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  • 1. Andreasen, Katarina
    et al.
    Manktelow, Mariette
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Successful DNA amplification of a more than 200-year-old herbarium specimen: recovering genetic material from the Linnaean era2009In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 959-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The limit for successful DNA extraction was tested by amplification and sequencing of an over 200-year-old herbarium specimen collected by Adam Afzelius, a student of Carl Linnaeus. We amplified and sequenced a 800-bp region between 16S ribosomal DNA and the 3′ part of the trnI gene (16S-trnI) in the chloroplast genomeof Phaulopsis talbotii S. Moore (Acanthaceae). To test the replicability and to control for contamination the procedure was performed in sealed vials and with negative PCR controls. The procedure was also repeated in a separate laboratory. In addition, the chloroplast rpl16 intron was successfully amplified and sequenced and the rps16 intron amplified. Sequences of taxa closely related to Acanthaceae were found to be most similar to the produced sequences. The results suggest that molecular investigations of other 18th century botanical collections are feasible and that molecular methods could be employed for comparative studies to extant plant collections. An important application would be to identify descendants or clones of Linnaean lectotypes by comparing DNA from these with potentially remnant plants from Linnaeus’ cultivations.

  • 2. Bengtson, Annika
    et al.
    Englund, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Pruski, John F.
    Anderberg, Arne A.
    Phylogeny of the Athroismeae (Asteraceae), with a new circumscription of the tribe2017In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 408-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Athroismeae is a small tribe of the Asteraceae-Asteroideae, the members of which show considerable variation in morphology. A molecular phylogenetic study of the tribe is presented for the first time, based on plastid (ndhF, trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF) and nuclear data (ETS, ITS). The phylogenetic relationships between the different genera within Athroismeae are discussed, and in addition, three unispecific genera: Anisochaeta, Artemisiopsis and Symphyllocarpus as well as Duhaldea (Inula) stuhlmannii, all earlier placed in other tribes, are here shown to belong within Athroismeae. Symphyllocarpus is sister to Centipeda and the earlier Symphyllocarpinae includes Centipedinae in synonymy. Furthermore, Cardosoa and Philyrophyllum are found to be integrated within Anisopappus and their generic status cannot be maintained. An outline of an amended circumscription of the Athroismeae is presented, with three new combinations and a description of the new subtribe Lowryanthinae.

  • 3.
    Bolmgren, Kjell
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Oxelman, Bengt
    Generic limits in Rhamnus s.l. L. (Rhamnaceae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence phylogenies.2004In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 383-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested the monophyly of the previously proposed genera Alaternus, Frangula, Oreoherzogia, and Rhamnus s.str., and the phylogenetic relations suggested by Grubov (1949), within the Rhamnus s.l. clade.Based on a global sample of 22 species, we derived phylogenetic hypotheses using parsimony analysis of variation in trnL-F (chloroplast) and ITS (nuclear) DNA regions. Both Alaternus, Frangula, and Oreoherzogia gained strong support, and our results further support recognition of Frangula as a monophyletic genus. The resolution between Alaternus, Oreoherzogia, and the rest of Rhamnus s.str. was less clear, and the mainly Mediterranean Oreoherzogia was strongly grouped with the American R. crocea. Therefore, we consider it as unjustified to split the rest of Rhamnus into smaller genera. Regarding Grubov's phylogenetic hypothesis, our study could only support the dichotomy between Frangula and the rest of Rhamnus.

  • 4. De Block, Petra
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Janssens, Steven
    Ochoterena, Helga
    Robbrecht, Elmar
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Molecular phylogenetics and generic assessment in the tribe Pavetteae (Rubiaceae)2015In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 79-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first phylogenetic study focused on the Pavetteae, one of the most species-rich and morphologically diverse tribes within the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Fifteen of the 17 currently recognized genera, represented by 85 taxa, were sequenced for rps16, trnT-F and ITS and analysed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. The monophyly of the Pavetteae is confirmed. Four major lineages are identified, but their phylogenetic relationships are not fully resolved. The continental African genera Rutidea, Nichallea and Tennantia, the Madagascan genera Homollea and Robbrechtia, and the paleotropical genus Pavetta are monophyletic. Other genera are paraphyletic in their current circumscriptions and the following changes are made: Homolliella is placed in synonymy with Paracephaelis, and Coleactina and Dictyandra with Leptactina, resulting in four new combinations. The large paleotropical genus Tarenna is shown not to be monophyletic. In the future, the name Tarenna should not be used for continental African species. Most of these could be transferred to the hitherto monospecific genus Cladoceras, but other species might constitute altogether new genera. The relationship between the monophyletic Asian-Pacific and Madagascan Tarenna species remains unclear. The phylogeny of the Madagascan genera of the Pavetteae is largely unresolved and the largest Madagascar-centred genus Coptosperma was not recovered as monophyletic. The low resolution for the Madagascan taxa can be considered as an indication of rapid radiation. Further molecular and morphological studies are necessary to clarify the phylogeny of the Pavetteae, especially regarding the African Tarenna species and the Madagascan genera of the tribe.

