative are dependent upon each other for developing ethical judgments. We use the film 12 Angry Men to enhance our thesis that the emotional response that sometimes is intended in using film as testimonies in classrooms requires a specific listening; a listening that puts pupils at risk when they relate testimonies to their own life narratives. The article raises the importance of listening in training narrative ethos in relation to violence witnessed in film. The article contributes by enhancing an understanding of a relational dimension to testimony and narrative, which, in an Arendtian sense, is also put forward as a political relation.

  • 4.
    af Edholm, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Religionshistoria.
    Människooffer i fornnordisk religion: En diskussion utifrån arkeologiskt material och källtexter2016Ingår i: Chaos: skandinavisk tidsskrift for religionshistoriske studier, ISSN 0108-4453, E-ISSN 1901-9106, nr 65, s. 125-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion of ritual killing and sacrifice of humans in Old Norse religion has a long tradition. In the more text oriented discipline of history of religions, the opinion has sometimes been very critical to the theories that human sacrifices were performed, while the discipline of archaeology has been more inclined to interpret some finds as the traces of sacrifice, although sometimes due to a too wide definition of the word ‘sacrifice’. Since the two disciplines use different sources, the research needs an analysis of the religious phenomenon with a consideration of the archaeological material, and with respect to how the two disciplines may contribute to the analysis. The written sources mention and describe human sacrifices, but the question of their authenticity is problematic. Some new archaeological surveys have revealed finds that has raised the question of human sacrifices during Late Iron Age in the northern countries anew. The new archaeological material may provide an altered interpretation of the written texts. But then we need to discuss the definition of ‘human sacrifice’ from the perspectives of both disciplines.

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  • 5.
    af Edholm, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Religionshistoria.
    Tyr: En vetenskapshistorisk och komparativ studie av föreställningar och gestaltningar kopplade till den fornnordiske guden Tyr2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has two aims. One is a discussion of the history of the study of Old Norse religion and related aspects, centered on how general tendencies within the area of research have affected the interpretations of the god *Tīwaz/Tyr. Thereby, it treats a selection of influential trends of interpretation, and a selection of prominent scholars of the field. The second aim is an empirical and comparative analysis of the Old Norse source material and, to some degree, the continental Germanic, the Baltic, and the other Indo-European material. Tyr has been interpreted according to trends of research in the field; the mythological character has been used as a projection screen of the theories. Already from the beginning, Tyr was interpreted as a sky god; connected to this was the conception of an original high god. The interpretations of Tyr as a sun god, sky god, and/or law god are close related to this high god conception. These interpretations of the god Tyr has built their arguments upon the etymological connection to Indo-European words for ‘heaven, celestial’ and ‘god’, but they have not taken enough consideration of the Old Norse sources. Georges Dumézil interpreted Tyr, according to his système tripartite, as a law god. This understanding of the god has been widely adopted, but cannot be confirmed; the Old Norse material only speaks of Tyr as a war god. The comparative Indo-European etymological material indicates that his function as sky god is archaic, while the martial traits shared with the continental Germanic and Celtic counterparts prove that this characteristic must have evolved early. Tyr (or rather his predecessor *Tīwaz) lost his celestial traits and became an unmitigated war god, and as such we perceive him in the Old Norse religion. 

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  • 6.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Ascetic poetry in ancient India: The ideal renouncer and the path to liberation, according to independent verses in early Brahmanic, Buddhist, and Jaina literature2024Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation identifies the ideal renouncer and the path to liberation on the basis of nearly 3500 “independent verses”, i.e. one-strophe stanzas (gāthās, ślokas), in early Brahmanic, Buddhist, and Jaina literature, including Mahābhārata, Suttanipāta, Dhammapada, Saṃyuttanikāya, Uttarajjhayaṇa, Sūyagaḍa, Isibhāsiyāiṃ, and other texts. It is argued that this genre of poetry is important for our knowledge about the ascetic milieu in Northern India around the 5th century BCE.

    Verses from the three traditions are compared with one another, the verse-material is compared with selected texts belonging to other genres, and the literature is placed in its historical context. Attention is given to vocabulary, formulas, similes, and recurrent themes. Hypotheses about the early history of the renouncer-traditions are tested against the verse-material.

    Part 1 discusses aim, theory, method, terminology, previous studies, earliness and authenticity of the verses, origins and characteristics of the genre, and relevant texts. Part 2 treats the debated origins of emancipatory askesis, brāhmaṇa and śramaṇa, authority and founder-figures, and female ascetics. Part 3 proceeds along an ideal path to liberation: from reasons for giving up mundane pursuits, to going forth into homelessness, practise of austerity, itinerancy, solitude, seclusion, mendicancy, purification, non-harm, restraint, heroic overcoming of obstacles, and meditation, to attainment of gnosis and awakening, and finally liberation from saṃsāra. Part 4 is the conclusion. The Appendices contain the entire verse-material, as well as defining sentences in final pādas, shared whole verses, and key-terms.

    It is concluded that in the three verse-corpora one can identify a shared outlook, which is world-rejecting, autocentric, and telos-oriented, and a shared renouncer-ideal, which is male, heroic, and austere. The same outlook and ideal are found in narrative accounts about Śākyamuni, Mahāvīra, and others who attain the highest goal. Differences between the three traditions concern mainly the use of certain terms, formulas, and similes, less so doctrine, but the differences are not reducible to a divide between Brahmanic and Buddhist/Jaina.

    Generally speaking, each tradition has composed its own verses that promote a renouncer-ideal and a path to liberation, rather than having borrowed verses from another tradition or from a common source. The many similarities between the three traditions are primarily due to their common origin in the ascetic milieu, in which the one-strophe gāthā was an established literary medium for making authoritative statements.

    It is argued that the shared outlook and ideal were established before the introduction of two-step ordination, nuns’ order, fourfold community, devotion to an exalted founder-figure, and the building of monasteries. The verse-content points to a rural environment and a stratified society rooted in late Vedic culture. The renunciant movement of the 5th century BCE can be seen as the culmination of a centuries-old ascetic tradition in ancient India.

