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  • 1. Caron, M. M.
    et al.
    De Frenne, P.
    Brunet, J.
    Chabrerie, O.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    De Backer, L.
    Decocq, G.
    Diekmann, M.
    Heinken, T.
    Kolb, A.
    Naaf, T.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Selvi, F.
    Strimbeck, G. R.
    Wulf, M.
    Verheyen, K.
    Interacting effects of warming and drought on regeneration and early growth of Acer pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides2015In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 52-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is acting on several aspects of plant life cycles, including the sexual reproductive stage, which is considered amongst the most sensitive life-cycle phases. In temperate forests, it is expected that climate change will lead to a compositional change in community structure due to changes in the dominance of currently more abundant forest tree species. Increasing our understanding of the effects of climate change on currently secondary tree species recruitment is therefore important to better understand and forecast population and community dynamics in forests. Here, we analyse the interactive effects of rising temperatures and soil moisture reduction on germination, seedling survival and early growth of two important secondary European tree species, Acer pseudoplatanus and A.platanoides. Additionally, we analyse the effect of the temperature experienced by the mother tree during seed production by collecting seeds of both species along a 2200-km long latitudinal gradient. For most of the responses, A.platanoides showed higher sensitivity to the treatments applied, and especially to its joint manipulation, which for some variables resulted in additive effects while for others only partial compensation. In both species, germination and survival decreased with rising temperatures and/or soil moisture reduction while early growth decreased with declining soil moisture content. We conclude that although A.platanoides germination and survival were more affected after the applied treatments, its initial higher germination and larger seedlings might allow this species to be relatively more successful than A.pseudoplatanus in the face of climate change.

  • 2. De Frenne, P.
    et al.
    Blondeel, H.
    Brunet, J.
    Caron, M. M.
    Chabrerie, O.
    Cougnon, M.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm Univ, Biogeog & Geomat, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Decocq, G.
    Diekmann, M.
    Graae, B. J.
    Hanley, M. E.
    Heinken, T.
    Hermy, M.
    Kolb, A.
    Lenoir, J.
    Liira, J.
    Orczewska, A.
    Shevtsova, A.
    Vanneste, T.
    Verheyen, K.
    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition on petals enhances seed quality of the forest herb Anemone nemorosa2018In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 619-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated atmospheric input of nitrogen (N) is currently affecting plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The growth and survival of numerous plant species is known to respond strongly to N fertilisation. Yet, few studies have assessed the effects of N deposition on seed quality and reproductive performance, which is an important life-history stage of plants. Here we address this knowledge gap by assessing the effects of atmospheric N deposition on seed quality of the ancient forest herb Anemone nemorosa using two complementary approaches. By taking advantage of the wide spatiotemporal variation in N deposition rates in pan-European temperate and boreal forests over 2years, we detected positive effects of N deposition on the N concentration (percentage N per unit seed mass, increased from 2.8% to 4.1%) and N content (total N mass per seed more than doubled) of A.nemorosa seeds. In a complementary experiment, we applied ammonium nitrate to aboveground plant tissues and the soil surface to determine whether dissolved N sources in precipitation could be incorporated into seeds. Although the addition of N to leaves and the soil surface had no effect, a concentrated N solution applied to petals during anthesis resulted in increased seed mass, seed N concentration and N content. Our results demonstrate that N deposition on the petals enhances bioaccumulation of N in the seeds of A.nemorosa. Enhanced atmospheric inputs of N can thus not only affect growth and population dynamics via root or canopy uptake, but can also influence seed quality and reproduction via intake through the inflorescences.