  • 5.
    Ginter, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Phylogenetic affinities of Myrioneuron and Cyanoneuron, generic limits of the tribe Argostemmateae and description of a new Asian tribe, Cyanoneuroneae (Rubiaceae)2015In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 286-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Argostemmateae (Rubiaceae, subfam. Rubioideae) are a mostly tropical Asian group of about 200 species currently classified in four morphologically distinct genera (Argostemma, Mouretia, Mycetia, Neohymenopogon). The monophyly of the tribe and Mycetia is strongly supported by molecular data, however, the tropical Asian genus Myrioneuron, traditionally associated with Mycetia based on its berry fruits, has not previously been investigated. The Bornean and Sulawesian genus Cyanoneuron, described based on the species of Myrioneuron with drupaceous fruits, had not been sequenced. Therefore, the phylogenetic positions of Cyanoneuron and Myrioneuron within Rubiaceae and their generic status have yet to be assessed with molecular data. These genera have tentatively been placed in tribe Spermacoceae (Rubioideae). We reconstructed a robust phylogeny of Rubioideae with sequence data from five plastid regions of 176 accessions and using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo and parsimony methods. Once the positions of Cyanoneuron and Myrioneuron were revealed, a robust phylogeny of the Spermacoceae alliance was reconstructed with the combined plastid and nuclear data (nrETS, nrITS) from 61 accessions to reassess its tribal limits. Mycetia and Myrioneuron are non-monophyletic and intermixed, and formed a well-supported clade diagnosed by berry fruits. We formally transfer Myrioneuron to Mycetia (older name), and present nine new combinations in the latter genus. Cyanoneuron was resolved with high support as monophyletic, and appears to be closely related to the Chinese monogeneric tribes Foonchewieae and Dunnieae. A new tribe Cyanoneuroneae is described to accommodate Cyanoneuron. This tribe is morphologically distinct from related tribes by its stipules apically divided into multiple linear segments, condensed-cymose inflorescences and drupe-like fruits with numerous small seeds. A new key to the genera of Argostemmateae is provided.

  • 6.
    Hou, Chen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Humphreys, Aelys M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Imperial College London, England.
    Thureborn, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Rydin, Catarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    New insights into the evolutionary history of Gnetum (Gnetales)2015In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 239-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gnetum (Gnetales: Gnetaceae) constitutes an evolutionarily isolated gymnosperm clade, comprising about 40 species that inhabit tropical areas of the world. While its closest living relative, the monotypic Welwitschia, has a well-documented fossil record from the Early Cretaceous, Gnetum-like fossils are rare and poorly understood. The phylogeny of Gnetum has been studied previously but the distant relationship to outgroups and the difficulty of obtaining plant material mean it is not yet fully resolved. Most species are tropical lianas with an angiospermous vegetative habit that are difficult to find and identify. Here a new phylogeny is presented based on nuclear and chloroplast data from 58 Gnetum accessions, representing 27 putative species, and outgroup information from other seed plants. The results provide support for South American species being sister to the remaining species. The two African species constitute a monophyletic group, sister to an Asian clade, within which the two arborescent species of the genus are the earliest diverging. Estimated divergence times indicate, in contrast with previous results, that the major lineages of Gnetum diverged in the Late Cretaceous. This result is obtained regardless of tree prior used in the BEAST analyses (Yule or birth-death). Together these findings suggest a correlation between early divergence events in extant Gnetum and the breakup of Gondwana in the Cretaceous. Compared to the old stem ages of major subclades of Gnetum, crown nodes date to the Cenozoic: the Asian crown group dates to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, the African crown group to the mid-Paleogene, and the South American crown group to the Paleogene-Neogene boundary. Although dispersal must have contributed to the current distribution of Gnetum, e.g., within South America and from Southeast Asian islands to the East Asian mainland, dispersal has apparently not occurred across major oceans, at least not during the Cenozoic.

