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  • 1. Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    Sjödin, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Disruption of writing by background speech: Does sound source location and number of voices matter?2019In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 537-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual that people have to write in an environment where background speech is present. Background speech can vary in both speech intelligibility and location of the sound source. Earlier research has shown disruptive effects of background speech on writing performance. To expand and reinforce this knowledge, the present study investigated the role of number of voices and sound source location in the relation between background speech and writing performance. Participants wrote texts in quiet or in background speech consisting of one or seven voices talking simultaneously located in front of or behind them. Overall, one voice was more disruptive than seven voices talking simultaneously. Self-reports showed that sound from the front was more disruptive compared with sound from behind. Results are in line with theory of interference-by-process, attentional capture, and the cross-modal theory of attention. The relevance of the results for open-office environments is discussed.

  • 2. Leander, Lina
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granhag, Paer Anders
    Internet-Initiated Sexual Abuse: Adolescent Victims' Reports About On- and Off-Line Sexual Activities2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1260-1274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate how adolescent girls, who had been sexually (on- and off-line) deceived and abused by an Internet hebephile, reported about these acts. As we had access to documentation of 68 girls' conversations (i.e. chat logs) and involvement with the perpetrator, we were able to gauge what the victims reported during the police interview against this detailed documentation. In contrast with findings from previous research, the majority of victims reported about the off-line activities (real-life meetings) with the perpetrator. However, the victims omitted and/or denied more of the on-line activities, specifically the more severe sexual on-line acts (sending nude photos and participating in sexual web shows). There is probably a gap between what the victims reported and what they presumably remembered about the oil-line activities. Factors that might have affected the victims' pattern of reports are discussed.

  • 3.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Who can judge the accuracy of eyewitness statements? A comparison of professionals and lay-persons2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1301-1314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that people have difficulty estimating eyewitness accuracy. It is not known whether groups with professional experience of judging eyewitness memory are better at making such judgments than lay-persons. In the current study, police detectives, judges, and lay-persons judged accuracy of responses to cued recall questions from ethnic in- and out-group witnesses who genuinely tried to remember a crime. Responses were presented in videotape or as transcripts. Detectives outperformed the other groups in discrimination accuracy, and participants performed better when statements were presented in transcribed than in videotaped format. Judges used a liberal response criterion overall, whereas detectives and lay-persons were more liberal when judging out-group than in-group witnesses. Findings indicate that there are observable cues to witnesses’ accuracy, that specific professional groups have more knowledge of these cues than others, and that judgments of accuracy based on transcripts rather than live testimony would increase quality of legal decisions.

  • 4.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driving speed changes and subjective estimates of time savings, accident risks and braking2009In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 543-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants made decisions between two road improvements to increase mean speed. Time saved when speed increased from a higher driving speed was overestimated in relation to time saved from increases from lower speeds. In Study 2, participants matched pairs of speed increases so that they would give the same time saving and repeated the bias. The increase in risk of an accident with person injury was underestimated and the increase in risk of a fatal accident grossly underestimated when speed increased. The increase of stopping distance when speed increased was systematically underestimated. In Study 3, the tasks and results of Study 2 were repeated with engineering students. When forming opinions about speed limits and traffic planning, drivers, the public, politicians and others who do not collect the proper facts are liable to the same biases as those demonstrated in the present study.

  • 5. Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived Causes of Everyday Memory Problems in a Population-based Sample Aged 39-992011In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 641-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is usually a weak relation between memory complaints and laboratory memory performance, but few studies have investigated what people perceive as causes of their everyday memory problems. This study investigated prevalence, severity and perceived causes of memory problems in a population-based sample (N = 361, age-range 39-99). 30.2 per cent of the participants reported memory complaints (at least moderate memory problems). Higher age was associated with more severe memory problems, but the age-related differences were small. The most frequent perceived causes were age/ageing, stress and multitasking. Age/ageing as a cause was more frequent among older participants, and stress and multitasking were more frequent among middle-aged participants. The results suggest that everyday stress and level of engagement in multiple tasks or commitments, that place demands on cognitive resources, are important variables to consider when studying the relations between subjective everyday memory measures, age and memory performance in the laboratory.

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