  • 3. De Frenne, P.
    et al.
    Kolb, A.
    Graae, B. J.
    Decocq, G.
    Baltora, S.
    De Schrijver, A.
    Brunet, J.
    Chabrerie, O.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Dhondt, R.
    Diekmann, M.
    Gruwez, R.
    Heinken, T.
    Hermy, M.
    Liira, J.
    Saguez, R.
    Shevtsova, A.
    Baskin, C. C.
    Verheyen, K.
    A latitudinal gradient in seed nutrients of the forest herb Anemone nemorosa2011In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 493-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nutrient concentration in seeds determines many aspects of potential success of the sexual reproductive phase of plants, including the seed predation probability, efficiency of seed dispersal and seedling performance. Despite considerable research interest in latitudinal gradients of foliar nutrients, a similar gradient for seeds remains unexplored. We investigated a potential latitudinal gradient in seed nutrient concentrations within the widespread European understorey forest herb Anemone nemorosa L. We sampled seeds of A. nemorosa in 15 populations along a 1900-km long latitudinal gradient at three to seven seed collection dates post-anthesis and investigated the relative effects of growing degree-hours > 5 degrees C, soil characteristics and latitude on seed nutrient concentrations. Seed nitrogen, nitrogen:phosphorus ratio and calcium concentration decreased towards northern latitudes, while carbon:nitrogen ratios increased. When taking differences in growing degree-hours and measured soil characteristics into account and only considering the most mature seeds, the latitudinal decline remained particularly significant for seed nitrogen concentration. We argue that the decline in seed nitrogen concentration can be attributed to northward decreasing seed provisioning due to lower soil nitrogen availability or greater investment in clonal reproduction. This pattern may have large implications for the reproductive performance of this forest herb as the degree of seed provisioning ultimately co-determines seedling survival and reproductive success.

  • 4. Demchenko, K.
    et al.
    Zdyb, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Feussner, I.
    Pawlowski, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Analysis of the subcellular localisation of lipoxygenase in legume and actinorhizal nodules2012In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 56-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant lipoxygenases (LOXs; EC 1.13.11.12) catalyse the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic (18:2) and a-linolenic acid (18:3(n-3)) and are involved in processes such as stress responses and development. Depending on the regio-specificity of a LOX, the incorporation of molecular oxygen leads to formation of 9- or 13-fatty acid hydroperoxides, which are used by LOX itself as well as by members of at least six different enzyme families to form a series of biologically active molecules, collectively called oxylipins. The best characterised oxylipins are the jasmonates: jasmonic acid (JA) and its isoleucine conjugate that are signalling compounds in vegetative and propagative plant development. In several types of nitrogen-fixing root nodules, LOX expression and/or activity is induced during nodule development. Allene oxide cyclase (AOC), a committed enzyme of the JA biosynthetic pathway, has been shown to localise to plastids of nodules of one legume and two actinorhizal plants, Medicago truncatula, Datisca glomerata and Casuarina glauca, respectively. Using an antibody that recognises several types of LOX interspecifically, LOX protein levels were compared in roots and nodules of these plants, showing no significant differences and no obvious nodule-specific isoforms. A comparison of the cell-specific localisation of LOXs and AOC led to the conclusion that (i) only cytosolic LOXs were detected although it is generally assumed that the (13S)-hydroperoxy a-linolenic acid for JA biosynthesis is produced in the plastids, and (ii) in cells of the nodule vascular tissue that contain AOC, no LOX protein could be detected.

  • 5.
    Gul, Mehreen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Bahauddin Zakariya University, Pakistan; University of Agriculture, Pakistan.
    Wakeel, A.
    Steffens, D.
    Lindberg, Sylvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Potassium-induced decrease in cytosolic Na+ alleviates deleterious effects of salt stress on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)2019In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 825-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulation of NaCl in soil causes osmotic stress in plants, and sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) cause ion toxicity, but also reduce the potassium (K+) uptake by plant roots and stimulate the K+ efflux through the cell membrane. Thus, decreased K+/Na+ ratio in plant tissue lead us to hypothesise that elevated levels of K+ in nutrient medium enhance this ratio in plant tissue and cytosol to improve enzyme activation, osmoregulation and charge balance. In this study, wheat was cultivated at different concentrations of K+ (2.2, 4.4 or 8.8 mm) with or without salinity (1, 60 or 120 mm NaCl) and the effects on growth, root and shoot Na+ and K+ distribution and grain yield were determined. Also, the cytosolic Na+ concentration was investigated, as well as photosynthesis rate and water potential. Salinity reduced fresh weight of both shoots and roots and dry weight of roots. The grain yield was significantly reduced under Na+ stress and improved with elevated K+ fertilisation. Elevated K+ level during cultivation prevented the accumulation of Na+ into the cytosol of both shoot and root protoplasts. Wheat growth at vegetative stage was transiently reduced at the highest K+ concentration, perhaps due to plants' efforts to overcome a high solute concentration in the plant tissue, nevertheless grain yield was increased at both K+ levels. In conclusion, a moderately elevated K+ application to wheat seedlings reduces tissue as well as cytosolic Na+ concentration and enhances wheat growth and grain yield by mitigating the deleterious effects of Na+ toxicity.