  • 7.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Phylogeny of Euclinia and allied genera of Gardenieae (Rubiaceae), and description of Melanoxerus, an endemic genus of Madagascar2014In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 819-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Randia clade of the tribe Gardenieae using both plastid and nuclear DNA data. In the phylogenetic hypotheses presented, the African genera Calochone, Euclinia, Macrosphyra, Oligocodon, Pleiocoryne, and Preussiodora are resolved as a monophyletic group. Support is also found for a clade of the Neotropical genera Casasia, Randia, Rosenbergiodendron, Sphinctanthus, and Tocoyena. This Neotropical clade is resolved as sister group to the African clade in analyses of combined plastid and nuclear data. The genus Euclinia appears polyphyletic. The species described from Madagascar represent an independent lineage, the position of which is moreover found to be incongruent between datasets. Plastid and ribosomal DNA data support a sister-group relationship to the mainland African clade, whereas the low-copy nuclear gene Xdh supports a closer relationship to the Neotropical genera. The phylogenetic reconstructions also indicate that Casasia and Randia are not monophyletic as presently circumscribed. A taxonomic proposal is made for the recognition of the Malagasy taxon at generic level as Melanoxerus.

  • 8.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Mouly, Arnaud
    Khodabandeh, Anbar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Alberteae (Rubiaceae), with description of a new genus, Razafimandimbisonia2009In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 757-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tribe Alberteae, presently classified in the subfamily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae), has historically been an artificial grouping of genera. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses of the chloroplast DNA markers rbcL, ndhF, trnS-G, trnT-F and trnH-psbA as well as the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, are done to assess the delimitation of Alberteae. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis is highly resolved, with most clades strongly supported. The genus Alberta is found to be paraphyletic as presently circumscribed. As a consequence, we propose the new genus Razafimandimbisonia Kainul. & B. Bremer to accommodate the Malagasy species. The newly delimited Alberta is distinguished by having two calycophylls that expand after anthesis as well as awl-shaped stigma lobes. Razafimandimbisonia is distinguished from the remaining Alberteae by having dehiscent fruits and anthers without basal appendages. We demonstrate that the genera Airosperma, Boholia and Crossopteryx are not associated with Alberteae, as has previously been suggested. Alberteae is considered restricted to the genus Alberta endemic to Southeast Africa, and the two Malagasy endemic genera Nematostylis and Razafimandimbisonia.

  • 9.
    Krüger, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Danaideae (Rubiaceae: Rubioideae): Another example of out-of-Madagascar dispersal2012In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 629-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive efforts have been made to resolve the phylogeny of the large coffee family (Rubiaceae) based on molecular data. As a result, several small tribes have been described, but the phylogenies and generic delimitations for many of these groups remain unclear. This study focuses on the small tribe Danaideae that belongs to subfamily Rubioideae and whose generic limits have not previously been addressed with molecular data. It is the sole rubiaceous tribe distributed almost entirely in the Western Indian Ocean region, with the exception of the East African Danais xanthorrhoea. The tribe consists of three genera: Danais, Payera (including the monotypic genus Coursiana), and Schismatoclada. We present the first molecular phylogenetic study of Danaideae including representatives from all three genera and using Bayesian and maximum parsimony methods and sequence data from nuclear DNA (nrITS) and chloroplast DNA (petD, psbA-trnH, rpl32-trnL(UAG), rps16). Our main objectives were to rigorously test the monophyly of Danaideae as currently circumscribed and assess phylogenetic relationships within the tribe. The findings of this study shed light on the colonization history of the tribe. Our analyses reaffirm the monophyly of Danaideae and Danais but reveal the paraphyly of Payera and Schismatoclada. The close relationship between the three Danaideae genera and Coursiana is supported. However, we found very little support for the inclusion of the latter genus in Payera as proposed earlier. The tribe is resolved in two morphologically distinct major lineages, the highly supported Damns clade with lianescent habit (= Danais sensu Buchner & Puff) and the Payera-Schismatoclada clade with arborescent habit. The Malagasy and Mauritian specimens of Danais fragrans are not closely related, and we restrict D. fragrans to the Mauritian taxa and resurrect Danais lyallii Baker to accommodate the Malagasy D. fragrans. According to our analysis. Madagascar is the origin of all species of Danaideae occurring in the Comoro archipelago, East Africa, and Mauritius. The Mauritian and East African Danais each is the result of a single colonization event, while there were at least two independent colonization events to the Comoros.

