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  • 1. Anker-Hansen, Jens
    et al.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Using and rejecting peer feedback in the science classroom: a study of students' negotiations on how to use peer feedback when designing experiments2019In: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, E-ISSN 1470-1138, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 346-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on peer assessment has noted ambiguity among students in using peer assessment for improving their work. Previous research has explained this in terms of deficits in the student feedback, or differences in student views of what counts as high-quality work. Purpose: This study frames peer assessment as a social process in the science classroom. The aim is to explore peer assessment in science education as social practice in order to contribute to an understanding of the affordances and constraints of using peer assessment as a learning tool in science education. Design and Method: The study was conducted in four lower secondary school classes, school years 8 and 9, in two different schools. An intervention study was designed focussing on the topic of experimental design. It involved the students in a process of peer assessment where they designed experiments individually, and then exchanged their designs, conducted each other's experiments, provided feedback to each other and revised their original design after discussing the feedback in groups. Data were collected in the form of audio recordings of student discussions and written work. Results: The results show that, although not all peer feedback resulted in revisions, peer feedback was useful to the students in group interaction when negotiating quality in their work. Conclusions: To conclude, the potential for using peer assessment in science education should not only be evaluated through the students' revisions but also in terms of in what ways the feedback constitutes interactional resources for defining quality in student work.

  • 2. Bergqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The influence of textbooks on teachers’ knowledge of chemical bonding representations relative to students’ difficulties understanding2017In: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, E-ISSN 1470-1138, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 215-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Textbooks are integral tools for teachers’ lessons. Several researchers observed that school teachers rely heavily on textbooks as informational sources when planning lessons. Moreover, textbooks are an important resource for developing students’ knowledge as they contain various representations that influence students’ learning. However, several studies report that students have difficulties understanding models in general, and chemical bonding models in particular, and that students’ difficulties understanding chemical bonding are partly due to the way it is taught by teachers and presented in textbooks.

    Purpose: This article aims to delineate the influence of textbooks on teachers’ selection and use of representations when teaching chemical bonding models and to show how this might cause students’ difficulties understanding.

    Sample: Ten chemistry teachers from seven upper secondary schools located in Central Sweden volunteered to participate in this study.

    Design and methods: Data from multiple sources were collected and analysed, including interviews with the 10 upper secondary school teachers, the teachers’ lesson plans, and the contents of the textbooks used by the teachers.

    Results: The results revealed strong coherence between how chemical bonding models are presented in textbooks and by teachers, and thus depict that textbooks influence teachers’ selection and use of representations for their lessons. As discussed in the literature review, several of the selected representations were associated with alternative conceptions of, and difficulties understanding, chemical bonding among students.

    Conclusions: The study highlights the need for filling the gap between research and teaching practices, focusing particularly on how representations of chemical bonding can lead to students’ difficulties understanding. The gap may be filled by developing teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge regarding chemical bonding and scientific models in general.

  • 3. Johansson, Annie-Maj
    et al.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    The use of organising purposes in science instruction as a scaffolding mechanism to support progressions: a study of talk in two primary science classrooms2018In: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, E-ISSN 1470-1138, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study examines how different purposes can support teachers in their work with progressions as a part of a teaching sequences in science in primary school.

    Design/Method: The study was carried out in two classes working with inquiry and the events that took place in the classroom were filmed. In the study, we have chosen to use the technical term proximate purposes for the student-oriented purposes, and ultimate purposes for the scientific purposes. Together, these two types of purposes form the organisational purposes for the classes. Proximate purposes work in such a way that students can use their language and relate to their experiences as ends-in-view. To examine how organising purposes can be used to analyse progressions, we discuss examples from two different lessons.

    Result: The study shows the importance of proximate purposes working as ends-in-view and also demonstrates how the teacher and students may create continuity in teaching to enable progression as a part of a teaching sequence.

    Conclusions: To create continuity, it was essential that the teacher scaffolded the students in ways which allowed the students to explicitly differentiate between what was relevant or not, about the proximate purposes in relation to the ultimate purpose.

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