  • 6.
    Javed, M. Tariq
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindberg, Sylvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Cadmium uptake in Elodea canadensis leaves and its interference with extra- and intra-cellular pH2014In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 615-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated cadmium (Cd) uptake in Elodea canadensis shoots under different photosynthetic conditions, and its effects on internal (cytosolic) and external pH. The plants were grown under photosynthetic (light) or non-photosynthetic (dark or in the presence of a photosynthetic inhibitor) conditions in the presence or absence of CdCl2 (0.5 mu m) in a medium with a starting pH of 5.0. The pH-sensitive dye BCECF-AM was used to monitor cytosolic pH changes in the leaves. Cadmium uptake in protoplasts and leaves was detected with a Cd-specific fluorescent dye, Leadmium Green AM, and with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. During cultivation for 3days without Cd, shoots of E.canadensis increased the pH of the surrounding water, irrespective of the photosynthetic conditions. This medium alkalisation was higher in the presence of CdCl2. Moreover, the presence of Cd also increased the cation exchange capacity of the shoots. The total Cd uptake by E.canadensis shoots was independent of photosynthetic conditions. Protoplasts from plants exposed to 0.5 mu m CdCl2 for 3days did not exhibit significant change in cytosolic [Cd2+] or pH. However, exposure to CdCl2 for 7days resulted in increased cytosolic [Cd2+] as well as pH. The results suggest that E.canadensis subjected to a low CdCl2 concentration initially sequesters Cd into the apoplasm, but under prolonged exposure, Cd is transported into the cytosol and subsequently alters cytosolic pH. In contrast, addition of 10-50 mu m CdCl2 directly to protoplasts resulted in immediate uptake of Cd into the cytosol.

  • 7. Khatun, M. A.
    et al.
    Hossain, M. M.
    Bari, M. A.
    Abdullahil, Kafi M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Parvez, M. S.
    Alam, M. F.
    Kabir, A. H.
    Zinc deficiency tolerance in maize is associated with the up-regulation of Zn transporter genes and antioxidant activities2018In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 765-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for the growth and development of plants. However, Zn deficiency is a common abiotic stress causing yield loss in crop plants. This study elucidates the mechanisms of Zn deficiency tolerance in maize through physiological and molecular techniques. Maize lines tolerant (PAC) and sensitive (DAC) to Zn deficiency were examined physiologically and by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Proteins, H2O2, SOD, POD, membrane permeability and gene expression (using real-time PCR) of roots and shoots of both maize lines were assessed. Zn deficiency had no significant effect on root parameters compared with control plants in PAC and DAC but showed a substantial reduction in shoot parameters in DAC. AAS showed a significant decrease in Zn concentrations in both roots and shoots of DAC but not PAC under Zn deficiency, implying that Zn deficiency tolerance mechanisms exist in PAC. Consistently, total protein and membrane permeability were significantly reduced in DAC but not PAC in both roots and shoots under Zn deficiency in comparison with Zn-sufficient plants. Real-time PCR showed that expression of ZmZIP1, ZmZIP4 and ZmIRT1 transporter genes significantly increased in roots of PAC, but not in DAC due to Zn deficiency compared with controls. The H2O2 concentration dramatically increased in roots of DAC but not PAC. Moreover, tolerant PAC showed a significant increase in POD and SOD activity due to Zn deficiency, suggesting that POD- and SOD-mediated antioxidant defence might provide tolerance, at least in part, under Zn deficiency in PAC. This study provides an essential background for improving Zn biofortification of maize.

