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  • 1. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Khanbani, Mehdi
    Abdollahi Ghahfarokhi, Shahyar
    Emotional intelligence moderates perceived stress and suicidal ideation among depressed adolescent inpatients2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 102, p. 223-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because it remains one of the third leading causes of death among adolescents around the world, suicide is a major public health concern. This study was designed in response to this concern by examining the relationships among perceived stress, emotional intelligence, and suicidal ideation and to test the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation. A sample of depressed adolescents (n = 202) was recruited from five hospitals in Tehran, Iran, and then asked to complete measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, perceived stress, and emotional intelligence. Structural Equation Modeling showed that depressed adolescent in-patients with high levels of perceived stress and low levels of emotional intelligence were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multi-group analysis indicated that depressed in-patients high in both perceived stress and emotional intelligence had less suicidal ideation than others. The findings support the notion that perceived stress acts as a vulnerability factor that increase suicidal ideation among depressed inpatients. Suicidal history moderated the relationship between emotional intelligence and suicidal ideation. These findings also highlight the importance of emotional intelligence as a buffer in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation.

  • 2.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Granskaya, J
    Birath Scheffel, C
    Beijer, U
    Tsvetkova, L
    Personality characteristics and perceived health in Russian and Swedish female young adults with alcohol drinking habits2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, no Suppl., p. S64-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 4.
    Berggren, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kaati, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Pelzer, Björn
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Stiff, Harald
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Lukas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The generalizability of machine learning models of personality across two text domains2024In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 217, article id 112465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning of high-dimensional models have received attention for their ability to predict psychological variables, such as personality. However, it has been less examined to what degree such models are capable of generalizing across domains. Across two text domains (Reddit message and personal essays), compared to low-dimensional- and theoretical models, atheoretical high-dimensional models provided superior predictive accuracy within but poor/non-significant predictive accuracy across domains. Thus, complex models depended more on the specifics of the trained domain. Further, when examining predictors of models, few survived across domains. We argue that theory remains important when conducting prediction-focused studies and that research on both high- and low-dimensional models benefit from establishing conditions under which they generalize.

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  • 5. Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social identity and prejudiced personality2010In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 317-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the relation between personality and prejudice varies as a function of identity salience but previous empirical results are not conclusive. Extending previous research, we conducted an experimental study (N = 122) with pre- and post-manipulation measures of personality, and a postmanipulation measurement of prejudice, under conditions of control (no identity manipulation), personal or national identity. The results revealed no differences in the magnitude of the personality–prejudice correlations across conditions, neither for the pre- nor post-manipulation scores. Correlations based on pre- and post-manipulation variables, within each condition, did not differ significantly either. This indicates that neither prejudice nor personality variables were affected by identity salience. Thus, the study provides no support for the contention that the personality–prejudice relation varies as a function of social identity.

  • 6. Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Heckman, James
    Humphries, John Eric
    Identification problems in personality psychology2011In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and illustrates identification problems in personality psychology. The measures usedby psychologists to infer traits are based on behaviors, broadly defined. These behaviors are producedfrom multiple traits interacting with incentives in situations. In general, measures are determined bythese multiple traits and do not identify any particular trait unless incentives and other traits are controlledfor. Using two data sets, we show, that substantial portions of the variance in achievement testscores and grades, which are often used as measures of cognition, are explained by personality variables. 

  • 7. Chen, Bin-Bin
    et al.
    Wiium, Nora
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Factor structure of positive youth development: Contributions of exploratory structural equation modeling2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 124, p. 12-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The five Cs model of positive youth development describes adolescents' development as reflecting five distinct but related domains of Competence, Confidence, Character, Connection, and Caring. This research used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to test the five Cs model in a Chinese sample of 384 adolescents (49.6% males; mean of age = 15.13 years old). The results showed that ESEM had better fit and relatively smaller factor correlations than CFA. In addition, factors such as Connection and Caring were well defined by their target indicators, although several non-target indicators significantly loaded onto Confidence factor in ESEM analysis. These results suggest that the correlations between some factors might be greatly overestimated in previous research based on CFA. The implication that ESEM is a more appropriate approach for testing the factor structure of the five Cs model of PYD is discussed.