     

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  • 7.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Crossing the River of Battle: A Heroic Motif in Ancient Indian and Old Norse Texts2021Ingår i: Journal of Indo-European Studies, ISSN 0092-2323, Vol. 49, nr 1-2, s. 231-250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article looks at the motif of "the river of battle" - the battlefield as a river/stream/sea, which the warrior attempts to cross - in the ancient Indian Mahābhārata and Old Norse texts. It is argued that this motif should be seen in context of three shared ideas, which we also find in ancient Hellenic texts: 1) Poetic similes of battle/army as river/sea or waves. 2) Mythical-cosmological conceptions of rivers as boundary-markers between the worlds of the living and the dead. 3) Glorification of heroism and granting of special status to warriors in the afterlife. Indian texts typically use terms derived from the verbal root √TṜ (Proto-Indo-European √*terh2), which has the double meaning of 'to cross over' and 'to overcome'. Indian ascetic texts apply similar heroic imagery and terminology to the renouncer who crosses over the saṃsāric river/sea. In absence of lexical cognates, similarities in ancient Indian and Old Norse text-passages can be explained by a shared warrior-ideology.

  • 8.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Religionshistoria.
    Rajyasri: Royal Splendour in the Vedas and the Epics2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the late-Vedic goddess Śrī and her non-personified precedent śrī ‘splendour, glory, excellence, fortune’. Śrī has not before been studied in the light of the Avestan royal splendour, xᵛarənah, and is often interpreted one-sidedly as a pre-Aryan goddess of prosperity. In contrast, this thesis locates the genealogy of Śrī’s characteristics in the Vedic goddess of dawn. The meaning of light in Vedic poetic and sacrificial terminology is highlighted, especially in the relation between royal patron and priest-poet. Śrī’s relation to terms like varcas and tejas, the “shining fame” of the hero, and epic descriptions of blazing warriors, are discussed. The nimbus in early Indian iconography is compared to descriptions of royal splendour in the texts. A subsistent theme in epics, myths and Vedic rituals is identified: the splendour won, lost and recovered by the king. This paradigm is showed to be dependent on the truthfulness, sacrificial status and asceticism of the king. A new understanding of central events in the royal consecration ritual, in the Rāmāyaṇa and the Mahābhārata are thereby offered. It is argued that a continuous and richly varied concept of royal splendour can be identified, from the Ṛgveda to the great epics, and that it is of considerable importance in the ancient Indian rulership ideology.

    Key words:  Royal splendour, śrī, goddess Śrī, Avestan xᵛarənah, tejas, varcas, svayaṃvara, ascetic, legitimation of power, fire, sun, dawn, Indra, Viṣṇu, rājasūya, king and priest-poet, Vedic ritual, Vedas, Mahābhārata, Rāmāyaṇa, Indo-European.

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  • 9.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Religionshistoria.
    Recent Studies on the Ancient Indian Vrātya2017Ingår i: Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, E-ISSN 1084-7561, Vol. 24, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ”vrātya problem” has been discussed for more than a century. It is not clear who the vrātya is, as some Vedic passages describe him in a cryptic manner. That the vrātya continues to engage scholars is demonstrated by two recent publications, both with T. Pontillo as one of the editors: The Volatile World of Sovereignty: The Vrātya Problem and Kingship in South Asia (2015), and Vrātya Culture in Vedic Sources (2016). In this review article I look at the two volumes in context of previous reseach and discuss a handful of the contributions. I also refer to a number of vrātya-related articles published elsewhere.

  • 10.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Religionshistoria.
    Risk, förlust och oviss utgång i vedisk kungaritual2016Ingår i: Chaos: skandinavisk tidsskrift for religionshistoriske studier, ISSN 0108-4453, E-ISSN 1901-9106, nr 65, s. 149-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ritual is often seen as a safe and certain of success. That the question of risk and failure is important for our understanding of ritual has, however, been argued by an increasing number of scholars. This article analyses two Vedic śrauta rituals - the horse-sacrifice and the royal consecration - from this perspective. According to brahmanic theory, sacrifice implies a dangerous break-up of cosmic structure; once started, a ritual must be successfully brought to an end, or the performer will come out lesser than before. Royal ritual also involves political dangers: being a claim to overlordship, rivals might oppose and defeat the sacrificer. Śrauta ritual appears not as a microcosm devoid of danger and unknown outcome. Rather, risk increases a ritual’s value and is an essential part of Vedic royal ritual, wherefore the most awesome sacrifice has the highest risk factor. Danger and conflict in śrauta ritual reflect the aristocratic-agonistic culture in which it evolved.

  • 11.
    Af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Religionshistoria.
    Royal Splendour in the Waters Vedic Sri- and Avestan X(v)arenah-2017Ingår i: Indo-Iranian Journal, ISSN 0019-7246, E-ISSN 1572-8536, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 17-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores, from an Indo-Iranian comparative perspective, the concept of 'royal splendour' and its role in myth, ritual and political discourse, in ancient Indian and Iranian texts. It argues that there are similarities both on the level of details (terminology, imagery, motifs) and on a broader level (ruler ideology), some of which likely go back to Proto-Indo-Iranian culture. The article relates the Avestan xvarenahto the Vedic sri- and varcas-, as well as their Avestan counterparts sri- and varecah-. It looks at how the Vedic/Avestan epithet apam. napat-/apam napat- is connected to the motif of aquatic and royal splendour. The Avestan concept of royal splendour, it is argued, also shares key characteristics with the late Vedic and early epic goddess Sri. As the fickle and mobile consort of successive kings, whom she approaches or abandons depending on their virtues, the epic Sri is reminiscent of xvarenah-.