  • 10. Lens, Frederic
    et al.
    Karehed, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Baas, Pieter
    Jansen, Steven
    Rabaey, David
    Huysmans, Suzy
    Hamann, Thomas
    Smets, Erik
    The wood anatomy of the polyphyletic Icacinaceae s.l., and their relationships within asterids2008In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 525-552Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood samples from 53 species belonging to 41 genera of the Icacinaceae s.l. are investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The traditionally circumscribed leacinaceae fall apart into four segregate families that are clearly nested within asterids, i.e., Icacinaceae s.str. (near or in Garryales), Cardiopteridaceae and Stemonuraceae (both Aquifoliales), and Pennantiaceae (Apiales). From a wood anatomical point of view, these families cannot easily be distinguished from each other. However, some features such as vessel distribution, perforation plate morphology, size and arrangement of vessel pits, fibre wall thickness, and the occurrence of cambial variants can be used to assign various species to one of the four families. The wood structure of the four segregate families is in general agreement with their suggested putative relatives, but the occurrence of lianas versus erect trees and shrubs is a confusing factor in getting clear phylogenetic signal from the wood structure. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses using molecular data and combined anatomical-molecular data show that Icacinaceae s.str. are not monophyletic, and their closest relatives remain unclear. The combined analyses provide moderate support for a clade including Cassinopsis, the Apodytes-group, the Emmotum-group (all Icacinaceae s.str.), and the genus Oncotheca. This clade is situated at the base of lamiids and may be closely related to Garryales. The remaining lineage of Icacinaceae s.str., the Icacina-group represented by many climbing taxa exhibiting cambial variants, is strongly supported and might be sister to the rest of lamiids.

  • 11. McDade, Lucinda A.
    et al.
    Daniel, Thomas F.
    Kiel, Carrie A.
    Borg, Agneta Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Phylogenetic placement, delimitation, and relationships among genera of the enigmatic Nelsonioideae (Lamiales: Acanthaceae)2012In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 637-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We took a two-tiered approach to test monophyly of Nelsonioideae and place the group within Lamiales, and to determine relationships among taxa within the group. Phylogenetic analysis of a molecular dataset (ndhF+trnL-F) for a broad sample of Lamiales supports monophyly of Nelsonioideae and places the clade with strong support as sister to a lineage composed of all other plants treated as Acanthaceae (Avicennia, Thunbergioideae, Acanthoideae). We propose to treat this entire group as Acanthaceae s.l. and hypothesize that indurate, explosively dehiscent capsules are a synapomorphy for the family, albeit with autapomorphic fruit types in Avicennia and Mendoncia. These results further support monophyly of family-level groups that have emerged from recent studies of Lamiales but are largely unsuccessful in resolving relationships among these groups, as also encountered by other workers. Our results contradict some aspects of relationships that have seemed resolved by earlier studies, notably among Byblidaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Thomandersia, and other Lamiales. Among Nelsonioideae, analysis of sequence data from rapidly evolving genic regions (trnS-G, ndhF-rpl32+rpl32-trnL((UAG)), nrITS) and a larger sample of nelsonioids (i.e., all genera and multiple taxa to represent the diversity of species-rich genera) indicates that Nelsonia and Elytraria are monophyletic with strong support, but with only moderate support for Nelsonia as the first branching clade and Elytraria sister to the remaining nelsonioids. An African clade comprising monospecific Saintpauliopsis sister to Anisosepalum (two of three species sampled) is sister to a clade that includes all sampled members of pantropical Staurogyne plus New World Gynocraterium and Asian Ophiorrhiziphyllon. Gynocraterium is sister to all sampled members of New World Staurogyne; this last clade is sister to a clade comprising the other sampled Staurogyne plus Ophiorrhiziphyllon, which is nested among Asian Staurogyne. The taxonomic implications of these patterns of relationship are discussed. Our results suggest that Nelsonioideae have a complex history of inter-continental dispersals compared to other lineages of Acanthaceae of similar to much larger size in terms of number of species, making it an interesting group for biogeographic study.