  • 8. Lazaro, A.
    et al.
    Mendez, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Variation in sexual expression in the monoecious shrub Buxus balearica at different scales2007In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 736-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monoecy allows high plasticity in gender expression because the production of separate female and male flowers increases the ability to respond to specific environmental circumstances. We studied variation in sexual expression and its correlates in the monoecious shrub Buxus balearica, for two years, in six populations in the Balearic Islands and four in the Iberian Peninsula. Phenotypic gender varied among populations; while island populations showed slight variations around an average gender, mainland populations showed a broad range of variation in gender among individuals, always biased towards increasing maleness compared with the other populations. Within populations, gender was not related to plant size. Between-year changes were slight and mainly consisted of an increase in relative maleness in the mast year. Reproduction did not affect gender in the next year, as assessed by either observational or experimental methods. Most variation in gender expression occurred among individuals within populations (83.6%), followed by variation among populations (13.6%) and years (2.8%). Our results suggest that male-biased gender at population and plant levels was related to stressful conditions and resource limitation, because: (1) maleness was higher in mainland populations, where summer drought was stronger; (2) maleness increased with elevation; (3) fruit set was positively correlated with femaleness; (4) the percentage of male inflorescences increased over the flowering period; and (5) male inflorescences were preferentially in lower parts of the branch nodes. Higher maleness in mast years, however, could be related to increased male success under synchronic flowering.

  • 9.
    Lönnberg, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Relationships between intra-specific variation in seed size and recruitment in four species in two contrasting habitats2013In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 601-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large seeds contain more stored resources, and seedlings germinating from large seeds generally cope better with environmental stresses such as shading, competition and thick litter layers, than seedlings germinating from small seeds. A pattern with small-seeded species being associated with open habitats and large-seeded species being associated with closed (shaded) habitats has been suggested and supported by comparative studies. However, few studies have assessed the intra-specific relationship between seed size and recruitment, comparing plant communities differing in canopy cover. Here, seeds from four plant species commonly occurring in ecotones between open and closed habitats (Convallaria majalis, Frangula alnus, Prunus padus and Prunus spinosa) were weighed and sown individually (3200 seeds per species) in open and closed-canopy sites, and seedling emergence and survival recorded over 3 years. Our results show a generally positive, albeit weak, relationship between seed size and recruitment. In only one of the species, C. majalis, was there an association between closed canopy habitat and a positive seed size effect on recruitment. We conclude that there is a weak selection gradient favouring larger seeds, but that this selection gradient is not clearly related to habitat.

  • 10. Ma, S.
    et al.
    De Frenne, P.
    Wasof, S.
    Brunet, J.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Decocq, G.
    Kolb, A.
    Lemke, I
    Liira, J.
    Naaf, T.
    Orczewska, A.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Wulf, M.
    Verheyen, K.
    Plant-soil feedbacks of forest understorey plants transplanted in nonlocal soils along a latitudinal gradient2019In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 677-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is driving movements of many plants beyond, as well as within, their current distributional ranges. Even migrant plants moving within their current range may experience different plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) because of divergent nonlocal biotic soil conditions. Yet, our understanding to what extent soil biotic conditions can affect the performance of within-range migrant plants is still very limited. We assessed the emergence and growth of migrant forest herbs (Milium effusum and Stachys sylvatica) using soils and seeds collected along a 1,700 km latitudinal gradient across Europe. Soil biota were manipulated through four soil treatments, i.e. unsterilized control soil (PSFUS), sterilized soil (PSFS), sterilized soil inoculated with unsterilized home soil (PSFS+HI) and sterilized soil inoculated with unsterilized foreign soil (PSFS+FI, expected to occur when both plants and soil biota track climate change). Compared to PSFS, PSFUS had negative effects on the growth but not emergence of both species, while PSFS+FI only affected S. sylvatica across all seed provenances. When considering seed origin, seedling emergence and growth responses to nonlocal soils depended on soil biotic conditions. Specifically, the home-away distance effect on seedling emergence differed between the four treatments, and significant responses to chemistry either disappeared (M. effusum) or changed (S. sylvatica) from PSFUS to PSFS. Soil biota emerge as an important driver of the estimated plant migration success. Our results of the effects of soil microorganisms on plant establishment provide relevant information for predictions of the distribution and dynamics of plant species in a changing climate.

