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  • 1.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Bergqvist, Kerstin
    Jakobson, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Saljo, Roger
    Why Do Secondary School Students Lose Their Interest in Science? Or Does it Never Emerge? A Possible and Overlooked Explanation2016In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 791-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we review research on how students' interest in science changes through the primary to secondary school transition. In the literature, the findings generally show that primary students enjoy science but come to lose interest during secondary school. As this claim is based mainly on interview and questionnaire data, that is on secondary reports from students about their interest in science, these results are reexamined through our own extensive material from primary and secondary school on how interest is constituted through classroom discourse. Our results suggest the possibility that primary students do not lose their interest in science, but rather that an interest in science is never constituted. The overview indicates that studies relying on interviews and questionnaires make it difficult to ascertain what the actual object of interest is when students act in the science classroom. The possibility suggested should, if valid, have consequences for science education and be worthy of further examination.

  • 2.
    Gyllenpalm, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Experiments" and the Inquiry Emphasis Conflation in Science Teacher Education2011In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 908-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the use and role of the term experiment in science teacher education as described by teacher students. Data were collected through focus group interviews conducted at seven occasions with 32 students from six well-known Swedish universities. The theoretical framework is a sociocultural and pragmatist perspective on language and learning with the analysis based on the notion of pivot terms, introduced in an earlier article, to operationalize language use as habit and mediated action. The term experiment was found to be conflated with laboratory task and referred to as primarily a pedagogical activity in contrast to a research methodology, in line with the previously described inquiry emphasis conflation. The notion of controlled experiment was unfamiliar to most students and had not been explicitly discussed in terms of research methodology during their teacher education. The pedagogical meaning given to the term experiment is discussed in contrast to its use and function in scientific research. The possible problems of this conflation of terms are discussed in relation to the educational goal of teaching students about the nature of scientific inquiry. Recommendations for teacher education are discussed, and a heuristic model to use pivot terms to facilitate explicit reflection on unexamined customs of science education is introduced.

  • 3.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Beyond Explanations: What Else Do Students Need to Understand Science?2009In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 93, p. 1026-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ difficulties with learning science have generally been framed in terms of their generalized conceptual knowledge of a science topic as elicited through their explanations of natural phenomena. In this paper, we empirically explore what more goes into giving a scientific account of a natural phenomenon than giving such generalized explanations. We audio-recorded pairs of upper secondary students during lab-work in electrochemistry. We used a situative and pragmatist approach to study learning in action. This approach made it possible to study how the particulars and contingencies of working with a real electrochemical cell went into students’ reasoning. Our results show that students needed to learn to make distinctions, recognize, and name the particulars in encounters with their cell. They also needed to learn what counts as reasonable readings and to deal with quantitative issues and correlations pertaining to their cell. We refer to these additional learning requirements as the students’ taxonomic and measurement interests. Implications for what is involved in giving a scientific account of a natural phenomenon in school are discussed. The study constitutes an attempt to include, in a systematic way, also the particulars and contingencies of actual practice in an account of students’ reasoning in science.

  • 4.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Describing and Analyzing Learning in Action: An Empirical Study of the Importance of Misconceptions in Learning Science2008In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 141-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies, their role during the learning process is poorly examined. In this paper we use results from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We audio recorded talk between eight pairs of Swedish upper secondary students during a practical on electrochemical cells. Learning was operationalized on a discursive level as a description of what students do and say when taking part in an activity. This enabled an analysis of how encounters with misconceptions influenced the development of students’ reasoning, compared to other encounters during the learning experience. Misconceptions did not constrain the development of students’ reasoning. Rather, their reasoning developed in response to the contingencies of the specific situation. When misconceptions were encountered, they appeared as alternatives and questions not actively defended. Sometimes, encounters with these misconceptions were generative of the students’ reasoning. The results indicate that demonstrating misconceptions in interviews is not enough to assume that they interfere with learning in other contexts. Educational implications and future lines of research based on these findings and on the methodology applied are discussed.

