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  • 1. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Khanbani, Mehdi
    Abdollahi Ghahfarokhi, Shahyar
    Emotional intelligence moderates perceived stress and suicidal ideation among depressed adolescent inpatients2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 102, p. 223-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because it remains one of the third leading causes of death among adolescents around the world, suicide is a major public health concern. This study was designed in response to this concern by examining the relationships among perceived stress, emotional intelligence, and suicidal ideation and to test the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation. A sample of depressed adolescents (n = 202) was recruited from five hospitals in Tehran, Iran, and then asked to complete measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, perceived stress, and emotional intelligence. Structural Equation Modeling showed that depressed adolescent in-patients with high levels of perceived stress and low levels of emotional intelligence were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multi-group analysis indicated that depressed in-patients high in both perceived stress and emotional intelligence had less suicidal ideation than others. The findings support the notion that perceived stress acts as a vulnerability factor that increase suicidal ideation among depressed inpatients. Suicidal history moderated the relationship between emotional intelligence and suicidal ideation. These findings also highlight the importance of emotional intelligence as a buffer in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation.

  • 2.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Granskaya, J
    Birath Scheffel, C
    Beijer, U
    Tsvetkova, L
    Personality characteristics and perceived health in Russian and Swedish female young adults with alcohol drinking habits2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, no Suppl., p. S64-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 4. Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social identity and prejudiced personality2010In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 317-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the relation between personality and prejudice varies as a function of identity salience but previous empirical results are not conclusive. Extending previous research, we conducted an experimental study (N = 122) with pre- and post-manipulation measures of personality, and a postmanipulation measurement of prejudice, under conditions of control (no identity manipulation), personal or national identity. The results revealed no differences in the magnitude of the personality–prejudice correlations across conditions, neither for the pre- nor post-manipulation scores. Correlations based on pre- and post-manipulation variables, within each condition, did not differ significantly either. This indicates that neither prejudice nor personality variables were affected by identity salience. Thus, the study provides no support for the contention that the personality–prejudice relation varies as a function of social identity.

  • 5. Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Golsteyn, Bart H.H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Heckman, James
    Humphries, John Eric
    Identification problems in personality psychology2011In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and illustrates identification problems in personality psychology. The measures usedby psychologists to infer traits are based on behaviors, broadly defined. These behaviors are producedfrom multiple traits interacting with incentives in situations. In general, measures are determined bythese multiple traits and do not identify any particular trait unless incentives and other traits are controlledfor. Using two data sets, we show, that substantial portions of the variance in achievement testscores and grades, which are often used as measures of cognition, are explained by personality variables. 

  • 6. Chen, Bin-Bin
    et al.
    Wiium, Nora
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Factor structure of positive youth development: Contributions of exploratory structural equation modeling2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 124, p. 12-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The five Cs model of positive youth development describes adolescents' development as reflecting five distinct but related domains of Competence, Confidence, Character, Connection, and Caring. This research used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to test the five Cs model in a Chinese sample of 384 adolescents (49.6% males; mean of age = 15.13 years old). The results showed that ESEM had better fit and relatively smaller factor correlations than CFA. In addition, factors such as Connection and Caring were well defined by their target indicators, although several non-target indicators significantly loaded onto Confidence factor in ESEM analysis. These results suggest that the correlations between some factors might be greatly overestimated in previous research based on CFA. The implication that ESEM is a more appropriate approach for testing the factor structure of the five Cs model of PYD is discussed.

  • 7.
    Hadlaczky, Gergö
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dalkvist, Jan
    The effects of automatic and controlled processing on the perception of remarkable coincidences with regard to paranormal beliefIn: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inferior probabilistic reasoning skills and loose associations have been suggested to affect the propensity to experience coincidences, and thereby to lead to the development of belief in the paranormal. Whether probabilistic skills and loose associations affect the automatic reaction of surprise, or the subsequent cognitively controlled analysis, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this explorative study was to look at how sensitivity to coincidences is affected by requiring participants to assess coincidences in probabilistic terms (reflecting controlled processing) compared to  relying on the emotion of surprise (automatic processing), with belief in the paranormal and loose associative processing as hypothetical moderator variables. Based on an experiment that exposed participants to fabricated coincidences, it was concluded that relying on automatic processing may affect judgments of coincidences differently than relying on controlled processing, but only when individual differences in paranormal belief and associative processing are taken into account.

  • 8.
    Johnson, Maarit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Active and passive maladaptive behaviour patterns mediate the relationship between contingent self-esteem and health2011In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 178-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with an impoverished basic self-acceptance are compelled to seek external reassurances of their own value and to cope with the threats and challenges of social life by different compensatory behaviours. The present study examines the links between competence based self-esteem (CBSE) and relation based self-esteem (RBSE) (Johnson & Blom, 2007), active and passive maladaptive socio-behavioural styles and health status. The active style was indicated by hostile perfectionistic strivings whereas the passive style was indicated by avoidance and emotion suppression. In a cross-sectional design 284 Swedish adults completed personality and health questionnaires. The results showed that CBSE is a stronger predictor of poor physical health than RBSE and that the relation is primarily mediated by an active toxic style, whereas the role of RBSE for health appears purely indirect, mediated by a passive repressive style. An additional finding was that the two types of contingent SE and socio-behavioural styles were associated with different kinds of health problems.