  • 12.
    Mouly, Arnaud
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Persson, Claes
    Davis, Aaron P.
    Wong, Khoon Meng
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Phylogenetic structure and clade circumscriptions in the Gardenieae complex (Rubiaceae)2014In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 801-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the large and diverse Rubiaceae-Gardenieae and closely related tribes Bertiereae, Coffeeae, Cremasporeae, Octotropideae, and Pavetteae. Some of the tribes or groups have been shown to be monophyletic and strongly supported, but the phylogeny of this large complex is still far from being satisfactorily elucidated particularly for Gardenieae, both in terms of intertribal relationships as well as tribal delimitations. We reconstruct the phylogeny of the complex using an extensive sampling of 108 genera and five plastid DNA regions. Phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that Gardenieae sensu Andreasen & Bremer is polyphyletic, as Burchellia, Didymosalpinx, Monosalpinx, and Mantalania are closer to Octotropideae-Cremasporeae. In addition, Pavetteae and the investigated members of Aulacocalyceae are nested in a supported but partially unresolved Gardenieae-Pavetteae clade. Within this clade, several strongly supported groups are resolved: an Aidia group, an Alibertia group, a Gardenia group, Pavetteae including Pelagodendron, a Porterandia group, a Randia group, a Rothmannia group (including Aulacocalyx and Heinsenia), a Sherbournia group, and the two isolated genera Massularia and Schumanniophyton. The latter genus presented a high rate of genetic substitutions, which resulted in perturbations of the phylogenetic reconstruction. A revised tribal circumscription is given for Gardenieae, the Alibertia group is recognized at tribal level as an emended Cordiereae, and a new tribe, Sherbournieae, is described to accommodate the members of the Sherbournia group.

  • 13. Neupane, Suman
    et al.
    Dessein, Steven
    Wikström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lewis, Paul O.
    Long, Chunlin
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Motley, Timothy J.
    The Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae) in Asia and the Pacific: Phylogeny revisited with new generic delimitations2015In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 299-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hedyotis and related genera (here called the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex) are highly debated groups in the Rubiaceae family with no consensus to date on their generic delimitations. The present study focuses on Asian-Pacific taxa from these groups and aims at resolving taxonomic inconsistencies by describing monophyletic genera within the complex. The generic circumscriptions presented in our study are based on the phylogenetic trees of nuclear (ITS, ETS) and plastid (petD, rps16) sequence data inferred using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. Morphological key features of the group such as habit, fruit type, seed form, and pollen type are studied and compared with the phylogeny to characterize the clades. Based on these results, the Asian-Pacific members are placed in 14 monophyletic groups across the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex. Of these, we accept and circumscribe 13 monophyletic genera: Debia, Dentella, Dimetia, Edrastima, Exallage, Hedyotis, Involucrella, Kadua, Kohautia, Leptopetalum, Neanotis, Oldenlandia, and Scleromitrion. Two of these, Debia and Involucrella, are here described as new genera.