  • 8.
    Hadlaczky, Gergö
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dalkvist, Jan
    The effects of automatic and controlled processing on the perception of remarkable coincidences with regard to paranormal beliefIn: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inferior probabilistic reasoning skills and loose associations have been suggested to affect the propensity to experience coincidences, and thereby to lead to the development of belief in the paranormal. Whether probabilistic skills and loose associations affect the automatic reaction of surprise, or the subsequent cognitively controlled analysis, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this explorative study was to look at how sensitivity to coincidences is affected by requiring participants to assess coincidences in probabilistic terms (reflecting controlled processing) compared to  relying on the emotion of surprise (automatic processing), with belief in the paranormal and loose associative processing as hypothetical moderator variables. Based on an experiment that exposed participants to fabricated coincidences, it was concluded that relying on automatic processing may affect judgments of coincidences differently than relying on controlled processing, but only when individual differences in paranormal belief and associative processing are taken into account.

  • 9.
    Johnson, Maarit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Active and passive maladaptive behaviour patterns mediate the relationship between contingent self-esteem and health2011In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 178-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with an impoverished basic self-acceptance are compelled to seek external reassurances of their own value and to cope with the threats and challenges of social life by different compensatory behaviours. The present study examines the links between competence based self-esteem (CBSE) and relation based self-esteem (RBSE) (Johnson & Blom, 2007), active and passive maladaptive socio-behavioural styles and health status. The active style was indicated by hostile perfectionistic strivings whereas the passive style was indicated by avoidance and emotion suppression. In a cross-sectional design 284 Swedish adults completed personality and health questionnaires. The results showed that CBSE is a stronger predictor of poor physical health than RBSE and that the relation is primarily mediated by an active toxic style, whereas the role of RBSE for health appears purely indirect, mediated by a passive repressive style. An additional finding was that the two types of contingent SE and socio-behavioural styles were associated with different kinds of health problems.

  • 10.
    Johnson, Maarit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Patterns of extreme responses to items in self-esteem scales: Does conceptualisation and item content matter?2013In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 622-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-esteem (SE) scales are particularly susceptible for various response-sets. Systematic response alterations, often mirroring self-presentational item characteristics, can be triggered differentially depending on the content of items in a scale. The present study examined extreme responding to items in the global SE scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and the basic SE scale (Forsman & Johnson, 1996). The results showed that global SE scores were determined to a higher extent by extreme responses, in particular rejecting negative item content, than basic self-esteem scores. The implications of self-presentation contra self-esteem for an asymmetry in response patterns between the two scales are discussed.

  • 11.
    Johnson, Maarit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Relations between explicit and implicit self-esteem measures and self-presentation2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 95, p. 159-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three explicit self-esteem measures with different conceptualization and item content were compared with regard to their association with implicit self-esteem (SE) and positive self-presentation. The results revealed a pattern where affective–experiential basic SE appears to have more similarity with implicit self-esteem than cognitive–evaluative general SE measures. Basic SE was the only explicit SE measure that predicted significantly implicit self-esteem. Most of the self-presentational styles lacked association with implicit SE and basic SE but played a substantial role for the general SE scales. The results suggest the importance of considering self-report measures potential to tap unbiased self-esteem.

  • 12.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hultell, Daniel
    Rudman, Ann
    Gustavsson, J. Petter
    Change and stability in subjective well-being over the transition from higher education to employment2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 70, p. 188-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition from higher education (HE) to employment is an anticipated life event experienced by many adults. This transition involves further socialization into work but is typically paralleled by other life changes. While the negative effects of such transitions have been investigated, little is known about changes in subjective well-being (SWB). This study set out to investigate SWB trajectories in terms of affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) in the transition from HE to employment. Data came from a seven-year nationwide longitudinal cohort study where student nurses (N=1702) were assessed annually. Longitudinal analyses showed a positive effect, particularly on AWB, of leaving higher education and starting work. Yet the effects decreased over time, suggesting that individuals over time adapt to this anticipated life event and that other factors, including challenges at work, influence long-term SWB. Consistent with previous findings, demographic factors had little impact, which may partly relate to the relative homogeneity of the student cohort. In showing that an anticipated life event such as the transition from HE to employment is paralleled by differential AWB and CWB trajectories, this study furthers the understanding of individual development as related to SWB during adulthood.

  • 13.
    Maitland, Scott B.
    et al.
    University of Guelph, ON, Canada.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nisson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet.
    On the structure of personality: Are there separate temperament and character factors?2009In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 180-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a widely used measure of psychobiological aspects of personality. Theoretically, the TCI is defined as comprising four temperament and three character factors. Most previous examinations of the factor structure have used exploratory factor methods with mixed results. We used confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the TCI in a sample of 2423 adults aged 35–90 years (1093 women, 1330 men) from the Betula study. Support for the seven TCI factors was mixed. Models including second-order factors provided no evidence that the seven first-order TCI factors reflect higher-order temperament and character constructs. Our findings provide no support that individual differences on the seven first-order TCI factors reflect distinct temperament or character dimensions of personality. Whereas more complex modeling strategies rejected separate character and temperament models, the simultaneous (seven-factor) model, and the use of second-order factors; the harm avoidance, self-directedness, and cooperativeness factors were acceptable examined individually. Results for novelty seeking were marginal and self-transcendence, reward dependence and/or persistence factors were not acceptable.

