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  • 1.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Sassano, Alessia
    Coni, Valentina
    Salomonsson, Martina
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blocked vs. interleaved presentation and proactive interference in episodic memory2018In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 697-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of theoretical accounts of proactive interference (PI) in episodic memory have been proposed, existing empirical evidence does not support conclusively a single view yet. In two experiments we tested the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI against alternative accounts by manipulating the presentation schedule of study materials (lists blocked by category vs. interleaved). In line with the temporal discrimination theory, we observed a clear buildup of (and release from) PI in the blocked condition, in which all the lists of the same category were presented sequentially. In the interleaved condition, with alternating lists of different categories, a more gradual and smoother buildup of PI was observed. When participants were left free to choose their presentation schedule, they spontaneously adopted an interleaved schedule, resulting again in more gradual PI. After longer delays, we observed recency effects at the list level in overall recall and, in the blocked condition, PI-related effects. The overall pattern of findings agrees with the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI, complemented with categorical processing of list items, but not with alternative accounts, shedding light on the dynamics and underpinnings of PI under diverse presentation schedules and over different time scales.

  • 2. Gonneaud, Julie
    et al.
    Kalpouzos, Gregoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Bon, Laetitia
    Viader, Fausto
    Eustache, Francis
    Desgranges, Beatrice
    Distinct and shared cognitive functions mediate event- and time-based prospective memory impairment in normal ageing2011In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 360-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an action at a specific point in the future. Regarded as multidimensional, PM involves several cognitive functions that are known to be impaired in normal ageing. In the present study we set out to investigate the cognitive correlates of PM impairment in normal ageing. Manipulating cognitive load, we assessed event- and time-based PM, as well as several cognitive functions, including executive functions, working memory, and retrospective episodic memory, in healthy participants covering the entire adulthood. We found that normal ageing was characterised by PM decline in all conditions and that event-based PM was more sensitive to the effects of ageing than time-based PM. Whatever the conditions, PM was linked to inhibition and processing speed. However, while event-based PM was mainly mediated by binding and retrospective memory processes, time-based PM was mainly related to inhibition. The only distinction between high- and low-load PM cognitive correlates lies in an additional, but marginal, correlation between updating and the high-load PM condition. The association of distinct cognitive functions, as well as shared mechanisms with event- and time-based PM, confirm that each type of PM relies on a different set of processes.

  • 3.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schwartz, Bennett L.
    Department of Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Ease-of-learning judgments are based on both processing fluency and beliefs2017In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 807-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing fluency influences many types of judgments. Some metacognitive research suggests that the influence of processing fluency may be mediated by participants’ beliefs. The current study explores the influence of processing fluency and beliefs on ease-of-learning (EOL) judgments. In two experiments (Exp 1: n = 94; Exp 2: n = 146), participants made EOL judgments on 24 six-letter concrete nouns, presented in either a constant condition (high fluency) with upper-case letters (e.g., BUCKET) or an alternating condition (low fluency) with mixed upper- and lower-case letters (e.g., bUcKeT). After judging words individually, participants studied the words and completed a free recall test. Finally, participants indicated what condition they believed made the words more likely to be learned. Results show constant-condition words were judged as more likely to be learned than alternating condition words, but the difference varied with beliefs. Specifically, the difference was biggest when participants believed the constant condition made words more likely to be learned, followed by believing there was no difference, and then believing the alternating condition made words more likely to be learned. Thus, we showed that processing fluency has a direct effect on EOL judgments, but the effect is moderated by beliefs.

  • 4.
    Lovén, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Rehnman, Jenny
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peira, Nathalie
    Herlitz, Agneta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Who are you looking at?: The influence of face gender on visual attention and memory for own- and other-race faces2012In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 321-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that the own-race bias (ORB) in memory for faces is a result of other-race faces receiving less visual attention at encoding. As women typically display an own-gender bias in memory for faces and men do not, we investigated whether face gender and sex of viewer influenced visual attention and memory for own- and other-race faces, and if preferential viewing of own-race faces contributed to the ORB in memory. Participants viewed pairs of female or male own- and other-race faces while their viewing time was recorded. Afterwards, they completed a surprise memory test. We found that (1) other-race males received the initial focus of attention, (2) own-race faces were viewed longer than other-race faces over time, although the difference was larger for female faces, and (3) even though longer viewing time increased the probability of remembering a face, it did not explain the magnified ORB in memory for female faces. Importantly, these findings highlight that face gender moderates attentional responses to and memory for own- and other-race faces.

  • 5. Tempel, Tobias
    et al.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Test-potentiated learning of motor sequences2017In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 326-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated effects of retrieving body movements from memory on subsequent re-encoding of these movements (i.e., test-potentiated learning). In Experiment 1, participants first learned to perform 12 sequential finger movements as responses to letter stimuli. Eight of these movements then had to be recalled in response to their stimuli (initial test). Subsequently, learning trials were repeated for four of the previously to-be-retrieved movements as well as the previously not-to-be-retrieved movements. Restudy benefited from prior retrieval. In a final test, again requiring motoric recall in response to letter stimuli, performance was better for restudied items that were previously cued for retrieval as compared to items that had been restudied without prior retrieval. However, no such indirect testing benefit occurred when initial and final testing formats were incongruent, that is, when participants had to recall the stimuli in response to movements as cues at the final test. In Experiment 2, we replicated the finding of test-potentiated learning with a different design, manipulating initial-testing status between participants.

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