  • 9.
    Johnson, Maarit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Patterns of extreme responses to items in self-esteem scales: Does conceptualisation and item content matter?2013In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 622-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-esteem (SE) scales are particularly susceptible for various response-sets. Systematic response alterations, often mirroring self-presentational item characteristics, can be triggered differentially depending on the content of items in a scale. The present study examined extreme responding to items in the global SE scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and the basic SE scale (Forsman & Johnson, 1996). The results showed that global SE scores were determined to a higher extent by extreme responses, in particular rejecting negative item content, than basic self-esteem scores. The implications of self-presentation contra self-esteem for an asymmetry in response patterns between the two scales are discussed.

  • 10.
    Johnson, Maarit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Relations between explicit and implicit self-esteem measures and self-presentation2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 95, p. 159-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three explicit self-esteem measures with different conceptualization and item content were compared with regard to their association with implicit self-esteem (SE) and positive self-presentation. The results revealed a pattern where affective–experiential basic SE appears to have more similarity with implicit self-esteem than cognitive–evaluative general SE measures. Basic SE was the only explicit SE measure that predicted significantly implicit self-esteem. Most of the self-presentational styles lacked association with implicit SE and basic SE but played a substantial role for the general SE scales. The results suggest the importance of considering self-report measures potential to tap unbiased self-esteem.

  • 11.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hultell, Daniel
    Rudman, Ann
    Gustavsson, J. Petter
    Change and stability in subjective well-being over the transition from higher education to employment2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 70, p. 188-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition from higher education (HE) to employment is an anticipated life event experienced by many adults. This transition involves further socialization into work but is typically paralleled by other life changes. While the negative effects of such transitions have been investigated, little is known about changes in subjective well-being (SWB). This study set out to investigate SWB trajectories in terms of affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) in the transition from HE to employment. Data came from a seven-year nationwide longitudinal cohort study where student nurses (N=1702) were assessed annually. Longitudinal analyses showed a positive effect, particularly on AWB, of leaving higher education and starting work. Yet the effects decreased over time, suggesting that individuals over time adapt to this anticipated life event and that other factors, including challenges at work, influence long-term SWB. Consistent with previous findings, demographic factors had little impact, which may partly relate to the relative homogeneity of the student cohort. In showing that an anticipated life event such as the transition from HE to employment is paralleled by differential AWB and CWB trajectories, this study furthers the understanding of individual development as related to SWB during adulthood.

  • 12.
    Maitland, Scott B.
    et al.
    University of Guelph, ON, Canada.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nisson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet.
    On the structure of personality: Are there separate temperament and character factors?2009In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 180-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a widely used measure of psychobiological aspects of personality. Theoretically, the TCI is defined as comprising four temperament and three character factors. Most previous examinations of the factor structure have used exploratory factor methods with mixed results. We used confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the TCI in a sample of 2423 adults aged 35–90 years (1093 women, 1330 men) from the Betula study. Support for the seven TCI factors was mixed. Models including second-order factors provided no evidence that the seven first-order TCI factors reflect higher-order temperament and character constructs. Our findings provide no support that individual differences on the seven first-order TCI factors reflect distinct temperament or character dimensions of personality. Whereas more complex modeling strategies rejected separate character and temperament models, the simultaneous (seven-factor) model, and the use of second-order factors; the harm avoidance, self-directedness, and cooperativeness factors were acceptable examined individually. Results for novelty seeking were marginal and self-transcendence, reward dependence and/or persistence factors were not acceptable.

  • 13. Sorjonen, Kimmo
    et al.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Melin, Bo
    Male height and marital status2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 104, p. 336-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using conscription data and follow ups from a large representative sample of Swedish men, and in accordance with earlier studies, we found a bell shaped association between male height and the hazard-for not being unmarried. The shape of this association was not affected by indicators of health and socioeconomic status and it might, instead, be due to microeconomic factors such as supply and market value. A negative linear association between male height and the hazard for divorce once married was also found, and this association was accounted for by indicators of socioeconomic status.

  • 14. Sveen, Josefin
    et al.
    Arnberg, Filip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Arinell, Hans
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    The role of personality traits in trajectories of long-term posttraumatic stress and general distress six years after the tsunami in Southeast Asia2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 97, p. 134-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims were to examine whether trajectories of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general distress are related to personality traits and to investigate personality's contributing factor to PTS and general distress. The sample was 2549 Swedish tourists who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and responded to postal surveys at 1, 3 and 6 years after the tsunami, including assessment of personality traits, PTS and general distress. The sample was categorized into a direct exposure group and an indirect exposure comparison group. For both PTS and general distress, individuals with a resilient trajectory were lower in the trait neuroticism than those in the symptomatic trajectories whereas there were no differences in personality traits between the resilient trajectory and the low exposure comparison group. Neuroticism was strongly related to trajectories of both PTS and general distress even when adjusting for important risk factors such as traumatic bereavement and exposure severity. Other personality traits demonstrated weak associations with the trajectories. The present findings correspond with the notion of neuroticism as a vulnerability factor for symptomatic long-term trajectories of posttraumatic and general distress whereas resiliency was not predicated by particularly low levels of neuroticism.

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