  • 14. Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Koposov, Roman
    Oreland, Lars
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Grigorenko, Elena L.
    Dopamine-related receptors, substance dependence, behavioral problems and personality among juvenile delinquents2021In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 169, article id 109849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was two-fold: to examine possible associations between dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms and (1) substance dependence; and (2) self-reported psychiatric disturbances, behavioral problems, and personality. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP: s) in COMT, DAT and DRD4 was conducted in 174 Russian male juvenile inmates (14–18 years of age) subdivided into having a diagnosis of substance dependence or not, as assessed by using K-SADS-PL. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing psychiatric symptoms (CPTS-RI, BDI), behavioral problems (YSR), and personality traits (TCI). Results revealed that juveniles meeting the criteria for substance dependence differed significantly from their counterparts in four polymorphisms, namely COMT rs737865, DAT rs6347, DRD4 C_1611535 and DRD4 exon III; and exact binary regression analysis indicated a highly significant association between the DRD4 C_1611535 GG genotype and substance dependence. One-way ANOVA tests further showed this gene polymorphism variant to be significantly associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, thought problems, aggressive behavior, and personality traits indicating antisocial personality disturbances, as compared with the other gene polymorphism variants. In conclusion, the results underscore the role of the DRD4 polymorphism C_1611535 GG genotype for substance dependence, and suggest its associations with different self-reported phenotype characteristics.

  • 15. Sorjonen, Kimmo
    et al.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Melin, Bo
    Male height and marital status2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 104, p. 336-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using conscription data and follow ups from a large representative sample of Swedish men, and in accordance with earlier studies, we found a bell shaped association between male height and the hazard-for not being unmarried. The shape of this association was not affected by indicators of health and socioeconomic status and it might, instead, be due to microeconomic factors such as supply and market value. A negative linear association between male height and the hazard for divorce once married was also found, and this association was accounted for by indicators of socioeconomic status.

  • 16. Sorjonen, Kimmo
    et al.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Melin, Bo
    Intelligence, consistency, and Emerson's dilemma2020In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 160, article id 109943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a large representative sample of Swedish male conscripts (N = 49,246), we demonstrate a positive association between measured intelligence and response consistency on items measuring endorsement of a strong military defense. This association is accentuated, to some degree, by an apparent difficulty to handle reversed items among those with low measured intelligence. Consequently, due to regression toward the mean, reversed items in measurement instruments would tend to have a negative effect on statistical power when analyzing the association between whatever the instrument is measuring and intelligence. On the other hand, the presence of reversed items could mitigate bias in the measurement due to an acquiescent response style among those with low measured intelligence. Lack of motivation/carelessness and inadequate reading ability among some subjects are two possible confounders for the found association in the present study.

  • 17. Sorjonen, Kimmo
    et al.
    Melin, Bo
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lord's paradox in latent change score modeling: An example involving facilitating longitudinal effects between intelligence and academic achievement2022In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 189, article id 111520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been claimed that intelligence causes academic achievement to increase over time, and that also, conversely, academic achievement causes intelligence to increase over time. This bidirectional facilitating longitudinal effect between intelligence and academic achievement rests on observed associations between initial intelligence and the change in academic achievement between an initial and a subsequent measurement, and vice versa. Here, we demonstrate, through simulating empirical data used in previous research, that such longitudinal associations may be due to regression toward the mean rather than a true facilitating effect. Regression toward the mean occurs due to the conditioning of change on the initial value on the outcome variable. Researchers should be aware of this fallacy and are recommended to verify their findings with analyses without adjustment for an initial value on the outcome.

