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  • 1. Bjälkebring, Pär
    et al.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Slovic, Paul
    Regulation of Experienced and Anticipated Regret in Daily Decision Making2016In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions were sampled from 108 participants during 8 days using a web-based diary method. Each day participants rated experienced regret for a decision made, as well as forecasted regret for a decision to be made. Participants also indicated to what extent they used different strategies to prevent or regulate regret. Participants regretted 30% of decisions and forecasted regret in 70% of future decisions, indicating both that regret is relatively prevalent in daily decisions but also that experienced regret was less frequent than forecasted regret. In addition, a number of decision-specific regulation and prevention strategies were successfully used by the participants to minimize regret and negative emotions in daily decision making. Overall, these results suggest that regulation and prevention of regret are important strategies in many of our daily decisions.

  • 2. Brose, Annette
    et al.
    Lovden, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Schmiedek, Florian
    Daily Fluctuations in Positive Affect Positively Co-Vary With Working Memory Performance2014In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive affect is related to cognitive performance in multiple ways. It is associated with motivational aspects of performance, affective states capture attention, and information processing modes are a function of affect. In this study, we examined whether these links are relevant within individuals across time when they experience minor ups and downs of positive affect and work on cognitive tasks in the laboratory on a day-to-day basis. Using a microlongitudinal design, 101 younger adults (20-31 years of age) worked on 3 working memory tasks on about 100 occasions. Every day, they also reported on their momentary affect and their motivation to work on the tasks. In 2 of the 3 tasks, performance was enhanced on days when positive affect was above average. This performance enhancement was also associated with more motivation. Importantly, increases in task performance on days with above-average positive affect were mainly unrelated to variations in negative affect. This study's results are in line with between-person findings suggesting that high levels of well-being are associated with successful outcomes. They imply that success on cognitively demanding tasks is more likely on days when feeling happier.

  • 3. Brose, Annette
    et al.
    Schmiedek, Florian
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Daily variability in working memory is coupled with negative affect: the role of attention and motivation2012In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 605-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across days, individuals experience varying levels of negative affect, control of attention, and motivation. We investigated whether this intraindividual variability was coupled with daily fluctuations in working memory (WM) performance. In 100 days, 101 younger individuals worked on a spatial N-back task and rated negative affect, control of attention, and motivation. Results showed that individuals differed in how reliably WM performance fluctuated across days, and that subjective experiences were primarily linked to performance accuracy. WM performance was lower on days with higher levels of negative affect, reduced control of attention, and reduced task-related motivation. Thus, variables that were found to predict WM in between-subjects designs showed important relationships to WM at the within-person level. In addition, there was shared predictive variance among predictors of WM. Days with increased negative affect and reduced performance were also days with reduced control of attention and reduced motivation to work on tasks. These findings are in line with proposed mechanisms linking negative affect and cognitive performance.

  • 4. de Manzano, Orjan
    et al.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Harmat, László
    Ullén, Fredrik
    The psychophysiology of flow during piano playing2010In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 301-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expert performance is commonly accompanied by a subjective state of optimal experience called flow. Previous research has shown positive correlations between flow and quality of performance and suggests that flow may function as a reward signal that promotes practice. Here, piano playing was used as a flow-inducing behavior in order to analyze the relationship between subjective flow reports and psychophysiological measures. Professional classical pianists were asked to play a musical piece and then rate state flow. The performance was repeated five times in order to induce a variation in flow, keeping other factors constant, while recording the arterial pulse pressure waveform, respiration, head movements, and activity from the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major facial muscles. A significant relation was found between flow and heart period, blood pressure, heart rate variability, activity of the zygomaticus major muscle, and respiratory depth. These findings are discussed in relation to current models of emotion, attention, and expertise, and flow is proposed to be a state of effortless attention, which arises through an interaction between positive affect and high attention.

  • 5.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eerola, Tuomas
    Thingujam, Nutankumar S.
    Yamasaki, Teruo
    Beller, Gregory
    Universal and Culture-Specific Factors in the Recognition and Performance of Musical Affect Expressions2013In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 434-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.

  • 6.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neiberg, Daniel
    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger
    Evidence for cultural dialects in vocal emotion expression: acoustic classification within and across five nations2014In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 445-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of cultural differences in the fundamental acoustic patterns used to express emotion through the voice is an unanswered question central to the larger debate about the universality versus cultural specificity of emotion. This study used emotionally inflected standard-content speech segments expressing 11 emotions produced by 100 professional actors from 5 English-speaking cultures. Machine learning simulations were employed to classify expressions based on their acoustic features, using conditions where training and testing were conducted on stimuli coming from either the same or different cultures. A wide range of emotions were classified with above-chance accuracy in cross-cultural conditions, suggesting vocal expressions share important characteristics across cultures. However, classification showed an in-group advantage with higher accuracy in within- versus cross-cultural conditions. This finding demonstrates cultural differences in expressive vocal style, and supports the dialect theory of emotions according to which greater recognition of expressions from in-group members results from greater familiarity with culturally specific expressive styles.

  • 7.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peira, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Golkar, Armita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Öhman, Arne
    Recognizing masked threat: Fear betrays, but disgust you can trust2008In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 810-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If emotions guide consciousness, people may recognize degraded objects in center view more accurately if they either fear the objects or are disgusted by them. Therefore, we studied whether recognition of spiders and snakes correlates with individual differences in spider fear, snake fear, and disgust sensitivity. Female students performed a recognition task with pictures of spiders, snakes, flowers, and mushrooms as well as blanks. Pictures were backward masked to reduce picture visibility. Signal detection analyses showed that recognition of spiders and snakes was correlated with disgust sensitivity but not with fear of spiders or snakes. Further, spider fear correlated with the tendency to misinterpret blanks as threatening (response bias). These findings suggest that effects on recognition and response biases to emotional pictures vary for different emotions and emotional traits. Whereas fear may induce response biases, disgust may facilitate recognition.

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