  • 12.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Rudra Mahāvīra: Vrātya-Elements in the Vedic Pravargya-Complex2021Ingår i: Studia Orientalia Electronica, E-ISSN 2323-5209, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 1-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews the arguments of previous publications, and adds new ones, for establishing connections between the Vedic pravargya-complex (the rituals, stanzas, and mythology of the pravargya), the vrātya, and the deity Rudra. These connections include Rudra as Mahāvīra (the epithet given to a deity and a vessel in the pravargya), the sattra setting of the pravargya's paradigm-myth, the motif of the unstrung bow, the theme of exclusion, and the divinisation of man as a goal of the ritual. It is argued that the superhuman status attributed to Mahāvīra is comparable with that of characters celebrated in the Ṛgveda and Atharvaveda, such as the ekavrātya, brahmacārin, and keśin. The affinity between these figures may be derived from a common ideology, with the roots of some of them to be sought in the Indo-European warrior-society and male rites de passage. 

  • 13.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    'Wander Alone Like the Rhinoceros!': The Solitary, Itinerant Renouncer in Ancient Indian Gāthā-Poetry2021Ingår i: Songs on the Road: Wandering Religious Poets in India, Tibet, and Japan / [ed] Stefan Larsson, Kristoffer af Edholm, Stockholm: Stockholm University Press, 2021, s. 35-66Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ancient Indian gāthā - a proverbial, succinct type of single-stanza poetry, often collected in thematic sets - became a favoured form of expression among groups of ascetics from the middle to the end of the first millennium BCE. This poetry - contrasting with the magico-ritual chant or mantra of the priest and the artistic poem of the aesthete - functions as (self-)instruction for the ascetic/renouncer. Examples include gāthās that exhort him to be as untiring as the Sun in its daily course, or to "wander alone like the rhinoceros". This chapter delineates the figure of the solitary, wandering renouncer in a selection of Brahmanic, Jaina, and Buddhist ascetic gāthā-verses from that period. Particular attention is given to the use of solar and heroic imagery for describing the ideal renouncer, and how this relates to the real-life conditions of wandering renouncers.

  • 14.
    af Edholm, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Śrī-Lakṣmī and Religious Ruler Ideology in the Purāṇic Amṛtamanthana Myth2019Ingår i: Zeitschrift für Indologie und Südasienstudien, ISSN 2193-9144, Vol. 36, s. 60-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The churning of the ocean for nectar (amṛtamanthana) is one of the most well-known Hindu myths. This article analyses the role of the devī Śrī-Lakṣmī, symbolic of royal splendor and fortune, in Purāṇic versions of the myth. It is shown that the notion that Śrī-Lakṣmī was born from the churned ocean, and that she was united with Viṣṇu immediately after, developed gradually over time. Particular attention is given to versions of the myth in which Śrī-Lakṣmī is presented as the bride in a svayaṃvara (kṣatriya maiden’s self-choice of husband), at which she chooses Viṣṇu. It is argued that this should be seen in the context of ancient Indian religious ruler ideology, according to which Śrī-Lakṣmī attaches herself to the most worthy male. In most versions of the myth Indra and Viṣṇu represent contrasting types of sovereignty: Viṣṇu the constant and detached ruler; Indra the temporary ruler, who loses his śrī due to bad behavior and then regains it through the process and consequences of amṛtamanthana. The inferiority of Indra is seen in his dependence on Viṣṇu’s assistance and in the unanimous notion that it is Viṣṇu who unites with Śrī-Lakṣmī.

  • 15.
    af Klint, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    The Barabudur: A Synopsis of Buddhism2021Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this PhD-dissertation is – on the one hand – to present in a critical and comprehensive manner an update of recent findings among Western scholars regarding the Barabudur monument and its illustrations of various Buddhist traditions, and – on the other hand – to throw some light on some of the outstanding issues regarding this monument. Focus has been laid on the religious aspects with a view of ascertaining which forms of Buddhism are most prominently represented on the monument.

    The Barabudur is the largest Buddhist monument in the world – being built on Central Java during the late eighth century CE. The Barabudur is constructed in four successively higher galleries with an area on top with three round terraces. The terraces encompass 72 latticed stupas, each containing Buddha Vairocana in dharmacakramudra large stupa is in the center. Each side of the squarely built monument is at the ground level around 123 meters. The height of the monument is believed to originally have been 41.81 meters. The walls and the balustrades of the galleries encompass 1,460 bas-reliefs representing various sutras, such as the Mahakarmavibhanga Sutra, the Lalitavistara, the Gandavyuha Sutra, the Dasabhumika Sutra and the Bhadracari. In addition, the Barabudur seems also to have been influenced by ideas from the ensuing Indonesian esoteric text the Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan, as well as by the esoteric Buddhist texts of the Mahavairocana Sutra, the Tattvasamgraha and the Prajnaparamita in 150 verses. The Barabudur thus presents aspects from the main three Buddhist traditions – the Sravakayana, the Mahayana and an early esoteric form of the Vajrayana.

    The main problem in studying the Barabudur is the lack of historical information. No dedicatory inscription has yet been found. The Barabudur was built during the Sailendra interregnum on Java. Their contacts with the Abhayagirivihara on Sri Lanka and with the Pala dynasty in Bengal, indicate that some early form of Vajrayana Buddhism existed on Java during the eighth century CE. In addition, some concepts from the esoteric Buddhism developed by the Three Monks in China during this period could well also have been introduced on Java.

    The Barabudur, together with the Candi Mendut, are supposed to represent the Twin-mandala – thus representing the “non-duality” between “Truth” and “Wisdom”. Dharmakaya Mahavairocana is in the center of both these Twin-mandalas symbolizing the amalavijnana.

    In conclusion, the Barabudur may be regarded as a holy monument, where the Buddha is present, and where the devotee may be taught directly by the Buddha.