  • 14. Rakotoarivelo, Fanny P.
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Mallet, Bertrand
    Faliniaina, Lucien
    Pailler, Thierry
    Molecular systematics and evolutionary trends and relationships in the genus Jumellea (Orchidaceae): Implications for its species limits2012In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 534-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jumellea is an orchid genus centered on Madagascar but also occurs on some of the neighboring oceanic islands (the Mascarenes and Comoros) and in southern and eastern Africa. Prior to our study the genus contained ca. 55 morphologically distinct species, of which six are found in the Comoros (three endemic, three shared with Madagascar), nine in the Mascarenes (four endemic, four shared with Madagascar), two in southern and eastern Africa (both endemic), and 41 species endemic to Madagascar. We perform Bayesian and parsimony phylogenetic analyses of Jumellea based on combined chloroplast (matK, trnL-F, rps16, ycf1) and nuclear (nrITS) data from 60 specimens representing 47 species, four subspecies, and two varieties of Jumellea: (1) to assess the phylogenetic value of growth form, leaf, bract and lip shape, and spur length, presently used for recognizing informal groups within the genus; and (2) to test the monophyly of some variable species (e.g., J. gracilipes, J. lignosa). We find no support for the informal groups of Jumellea, as all the characters tested are evolutionarily labile. Jumellea lignosa (comprising J. lignosa subsp. lignosa, subsp. tenuibracteata, subsp. actuissima, and subsp. latilabia) is not monophyletic unless subsp. tenuibracteata is excluded. Jumellea gracilipes s.l. (including J. ambongensis, J. imerinensis, and J. unguicularis) is polyphyletic. As a result, we resurrect these three latter species, and recognize J. lignosa subsp. tenuibracteata at species level. Furthermore, we propose new circumscriptions for the following species: the Comorian J. arachnantha (including the Malagasy J. sagittata); the Reunionese J. exilis (including the Malagasy J. flavescens); the Reunionese J. recta (including the Malagasy Jumellea sp. I); the Reunionese J. recurva (including the Malagasy J. pandurata); and the Reunionese J. stenophylla (including the Malagasy J. gracilipes 2 and 3). Finally, Jumellea arborescens and J. maxillarioides are recorded from Madagascar and the Comoros. Finally, the number of species of Jumellea has now increased from 55 to 57: seven species in the Comoros (four shared with Madagascar), nine species in the Mascarenes (four shared with Madagascar), two species in Africa, and 39 species, three subspecies, and two varieties restricted to Madagascar.

  • 15.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Wong, Khoon M.
    Beaver, Katy
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Molecular support for a basal grade of morphologically distinct, monotypic genera in the species-rich Vanguerieae alliance (Rubiaceae, Ixoroideae): Its systematic and conservation implications2011In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 941-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many monotypic genera with unique apomorphic characters have been difficult to place in the morphology-based classifications of the coffee family (Rubiaceae). We rigorously assessed the subfamilial phylogenetic position and generic status of three enigmatic genera, the Seychellois Glionnetia, the Southeast Asian Jackiopsis, and the Chinese Trailliaedoxa within Rubiaceae, using sequence data of four plastid markers (ndhF, rbcL, rps16, trnT-F). The present study provides molecular phylogenetic support for positions of these genera in the subfamily Ixoroideae, and reveals the presence of a basal grade of morphologically distinct, monotypic genera (Crossopteryx,Jackiopsis,Scyphiphora,Trailliaedoxa, and Glionnetia, respectively) in the species-rich Vanguerieae alliance. These five genera may represent sole representatives of their respective lineages and therefore may carry unique genetic information. Their conservation status was assessed, applying the criteria set in IUCN Red List Categories. We consider Glionnetia and Jackiopsis Endangered. Scyphiphora is recognized as Near Threatened despite its extensive range and Crossopteryx as Least Concern. Trailliaedoxa is poorly known (Data Deficient). Finally, the generic status of Glionnetia,Jackiopsis, and Trailliaedoxa and the monogeneric tribe Jackieae as defined by Ridsdale are supported.

  • 16.
    Rydin, Catarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Khodabandeh, Anbar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Evolutionary relationships in the Spermacoceae alliance (Rubiaceae) using information from six molecular loci: insights into systematic affinities of Neohymenopogon and Mouretia2009In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 793-810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent phylogenetic studies of Rubiaceae have dealt with enigmatic taxa whose systematic positions have been previously unknown or controversial. We address evolutionary relationships in the Spermacoceae alliance (Rubioideae) with special emphasis on the Asian genera Mouretia and Neohymenopogon, here sequenced for the first time. Both genera belong in the tribe Argostemmateae and have persistent calyx lobeson the fruit in common with Argostemma and Mycetia. Other previous uncertainties are resolved with strong support; Saprosma is sister to Paederieae s.str. and Carpacoce is sister to remaining Anthospermeae. Our results further reveal some phylogenetic problems. Danaideae is sister to remaining taxa in the Spermacoceae alliance with high posterior probability, which contradicts results in a recent study. The uncertainty concerning evolutionary relationships of Dunnia and Theligonum is reinforced, despite a denser taxon sampling in the Spermacoceae alliance compared with earlier studies. We also demonstrate yet another example of the controversial correlation between molecular substitution rate and plant life history.