  • 11. Muenzbergova, Z.
    et al.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Herben, T.
    Plackova, I.
    Milden, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Ehrlen, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Historical habitat connectivity affects current genetic structure in a grassland species2013In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 195-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many recent studies have explored the effects of present and past landscape structure on species distribution and diversity. However, we know little about the effects of past landscape structure on distribution of genetic diversity within and between populations of a single species. Here we describe the relationship between present and past landscape structure (landscape connectivity and habitat size estimated from historical maps) and current genetic structure in a perennial herb, Succisa pratensis. We used allozymes as co-dominant markers to estimate genetic diversity and deviation from HardyWeinberg equilibrium in 31 populations distributed within a 5 km(2) agricultural landscape. The results showed that current genetic diversity of populations was related to habitat suitability, habitat age, habitat size and habitat connectivity in the past. The effects of habitat age and past connectivity on genetic diversity were in most cases also significant after taking the current landscape structure into account. Moreover, current genetic similarity between populations was affected by past connectivity after accounting for current landscape structure. In both cases, the oldest time layer (1850) was the most informative. Most populations showed heterozygote excess, indicating disequilibrium due to recent gene flow or selection against homozygotes. These results suggest that habitat age and past connectivity are important determinants of distribution of genetic diversity between populations at a scale of a few kilometres. Landscape history may significantly contribute to our understanding of distribution of current genetic structure within species and the genetic structure may be used to better understand landscape history, even at a small scale.

  • 12.
    Méndez, M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Karlsson, P. S.
    Equivalence of three allocation currencies as estimates of reproductive allocation and somatic cost of reproduction in Pinguicula vulgaris2007In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 462-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Which is the most appropriate currency (biomass, energy, water, or some mineral nutrient) for expressing resource allocation in plants has been repeatedly discussed. Researchers need to assess to which extent interindividual, interpopulational, or interspecific comparisons of resource allocation could be affected by the allocation currency chosen. The ""currency issue"" is relevant to at least three related aspects of resource allocation to reproduction: (a) reproductive allocation (RA), (b) size-dependence of reproductive allocation, and (c) somatic cost of reproduction (SCR). Empirical tests have mostly dealt with the first aspect only. We examined the equivalence of estimates for the three aspects above across three different allocation currencies (dry mass, N, P) in 11 populations of Pinguicula vulgaris. For RA we studied the equivalence of allocation currencies at three scales: among individuals of the same population, between populations of the same species, and among species. Equivalence of currencies in the ranking of RA for individuals within populations was high (R-s >= 0.43) and did not strongly decrease when comparing populations or species. Excepting for size-dependence of RA, ranking of RA, or SCR between populations was equivalent for biomass and N, but not for P. Our study gives two positive guidelines for empirical plant reproductive ecologists facing the ""currency issue"": (1) become increasingly concerned about the ""currency issue"" as you increase the scale of your comparison from individuals to populations to species, and (2) avoid estimating allocation in redundant currencies (biomass and N in our case) and choose preferentially ""complementary"" currencies that provide a broader view of allocation patterns (biomass and P in our case).

  • 13.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Bremen, Germany.
    Colas, F.
    Auffret, Alistair G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Methodological bias in the seed bank flora holds significant implications for understanding seed bank community functions2017In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 201-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent seed banks are a key plant regeneration strategy, buffering environmental variation to allow population and species persistence. Understanding seed bank functioning within herb layer dynamics is therefore important. However, rather than assessing emergence from the seed bank in herb layer gaps, most studies evaluate the seed bank functioning via a greenhouse census. We hypothesise that greenhouse data may not reflect seed bank-driven emergence in disturbance gaps due to methodological differences. Failure in detecting (specialist) species may then introduce methodological bias into the ecological interpretation of seed bank functions using greenhouse data. The persistent seed bank was surveyed in 40 semi-natural grassland plots across a fragmented landscape, quantifying seedling emergence in both the greenhouse and in disturbance gaps. Given the suspected interpretational bias, we tested whether each census uncovers similar seed bank responses to fragmentation. Seed bank characteristics were similar between censuses. Census type affected seed bank composition, with >25% of species retrieved better by either census type, dependent on functional traits including seed longevity, production and size. Habitat specialists emerged more in disturbance gaps than in the greenhouse, while the opposite was true for ruderal species. Both censuses uncovered fragmentation-induced seed bank patterns. Low surface area sampling, larger depth of sampling and germination conditions cause underrepresentation of the habitat-specialised part of the persistent seed bank flora during greenhouse censuses. Methodological bias introduced in the recorded seed bank data may consequently have significant implications for the ecological interpretation of seed bank community functions based on greenhouse data.

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