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    Errata The Barabudur
  • 16.
    Agell, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Frågan efter livets mening: om kunskap och konst i Nietzsches tänkande2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17. Agger, Gunhild
    et al.
    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone
    Gimmler, Antje
    Heinrich, Falk
    Soila, Tytti
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    Introduction: Two Stories of the Arts and Humanities – and a Third Version Emerging2016Ingår i: Academic Quarter, E-ISSN 1904-0008, Vol. 13, nr 10, s. 4-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few decades, the arts and humanities in the West- ern world have been challenged by a strange contradiction between two very different stories about their raison d’être and value. The first story focuses on the expansion of universities, including the faculties of arts and humanities. The second story is dominated by a feeling of distress prompted by the constant questioning of the usefulness and applicability of the arts and humanities. As the con- tributions to this volume of Academic Quarter indicate, however, a third story may be about to emerge. 

  • 18.
    Ahlenius, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Moral Lessons from Psychology: Contemporary Themes in Psychological Research and their Relevance for Ethical Theory2020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis investigates the implications for moral philosophy of research in psychology. In addition to an introduction and concluding remarks, the thesis consists of four chapters, each exploring various more specific challenges or inputs to moral philosophy from cognitive, social, personality, developmental, and evolutionary psychology. Chapter 1 explores and clarifies the issue of whether or not morality is innate. The chapter’s general conclusion is that evolution has equipped us with a basic suite of emotions that shape our moral judgments in important ways. Chapter 2 presents and investigates the challenge presented to deontological ethics by Joshua Greene’s so-called dual process theory. The chapter partly agrees with his conclusion that the dual process view neutralizes some common criticisms against utilitarianism founded on deontological intuitions, but also points to avenues left to explore for deontologists. Chapter 3 focuses on Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer’s suggestion that utilitarianism is less vulnerable to so-called evolutionary debunking than other moral theories. The chapter is by and large critical of their attempt. In the final chapter 4, attention is directed at the issue of whether or not social psychology has shown that people lack stable character traits, and hence that the virtue ethical view is premised on false or tenuous assumptions. Though this so-called situationist challenge at one time seemed like a serious threat to virtue ethics, the chapter argues for a moderate position, pointing to the fragility of much of the empirical research invoked to substantiate this challenge while also suggesting revisions to the virtue ethical view as such.

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  • 19. Ahlenius, Henrik
    et al.
    Tännsjö, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Chinese and Westerners Respond Differently to the Trolley Dilemmas2012Ingår i: Journal of Cognition and Culture, ISSN 1567-7095, E-ISSN 1568-5373, Vol. 12, nr 3-4, s. 195-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of moral problems known as The Trolley Dilemmas was presented to 3000 randomly selected inhabitants of the USA, Russia and China. It is shown that Chinese are significantly less prone to support utility-maximizing alternatives, as compared to the US and Russian respondents.

    A number of possible explanations, as well as methodological issues pertaining to the field of surveying moral judgment and moral disagreement, are discussed.

  • 20.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication in Engineering Sciences (ECE), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pagin, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen..
    Svedberg, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Bibliometric analysis of two subdomains in philosophy: free will and sorites2015Ingår i: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 103, nr 1, s. 47-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we tested the fruitfulness of advanced bibliometric methods for mapping subdomains in philosophy. The development of the number of publications on free will and sorites, the two subdomains treated in the study, over time was studied. We applied the cocitation approach to map the most cited publications, authors and journals, and we mapped frequently occurring terms, using a term co-occurrence approach. Both subdomains show a strong increase of publications in Web of Science. When we decomposed the publications by faculty, we could see an increase of free will publications also in social sciences, medicine and natural sciences. The multidisciplinary character of free will research was reflected in the cocitation analysis and in the term co-occurrence analysis: we found clusters/groups of cocited publications, authors and journals, and of co-occurring terms, representing philosophy as well as non-philosophical fields, such as neuroscience and physics. The corresponding analyses of sorites publications displayed a structure consisting of research themes rather than fields. All in all, both philosophers involved in this study acknowledge the validity of the various networks presented. Bibliometric mapping appears to provide an interesting tool for describing the cognitive orientation of a research field, not only in the natural and life sciences but also in philosophy, which this study shows.

  • 21.
    Ahlquist, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete.
    Gynther, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete.
    Positivism med mänskligt ansikte* Montessoripedagogikens idéhistoriska grunder2006Ingår i: Locus* Tidskrift för forskning om barn och ungdomar, ISSN 1100-3197, nr 2, s. 51-57Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1920-talet har det funnits montessoriskolor i vårt land och dessa har under tidens gång influerat såväl förskolans som grundskolan utveckling. Den första skrift som behandlar pedagogiken på svenska kom ut redan 1923 och utlöste då en livlig debatt. Därefter har det varit tunt med publikationer om pedagogiken på vårt språk. Det är därför glädjande att Christine Quarfoods bok Positivism med mänskligt ansikte har publicerats dock ifrågasätter recensenterna författarens underliggande tes.

  • 22.
    Ahlquist, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete.
    Gynther, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    Montessoripedagogik*: En pedagogik för världens alla barn2005Ingår i: Boken om pedagogerna, Liber, Stockholm , 2005, s. 148-169Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken är en aktuell och mångfacetterad beskrivning av vårt pedagogiska arv och dagens skolverklighet. Viktiga frågor som rör utbildningens innehåll, form och mål har fått en särskilt framträdande plats. Kapitlet presenterar Montessoripedagogikens filosofiska idé och gör nedslag i den praktiska tillämpningen från förskola till grundskolans senare år.