  • 17.
    Smedmark, Jenny E. E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Molecular systematics and incongruent gene trees of Urophylleae (Rubiaceae)2011In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 1397-1406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phylogeny of the Pantropical tribe Urophylleae is poorly understood. Earlier phylogenetic work has identified major evolutionary lineages within the group, each geographically restricted to a single continent, but relationships among taxa within these lineages are so far largely unresolved. This study uses parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Urophylleae. The results show that there are conflicts between cpDNA and nrDNA regarding species-level relationships within Pauridiantha, Urophyllum, and Amphidasya, which provides evidence of a complex genetic history. Different types of tests are used to explore the magnitude of the incongruence and locate the exact nodes in the two gene trees that are in conflict. This approach makes it possible to use the topology from the combined analysis, despite the separate datasets being strongly incongruent, since areas of the tree that are free from conflict can be identified. Based on the results presented in this study, Urophylleae is indicated to consist of Temnopteryx, Raritebe, Amphidasya, Urophyllum s.l., Pauridiantha s.l., and Pentaloncha. Several genera are shown to be nested inside Pauridiantha, two of which have already been included in Pauridiantha based on other data (Pamplethantha, Commitheca), and two which are included in this genus here (Poecilocalyx, Stelechantha). Likewise, three genera are shown to be ingroups in Urophyllum (Pravinaria, Maschalocorymbus, Pleiocarpidia), and are therefore subsumed under this genus. New combinations under Pauridiantha are proposed for three species in Poecilocalyx and three species in Stelechantha, as well as new combinations under Urophyllum for two species in Pravinaria and 17 species in Pleiocarpidia. For one of the latter species a new name is presented to avoid homonymy.

  • 18.
    Stångberg, Frida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ellis, Allan A. G.
    Anderberg, Arne A.
    Evolutionary relationships in Gorteria: A re-evaluation2013In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 537-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A molecular phylogeny of the mainly South African genus Gorteria is presented for the first time, based on Bayesian inference and parsimony analyses using DNA sequences from plastid trnL-F and from nuclear ETS and ITS regions. It is shown that the genus is strongly paraphyletic in relation to one subgroup of Hirpicium, a finding that changes the prevailing generic concept and circumscription of Gorteria and Hirpicium. Furthermore, Gorteria diffusa and G. personata both seem to be polyphyletic assemblages, comprised of some more or less well diagnosed monophyletic groups with different distributions.

  • 19. Thulin, Mats
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Chafe, Paul
    Heidari, Nahid
    Kool, Anneleen
    Shore, Joel S.
    Phylogeny of the Turneraceae clade (Passifloraceae s.l.): Trans-Atlantic disjunctions and two new genera in Afric2012In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 308-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turneraceae, with just over 200 species in 10 genera, is today often included in a widely circumscribed Passifloraceae. The vast majority of the species are found in the New World, whereas generic diversity is largest in the Old World. According to current circumscriptions, three of the genera show trans-Atlantic disjunctions: Turnera with over 135 species in America and two species in Africa (one in the south-western and one in the north-eastern part), Piriqueta with 44 species in America and one in southern Africa, and Erblichia with one species in Central America and four in Madagascar. The phylogeny of Turneraceae is reconstructed based on DNA sequences from plastid trnL-F and nuclear ITS and sampling for all genera, including both New and Old World species for the trans-Atlantic groups to test their monophyly. The genera of Turneraceae form a strongly supported monophyletic group, the Turneraceae clade, within Passifloraceae s.l. The phylogeny is geographically structured, with one clade comprising American species only, except for the two African species of Turnera, and another clade with all other African species plus the Central American Erblichia odorata. Turnera is retrieved as monophyletic with the two African species appearing as close relatives of T. ulmifolia, the type of Turnera. The existence of a trans-Atlantic disjunction in Turnera is therefore supported. It is most likely caused by long-distance dispersal and estimated to be not older than late Miocene. In Piriqueta only the American species are supported as a monophyletic group, whereas the single African species is resolved as a member of the African clade. The trans-Atlantic disjunction in Piriqueta is therefore not supported and the African species is proposed to be placed in a genus of its own, Afroqueta gen. nov., as Afroqueta capensis comb. nov. Erblichia on Madagascar is supported as sister to Mathurina, a genus endemic to Rodrigues Island in the Mascarenes, and does not group with E. odorata in Central America, the type of Erblichia. The trans-Atlantic disjunction in Erblichia is therefore not supported either and the genus Arboa gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate the four Malagasy species, Arboa integrifolia comb. nov., Arboa berneriana comb. nov., Arboa madagascariensis comb. nov., and Arboa antsingyae comb. nov.