  • 5.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Supporting students’ progression in science: Continuity between the particular, the contingent, and the general2013In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 113-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the relation between particular, contingent, and general aspects of a school science activity and show how they are intertwined in nontrivial ways as students give explanations for how a real galvanic cell works during conversations with a researcher. The conversations were examined by using practical epistemology analysis, which made it possible to follow students’ meaning making in detail. The analysis revealed interactions between generic explanations of electrochemistry and the distinctions and correlations that were connected to particulars and contingencies of the galvanic cell. Consequences of these interactions amounted to becoming reminded of knowledge one had come across before, being able to connect distinctions of particular features of the cell to generalized chemical explanations, and realizing which aspects may be excluded from the account. The results indicate that learning in science needs to be approached more as a contingent process than as something that progresses along one particular dimension. They show how students appropriate the sociocultural tools of science and how they situate what they learn in both the particular features of the activity and in the relevant science. Hence, there is a need for more inclusive accounts of how students progress toward increased competency in science.

  • 6.
    Larsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hallden, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    A Structural View on the Emergence of a Conception: Conceptual Change as Radical Reconstruction of Contexts2010In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 640-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptual change is often described as a causal process in which changes in an embraced system of beliefs result in a new system of beliefs. Here, it is argued that conceptual change is better understood as an intentional activity with regard to the learner, that is, what the learner is doing when trying to understand something. Children were interviewed every year during a period of 3 years from their ages of 4-6 years of age. In the study, there were 37 children participating, of which 29 were followed during all 3 years. They were asked to tell about their beliefs about the earth, and their developing understanding is described. The results show that in the conceptual changes the children's main concern was to restructure the often vast amount of knowledge they possessed. This reconstruction is described as a simultaneous reconstruction of conceptual contexts as well as contexts for their application. This also directs the focus of conceptual change from specific conceptions to structural changes.

  • 7.
    Lundegård, Iann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Putting the Cart Before the Horse: The Creation of Essences out of Processes in Science Education Research2014In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 127-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the problem of treating generalizations of human activity as entities and structures that ultimately explain the activities from which they were initially drawn. This is problematic because it involves a circular reasoning leading to unwarranted claims explaining the originally studied activities of science teaching and learning. Unlike other fields within social science research, this problem has not been appreciated and discussed in the science education literature and the field thus needs to be reminded of it. A heuristic specifically developed for the purposes of this article is applied to two examples taken from a much-cited research in the field. Through the examples it is argued that the practice of creating entities out of generalizations of science classroom activities leads to a number of unintended consequences. It is further argued that the stated purposes in the two example articleswould actually have been better served by investigating the entire processes through which the activities develop, as well as how the activities may change through teaching. The article concludes that through the search for explanations caused by underlying entities, science education research runs a risk of alienating its results from the activities from which it initially wanted to meliorate.

  • 8.
    Piqueras, Jesús
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Achiam, Marianne
    Science museum educators' professional growth: Dynamics of changes in research–practitioner collaboration2019In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 389-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educators' work is a key element in museums' learning experience, yet knowledge about their professional development is still limited. In this study, we followed three science museum educators' professional growth during collaboration with researchers, with special focus on the introduction of research‐based frameworks in their practice. To analyse the dynamics of educators' changes in knowledge, practices, and beliefs, we used the interconnected model of professional growth (Clarke & Hollingsworth, 2002. Teach Teacher Edu, 18, 947‐967). During the collaboration, key educators' changes were evidenced in a progressive acquisition of the concepts and ideas and their transformation in functional tools for museum practice. However, the anticipation of potential benefits of the use of the theoretical frameworks, as well as the close collaboration in dialogue between researchers and educators, were pivotal for the development of these changes. Furthermore, our results show the significance of the contextualization of the frameworks in familiar practices, exhibits, and specific science content to use the theory in new contexts. Overall, our results suggest that introducing research‐based frameworks in the work of museum educators was a successful approach in the collaboration but, at least to some extent, challenge the use of learning theories as solely ground for professional development in informal settings.

  • 9.
    Östman, Leif
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A Pragmatic Approach on Epistemology, Teaching, and Learning2014In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 9 of 9
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  • en-US
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  • nn-NO
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