  • 23.
    Aili, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk. Latin.
    Alfonso's Editorial Work in the Liber ad reges: a Pitfall for Vernacular Translators?2000Ingår i: The Translation of the Works of St. Birgitta of Sweden: into the Medieval Vernaculars, 2000, s. 264-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Aili, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Handskrifterna till Birgittas revelationer2003Ingår i: Birgitta av Vadstena: Pilgrim och profet 1303-1373. En jubileumsbok 2003, Natur och Kultur, Stockholm , 2003, s. 429-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 25.
    Aili, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Ne memoria nostri pereat: Rhetoric and Preoccupation with Oblivion in a King's Last Will2000Ingår i: Tongues and Texts Unlimited: Studies in Honour of Tore Janson on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Anniversary, Institutionen för klassiska språk, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm , 2000Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Aili, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk. Latin.
    Sancta Birgitta Reuelaciones: Book IV1992Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Aili, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk. Latin.
    Sancta Birgitta Reuelaciones: Book VIII2002Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Aili, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk. Latin.
    St. Birgitta and the Text of the Revelationes: A Survey of Some Influences Traceable to Translators and Editors1986Ingår i: The Editing of Theological and Philosophical Texts from the Middle Ages: Acts of the Conference Arranged by the Department of Classical Languages, University of Stockholm, 29-31 August 1984, 1986Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Aili, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Svanberg, Jan
    Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Imagines Sanctae Birgittae: The Earliest Illuminated Manuscripts and Panel Paintings Related to the Revelations of St. Birgitta of Sweden2003Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Ajagán-Lester, Luis
    Stockholms universitet, Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm (LHS), Institutionen för undervisningsprocesser, kommunikation och lärande (UKL).
    Mot en pluritopisk hermeneutik2005Ingår i: Text och existens: hermeneutik möter samhällsvetenskap / [ed] Staffan Selander, Per-Johan Ödman, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2005, s. 143-160Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Luis Ajagán-Lester fokuserar i sin artikel `den andres hermeneutik` - mötet mellan medlemmar av olika kulturer och frågan hur hermeneutiken kan bidra med förståelse av den Andre. Både tolkningar som är baserad på avstånd i tid respektive rum aktualiserar frågan om hur man förstår sig själv genom bilden av den andre/det andra. Den bildade européns slutenhet i sin egen värld har bidragit till hermeneutikens `monotopika` karaktär. Begreppet `takt`framskrivs en central kategori mi mötet med den andre och i utvecklandet av en `pluritopisk`hermeneutik och `polyfon tolkningsprocess`.

  • 31.
    Al Saadi, Tania
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier.
    The Living City of the Dead: Representation of Life in the Cemeteries in Two Egyptian Novels2020Ingår i: Arabica, ISSN 0570-5398, E-ISSN 1570-0585, Vol. 67, nr 1, s. 82-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The City of the Dead is a large area on the periphery of Cairo where people live in house-like tombs. This study focuses on two Egyptian novels Sakawa 1-misri l-fasih (1981-1985) by Yusuf al-Qaid and Madad (2014) by Mahmud al-Wirwari, in which living in the cemeteries is portrayed as a paradoxical reality where life and death overlap. Limits between the two are blurred, and this creates a confusing situation where kind marks are lost and moral values are subverted. Tins situation echoes the characters' personal dilemmas and the uncertain historical context in winch they live. Tins article sheds light on the representation of life in the cemeteries and the concrete and symbolic function of tins space. It also discusses tins representation within the portrayal of peripheries and marginal spaces in contemporary Egyptian fiction, and explores the way the two novels published several decades apart use tins ambivalent: space to relate their respective historical realities.

  • 32.
    Ali, Rami
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för mellanösternstudier.
    Beyond the dichotomies of a coercion and voluntary recruitment, Afghan unaccompanied minors unveil their recruitment process in Iran2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    By shedding light on accounts from unaccompanied Afghan asylum-seeking minors in Sweden who were child soldiers in Syria, this thesis explores and examines their narratives and their involvement in the civil war in Syria. The research aims to create a deeper understanding of how these children themselves made sense of their participation in the war by answering the following questions: How were the children approached by the recruiters?

    What kind of reasons for joining the war are put forward by the recruiters and what strategies do the children encounter: a) economic; b) identity formation; c) social deprivation; d) feeling of vulnerability; e) militarization; f) mental development; g) ideology/ religious-sectarian; or all together?

    How do the children perceive these encounters and make sense of their recruitment to the Shiite Fatemiyoun Brigade? To which extent has the ideology of Shi’ism played an important role for them in joining the Syrian War? This is a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews which combines procedures from two approaches and techniques: an ethnographic approach and a narrative approach that explores the interviewees’ experiences in a period of time and also generates detailed insights.

    Despite the fact that none of the respondents testified for being recruited at gunpoint or having been ill-treated, the respondents emphasized that they were forced to join due to the bad circumstances they were living in. In addition, many similarities with other cases regarding child soldiering in several countries have been explored in this thesis, for instance factors related to the socio- economic context and the experiences that are related to the children’s development processes.

    Differences can be located in various details regarding ideologies and indoctrination since the respondents did not share the politico-religious purposes of the recruiters. 

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  • 33. Allen, Michael
    et al.
    von Essen, Erica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Socialantropologiska institutionen.
    On the Dharma of Critical Animal Studies: Animal Spirituality and Total Liberation2022Ingår i: Critical animal studies and social justice: critical theory, dismantling speciesism, and total liberation / [ed] Anthony J. Nocella II; Amber E. George, Lexington Books , 2022, s. 55-68Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Allzén, Simon
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Against Methodological Continuation and Metaphysical Knowledge2022Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to refute the ‘methodological continuation’ argument supporting epistemic realism in metaphysics. This argument aims to show that scientific realists have to accept that metaphysics is as rationally justified as science given that they both employ inference to the best explanation, i.e. that metaphysics and science are methodologically continuous. I argue that the reasons given by scientific realists as to why inference to the best explanation (IBE) is reliable in science do not constitute a reason to believe that it is reliable in metaphysics. The justification of IBE in science and the justification of IBE in metaphysics are two distinct issues with only superficial similarities, and one cannot rely on one for the other. This becomes especially clear when one analyses the debate about the legitimacy of IBE that has taken place between realists and empiricists. The metaphysician seeking to piggyback on the realist defense of IBE in science by the methodological continuation argument presupposes that the defense is straightforwardly applicable to metaphysics. I will argue that it is, in fact, not. The favored defenses of IBE in scientific realism make extensive use of empirical considerations, predictive power and inductive evidence, all of which are paradigmatically absent in the metaphysical context. Furthermore, I argue that the metaphysician, even if the realist would concede to the methodological continuation argument, fails to offer any agreed upon conclusions resulting from its application in metaphysics. As a result, the scientific realist is not committed to believing that there is metaphysical knowledge.