  • 20.
    Wanntorp, Livia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Pollinaria of Hoya (Marsdenieae, Apocynaceae): shedding light on molecular phylogenetics2007In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 465-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First molecular phylogenies of Hoya failed to reveal many intrageneric relationships, emphasizing the need to find additional phylogenetic characters. Thirty-five species, covering the morphological and geographic variation of Hoya, were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thirteen phylogenetically informative characters were scored and studied in the light of an available phylogenetic tree. Species attributed to the Acanthostemma-group share pollinaria with obliquely elongate pollinia on broad-winged caudicles, synapomorphies that also link H. anulata and H. lacunosa to this group, the latter found in a disparate position in the phylogenetic tree. The pollinaria of H. sussuela fit well with those of the other species of section Eriostemma in having pollinia with twisted caudicles, a square corpusculum, and without pellucid margins. The absence of pellucid margins on the pollinia, is also characteristic of H. mitrata and H. darwinii. Australian/New Guinean species generally have obovate pollinia basally protruding outwards and thick rhomboid corpuscula, supporting a monophyletic Australian/New Guinean clade, as suggested by phylogenetic studies. Hoya australis from Australia and H. albiflora from New Guinea have identical pollinaria indicating the possibility that these taxa are conspecific, as also shown in the phylogenetic tree. Several of the examined characters of the pollinaria, of Hoya are useful in inferring phylogenetic relationships, indicating the utility of pollinarium morphology in this genus.

  • 21.
    Wikström, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Neupane, Suman
    Karehed, Jesper
    Motley, Timothy J.
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Bergius Botanical Garden Museum.
    Phylogeny of Hedyotis L. (Rubiaceae Spermacoceae): Redefining a complex Asian-Pacific assemblage2013In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 357-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genus Hedyotis (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae) has long served as a repository for tropical herbaceous species that do not fit readily into other genera. Circumscribed broadly the genus becomes a highly heterogeneous assembly, but relationships of Hedyotis have been difficult to resolve and it has proven very difficult to circumscribe the genus in a more narrow sense. Here we present Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of Hedyotis using plastid (rps16, petD) and nuclear (ITS, ETS) sequence data to resolve monophyletic lineages, to test former taxonomic hypotheses, and to revise the taxa within a well-supported evolutionary framework. Four hundred and sixty-seven sequences representing 129 accessions, never previously included in any phylogenetic analyses, are newly reported. Hedyotis, as previously circumscribed, is polyphyletic, but all investigated species, except for Hedyotis coronaria, are resolved in one of three well-supported monophyletic groups. The largest clade includes all investigated species of Hedyotis from the Indian subcontinent as well as three groups of species with primarily Chinese distributions. The type species of Hedyotis (H. fruticosa) is resolved with the Indian subcontinent species and following previous suggestions this group is referred to as Hedyotis s.str. Species currently recognized under the generic names Metabolos and Pleiocraterium are resolved in Hedyotis s.str. The second-largest group comprises a series of smaller, but well-supported, clades including the Leptopetalum clade, the genus Kadua, an unnamed group distributed in Asia and the Pacific, and a large Asian group referred to here as the ExallagelDimetia clade. The third group includes a few SE Asian Hedyotis, as well as all investigated species of the genus Neanotis. Hedyotis coronaria is not closely related to other species from Asia and is resolved with Spern2acoce hispida. The analyses indicate that diplophragmous capsules and fruticosa-type seeds occur outside of Hedyotis s.str., and several species suggested to have these features are resolved in the ExallagelDimetia clade. Species suggested to have indehiscent capsules, a feature used by Bremekamp to characterize the genus Exallage, are also resolved in both the ExallagelDimetia clade and in Hedyotis s.str., but a close examination indicates that the capsules are not truly indehiscent in the Hedyotis s.str. species. One species of Metabolos and one species of Pleiocraterium are given new species names, and one species of Pleiocrateriam is transferred to Hedyotis and three species of Hedyotis are transferred to Neanotis.

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