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  • 35.
    Allzén, Simon
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Against methodological continuity and metaphysical knowledge2023Ingår i: European Journal for Philosophy of Science, ISSN 1879-4912, E-ISSN 1879-4920, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikel-id 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to refute the ‘methodological continuity’ argument supporting epistemic realism in metaphysics. This argument aims to show that scientific realists have to accept that metaphysics is as rationally justified as science given that they both employ inference to the best explanation, i.e. that metaphysics and science are methodologically continuous. I argue that the reasons given by scientific realists as to why inference to the best explanation (IBE) is reliable in science do not constitute a reason to believe that it is reliable in metaphysics. The justification of IBE in science and the justification of IBE in metaphysics are two distinct issues with only superficial similarities, and one cannot rely on one for the other. This becomes especially clear when one analyses the debate about the legitimacy of IBE that has taken place between realists and empiricists. The metaphysician seeking to piggyback on the realist defense of IBE in science by the methodological continuity argument presupposes that the defense is straightforwardly applicable to metaphysics. I will argue that it is, in fact, not. The favored defenses of IBE by scientific realists make extensive use of empirical considerations, predictive power and inductive evidence, all of which are paradigmatically absent in the metaphysical context. Furthermore, even if the realist would concede the methodological continuity argument, I argue that the metaphysician fails to offer any agreed upon conclusions resulting from its application in metaphysics. 

  • 36.
    Allzén, Simon
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Modest Scientific Realism and Belief in Astronomical EntitiesManuskript (preprint) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    One of the core charges against explanationist scientific realism is that is too epistemically optimistic. Taking the charge seriously, some realists offer alternative forms of scientific realism – semi-realism and theoretical irrealism – designed to be more modestin their epistemic claims. In this paper, I consider two cases in cosmology and astrophysics that raise novel issues for both views: semi-realism is argued to end up making astrophysics metaphysically inflated when confronted with cases regarding the existence and evolution of galaxies and other astrophysical objects that cross the cosmic event horizon; theoretical irrealism is argued to be in serious tension with standard evidential reasoning in the context of the dark matter problem.

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  • 37.
    Allzén, Simon
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Reassessing Realism: On the Ontology of the Unobservable2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely believed that science is in the business of finding out what the world is really like. The philosophical version of this belief is scientific realism -- a doctrine about science that tells us that we ought to believe that the best theories in science are true, and that the world is occupied with the objects that those theories contain. If scientific realism was not correct, the argument goes, the incredible success of science would be a miracle. The best explanation for the success of science however, is not that it is a miracle, but that scientific theories are true. This argument is an instance of inference to the best explanation, or IBE. Skeptics have questioned why scientific success must imply its truth given that there are so many abandoned, false scientific theories in the history of science that were nevertheless successful. One of the controversies in the debate between scientific realists and anti-realists surrounds the legitimacy of reasoning in accordance with IBE. Realists need IBE to be a justified and reliable guide to truth.  In this compilation thesis, I address various questions related to IBE and scientific realism. Paper 1 argues that scientific realism without IBE loses too much of its epistemic optimism, and that it in some contexts even becomes more pessimistic than the most prominent rival philosophical doctrine about science -- constructive empiricism. To avoid deflating realism, I argue, a defense of IBE is necessary. Paper 2 addresses whether methodological similarities between science and metaphysics force scientific realists to also be realists with respect to metaphysics. If IBE is legitimate, it should not only be valid in science, but also in metaphysics, effectively inflating the ontology that scientific realists are rationally bound to accept. I argue against this conclusion. Paper 3 offers a proof of concept regarding a novel way to justify inferences to unobservable objects. Paper 4 establishes a novel critique of non-probabilistic versions of IBE in scientific realism.

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  • 38.
    Allzén, Simon
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Scientific realism and empirical confirmation: A puzzle2021Ingår i: Studies in history and philosophy of science, ISSN 0039-3681, E-ISSN 1879-2510, Vol. 90, s. 153-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific realism driven by inference to the best explanation (IBE) takes empirically confirmed objects to exist, independent, pace empiricism, of whether those objects are observable or not. This kind of realism, it has been claimed, does not need probabilistic reasoning to justify the claim that these objects exist. But I show that there are scientific contexts in which a non-probabilistic IBE-driven realism leads to a puzzle. Since IBE can be applied in scientific contexts in which empirical confirmation has not yet been reached, realists will in these contexts be committed to the existence of empirically unconfirmed objects. As a consequence of such commitments, because they lack probabilistic features, the possible empirical confirmation of those objects is epistemically redundant with respect to realism.

  • 39.
    Almqvist, Solveig
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gengångarföreställningar i svensk folktro ur genreanalytisk synpunkt1984Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Almås, Ingvild
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Cappelen, Alexander W.
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Sørensen, Erik Ø.
    Tungodden, Bertil
    Fairness and family background2017Ingår i: Politics, Philosophy and Economics, ISSN 1470-594X, E-ISSN 1741-3060, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 117-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fairness preferences fundamentally affect individual behavior and play an important role in shaping social and political institutions. However, people differ both with respect to what they view as fair and with respect to how much weight they attach to fairness considerations. In this article, we study the role of family background in explaining these heterogeneities in fairness preferences. In particular, we examine how socioeconomic background relates to fairness views and to how people make trade-offs between fairness and self-interest. To study this, we conducted an economic experiment with a representative sample of 14- to 15-year-old and matched the experimental data to administrative data on parental income and education. The participants made two distributive choices in the experiment. The first choice was to distribute money between themselves and another participant in a situation where there was no difference in merit. The second choice was to distribute money between two other participants with unequal merits. Our main finding is that there is a systematic difference in fairness view between children from low-socioceconomic status (SES) families and the rest of the participants; more than 50 percent of the participants from low-SES families are egalitarians, whereas only about 20 percent in the rest of the sample hold this fairness view. In contrast, we find no significant difference in the weight attached to fairness between children from different socioeconomic groups.

  • 41.
    Alt, Guido
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Buridan’s Reinterpretation of Natural Possibility and Necessity2023Ingår i: Metaphysics through Semantics: The Philosophical Recovery of the Medieval Mind: Essays in Honor of Gyula Klima / [ed] Joshua P. Hochschild; Turner C. Nevitt; Adam Wood; Gábor Borbély, Cham: Springer Nature, 2023, s. 237-253Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In his natural philosophy, John Buridan reinterprets Aristotelian conceptions of necessity using a framework derived from his logical writings. After a discussion of Buridan’s account of varieties of necessity, in this paper I shall approach some interpretative uses of that account where two natural philosophical concerns are involved. The first is connected with the relationship of modality and time in a question from the first book of his commentary to De Generatione et Corruptione addressing a consequence from possibilities of alteration to possibilities of generation. The content of that question hinges on the metaphysical connection between alteration and substantial changes. In the third section, I shall explore a quasi-definition of causal necessity and contingency Buridan discusses in the second book of his commentary to the Physics. Buridan’s discussion of alternative descriptions of causal necessity and contingency in that context reveals competing pictures of the role of essences in causal explanation associated with Avicenna and Averroes respectively.

  • 42.
    Alt, Guido
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    The Weaker and Stronger Senses of Scotus's Formal Distinction2020Ingår i: Homo, Natura, Mundus: Human beings and their relationships: Proceedings of the XIV International Congress of the Société Internationale pour l'Étude de la Philosophie Médiévale, July 24-28, 2017, Porto Alegre, Brazil. / [ed] Roberto Hofmeister Pich, Alfredo Carlos Storck, Alfredo Santiago Culleton, Turnhout: Brepols, 2020, s. 781-792Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Alt, Guido
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Varieties of Necessity in John Buridan: Logic and Natural Philosophy in the Late Middle Ages2023Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a study of John Buridan's (c.1300-c.1361) conception of modalities. Modal concepts - concepts of necessity, possibility, impossibility, and contingency - describe the ways in which things could and could not be otherwise. These concepts became notoriously central for philosophical discourse in the late Middle Ages. In recent years, Buridan's philosophy and modal theory have received sophisticated scholarly attention. The main contribution of the dissertation is to show new ways in which Buridan's modal theory is embedded in its contextual practical aims, as providing methods for argumentation schemes and analysis used in his natural philosophy and metaphysics.

    The dissertation is divided into two parts. In Part I, I conduct a detailed analysis of Buridan's account of varieties of modality in logical contexts. In Chapter 2, I show that Buridan distinguishes between broad and restricted forms of necessity in his treatment of logical consequence. Moreover, I show how the distinction between these forms of necessity underpins his modal syllogistics. I argue in Chapter 3 that Buridan acknowledged a variety of modal concepts that are distinguished as a matter of degree. I identify the main modal concepts Buridan's theory reckons with, show how he motivates the distinctions among them, and clarify how they are logically related. Part II turns to applications of Buridan's modal analyses to natural philosophy. In Chapter 4, I address the relationship between necessity with sempiternal truth in Buridan's commentary on Aristotle's De Caelo and compare Buridan's treatment of a key passage in that commentary with the treatment by John of Jandun (c. 1285-1328), a near-contemporary master of arts at Paris. Chapter 5 focuses on Buridan's account of the relationship between power-based concepts of modality and his modal semantics. Chapter 6 describes Buridan's account of contingency in the Physics, and sets Buridan's account of the relationship between forms of contingency and chance against the background of a received debate between Avicenna's and Averroes' views on the subject. Finally, in Chapter 7, I analyse some important applications of Buridan's distinction between logical and metaphysical possibility in physical contexts. I conclude this section by showing how Buridan considered merely conceivable possibilities useful in natural philosophy, and draw further conclusions for investigating the connections between logic and natural philosophy in the later Middle Ages.

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  • 44.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    The Language of the Slave Spirits in Brazilian Umbanda: Memories of Ancestral Dignity2019Ingår i: Shackled Sentiments: Slaves, Spirits, and Memories in the African Diaspora / [ed] Eric J. Montgomery, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2019, s. 177-194Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the speech of slave spirits, or pretos-velhos (‘old Blacks’), that we meet in Umbanda communities in Brazil. Such spirits are understood as old African slaves who may possess initiated mediums during the state of trance in rituals. Pretos-velhos represent the memory of slavery by showing a linguistic behavior associated with their condition of enslaved Africans brought from Africa to Brazil: a particular way of speaking, as if an old speaker of African languages who had learned Portuguese as a second language. Earlier studies discuss linguistic characteristics that distinguish the speech of pretos-velhos from other varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, and compare their speech with literary representations of the speech of Africans and their descendants in Brazil, affirming that the contact between speakers of Portuguese and African languages can explain the emergence of specific linguistic features. This chapter will analyze both recordings with one preto-velho called Pai João (‘Father John’) gathered by the author during fieldwork in an Umbanda community in 2005, and written representations of the speech of pretos-velhos in books with Umbanda ritual songs. The findings indicate that, at some point in time, the linguistic features represented in the speech of pretos-velhos were characteristic of all speakers of African languages who learned Portuguese as a second language informally in Brazilian colonial settings. Moreover, the use of certain phonetic and grammatical features in the speech of pretos-velhos has contributed to the characterization of the linguistic behavior of native speakers of African languages who acquired Portuguese as a second language. Some of the features are also present in the so-called Brazilian vernacular Portuguese (and may even be explained by contact with African languages), other signal the speech of a foreigner. The oral representations can be used to complement the limited written data available to us on the speech of the slave population. Finally, we believe that in sacred spaces, where the agents or owners of discourse belong to Afro-Brazilian religious communities, specific or innovative linguistic features seem to recreate African ancestral dignity. After all, the pretos-velhos, spirits of the light, born in Africa, are always ready to help people who often come to Umbanda temples the consult them.

  • 45.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Westerlund, David
    Afroamerikanska religioner2012Ingår i: Religion i Latinamerika / [ed] Magnus Lundberg, David Westerlund, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2012, s. 226-259Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Alxatib, Sam
    et al.
    MIT, Dept Linguist & Philosophy, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Pagin, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Sauerland, Uli
    Zentrum Allgemeine Sprachwissensch, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.
    Acceptable Contradictions: Pragmatics or Semantics? A Reply to Cobreros et al.2013Ingår i: Journal of Philosophical Logic, ISSN 0022-3611, E-ISSN 1573-0433, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 619-634Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Naive speakers find some logical contradictions acceptable, specifically borderline contradictions involving vague predicates such as Joe is and isn't tall. In a recent paper, Cobreros et al. (J Philos Logic, 2012) suggest a pragmatic account of the acceptability of borderline contradictions. We show, however, that the pragmatic account predicts the wrong truth conditions for some examples with disjunction. As a remedy, we propose a semantic analysis instead. The analysis is close to a variant of fuzzy logic, but conjunction and disjunction are interpreted as intensional operators.

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  • 47. Amirav, Hagit
    et al.
    Grypeou, EmmanouelaStockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.Stroumsa, Guy G.
    Apocalypticism and eschatology in late Antiquity: encounters in the Abrahamic religions, 6th-8th centuries2017Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Andersson, Anna-Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Libertarianism and Potential Agents: A Libertarian View of the Moral Rights of Foetuses and Children2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay advances a libertarian theory of moral rights, which responds effectively to some serious objections that have been raised against libertarianism. I show how libertarianism can explain children’s rights to certain physical integrity and aid. I defend strong moral rights of human, pre-natal organisms, infants and children against all agents to certain non-interference with their physical integrity. I also argue that parents’ moral obligation to aid their offspring follows from a moral principle that prohibits agents to actively harm rights-bearers. Since this is the core principle of all versions of libertarianism, we gain simplicity and coherence. In chapter two, I explain my theory’s similarities and differences to a libertarian theory of moral rights advanced by Robert Nozick in his 1974 book Anarchy, State, and Utopia. I explain the structure and coherence of negative moral rights as advanced by Nozick. Then, I discuss what these negative rights are rights to, and the criteria for being a rights-bearer. In chapter three, I formulate a clear distinction between active and passive behaviour, and discuss the moral importance of foreseeing consequences of one’s active interventions. In chapter four, I claim that some pre-natal human organisms, human infants, and children, are rights-bearers. I formulate a morally relevant characterization of potentiality, and argue that possession of such potentiality is sufficient to have negative rights against all agents. In chapter five, I discuss whether potential moral subjects, in addition, have positive moral rights against all agents to means sufficient to develop into actual moral subjects. I argue that this suggestion brings some difficulties when applied to rights-conflicts. In chapter six, I argue that potential moral subjects’ rights to means necessary to develop into actual moral subjects can be defended in terms of merely negative rights. By adopting the view advanced in this chapter, we get a simple, coherent theory. It avoids the difficulties in the view advanced in chapter five, while keeping its intuitively plausible features. In chapter seven, I discuss whether the entitlement theory is contradictory and morally repugnant. I argue that my version of the entitlement theory is not.

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  • 49.
    Andersson, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Vadstena 1427: The Visit of the Syon Brothers2010Ingår i: Saint Birgitta, Syon and Vadstena: Papers from a Symposium in Stockholm 4-6 October 2007 / [ed] Claes Gejrot, Sara Risberg, Mia Åkestam, Stockholm: Kungl. vitterhets historie och antivitetsakademien , 2010, s. 104-109Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Andersson, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Religionshistoria.
    Religiösa värderingar hos muslimska SFI-elever2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den som säger sig tillhöra en viss religion kan i praktiken vara mer eller mindre troende, eller inte troende alls. Det kan handla om att man firar vissa högtider men utan att särskilt bry sig om deras religiösa innebörd, eller att man ibland deltar i gudstjänster och ber någon gång i månaden, eller ett liv iständig hågkomst av Guds närvaro. Spektrat av religiositet för en person kan vara allt från att religionen endast har kulturell betydelse till att man lever sitt liv helt enligt dess påbud, såväl som att man anser att religion är en privatsak till att man arbetar för att samhället skall formas enligt religionen.

    Vad gäller islam i Sverige har de muslimska samfundens organisation och aktiviteter beskrivits i ganska stor detalj. Däremot finns inte mycket kunskap om de värderingar de står för. Och vad gäller värderingar och övertygelser hos muslimer i allmänhet finns nästan ingenting skrivet. Denna uppsatstar fasta på den kunskapsbristen.

    Genom en enkätbaserad attitydundersökning av explorativ karaktär med muslimska SFI-elever somrespondenter har följande frågor undersökts:

    - Är fundamentalism ett utbrett fenomen inom denna grupp?

    - I hur stor utsträckning anser man att shari’a bör gälla för muslimer i Sverige och vad är attityden tilldemokrati?

    - Hur ser relationen mellan religion och moral ut och hur uppfattas det svenska samhället i dettasammanhang?

    Undersökningens resultat är överlag i samstämmighet med tidigare undersökningar med liknande teman. Respondenterna har en överväldigande positiv attityd till demokrati och en stor del anser också att yttrandefrihet är bra. Samtidigt tycks många mena att islam är undantaget yttrandefriheten ochatt islamiska regler är viktigare än svensk lag. Stödet för shari’a är också påtagligt. En stor majoritet menar att gudstro är nödvändig för att vara en moralisk person och anser samtidigt att Sverige är ett moraliskt land.

    På grund av urvalsmetoden och den stora andel som avstått från att delta i undersökningen kan resultatet inte generaliseras utanför gruppen av respondenter.

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