  • 18. Sorjonen, Kimmo
    et al.
    Melin, Bo
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Spurious heritability of ability tilts: A comment on Coyle et al. (2023)2024In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 217, article id 112471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ability tilts refer to within-individual differences between two abilities, e.g. math ability - verbal ability. Coyle et al. (2023) found ability tilts to be genetically heritable and concluded that ability tilts are genuine and, presumably, genetically coded individual characteristics. Moreover, Coyle et al. found a large portion of variance in ability tilts to be attributable to non-shared environmental factors (i.e. environmentability), which they interpreted to indicate that ability tilts are potentially generated by niche-picking. However, through simulations we show that heritability and environmentability of X-Y tilts are spurious consequences of heritability and environmentability of the constituent variables X and Y. Furthermore, we reanalyzed data used by Coyle et al. and show that the logic of their arguments would lead to the conclusions, for example, that the human genome codes for a difference between head circumference and verbal ability and that some individuals have picked a niche that includes a long nose at the expense of spatial ability. We do not find these conclusions tenable and propose, instead, that heritability and environmentability of tilts are spurious consequences of heritability and environmentability of the constituent variables.

  • 19. Sorjonen, Kimmo
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Institute for Globally Distributed Open Research and Education (IGDORE), Sweden.
    Melin, Bo
    Spurious correlations in research on ability tilt2022In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 185, article id 111268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ability tilt refers to a within-individual difference between two abilities (X-Y), e.g. differences between tech and verbal or verbal and math abilities. Studies have found associations between ability tilts and their constituent abilities (X or Y). Here we show that such associations may be spurious due to the non-independence of the two measures. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), we find that associations between ability and ability tilt may simply be due to more positive associations between two measures of the same or similar abilities compared to two measures of different or dissimilar abilities. This finding calls into question theoretical interpretations that have proposed that ability tilt correlations are due to differential investment of time and effort in one ability at the expense of the other ability.

  • 20. Sorjonen, Kimmo
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Berlin Institute of Health at Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
    Melin, Bo
    Ingre, Michael
    Uncertain inference in random intercept cross-lagged panel models: An example involving need for cognition and anxiety and depression symptoms2023In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 201, article id 111925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using random-intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPM), researchers have concluded that within-individual need for cognition (WI-NFC) negatively affects subsequent within-individual anxiety and depression symptoms (WI-ADS). However, RI-CLPM may be susceptible to spurious results due to regression to the mean. We investigated the risk of spurious associations by fitting two different RI-CLPM:s and evaluating whether results were consistent. A traditional RI-CLPM, an alternative RI-CLPM where covariance between WI-NFC and WI-ADS at the same wave was replaced by a directional regression effect, as well as a stable trait, autoregressive trait, state (STARTS) model, were fitted to data from a representative community-dwelling Dutch sample. Both the traditional and the alternative RI-CLPM indicated a negative effect of initial WI-NFC on subsequent WI-ADS. However, while the former effect implies a negative association the latter effect implies, contrarily, that an increase in WI-NFC predicted an increase in WI-ADS. The STARTS model indicated strong autoregressive effects but no cross-lagged effects between WI-NFC and WI-ADS. Spurious effects may occur in RI-CLPM due to regression to the mean. Specifically, a cross-lagged effect of WI-NFC on subsequent WI-ADS, demonstrated in earlier research, may be spurious.

  • 21. Sveen, Josefin
    et al.
    Arnberg, Filip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Arinell, Hans
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    The role of personality traits in trajectories of long-term posttraumatic stress and general distress six years after the tsunami in Southeast Asia2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 97, p. 134-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims were to examine whether trajectories of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general distress are related to personality traits and to investigate personality's contributing factor to PTS and general distress. The sample was 2549 Swedish tourists who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and responded to postal surveys at 1, 3 and 6 years after the tsunami, including assessment of personality traits, PTS and general distress. The sample was categorized into a direct exposure group and an indirect exposure comparison group. For both PTS and general distress, individuals with a resilient trajectory were lower in the trait neuroticism than those in the symptomatic trajectories whereas there were no differences in personality traits between the resilient trajectory and the low exposure comparison group. Neuroticism was strongly related to trajectories of both PTS and general distress even when adjusting for important risk factors such as traumatic bereavement and exposure severity. Other personality traits demonstrated weak associations with the trajectories. The present findings correspond with the notion of neuroticism as a vulnerability factor for symptomatic long-term trajectories of posttraumatic and general distress whereas resiliency was not predicated by particularly low levels of neuroticism.

  • 22. Tedeholm, Peter G.
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Larsson, Agneta C.
    Personality traits among Swedish counterterrorism intervention unit police officers: A comparison with the general population2021In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 168, article id 110411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Counter terrorism intervention units (CTIUs) in the police or in military forces are typically deployed for assignments such as combating terrorist operations, making high-risk arrests, and managing hostage situations. However, only few studies have examined the personality traits characterising the police officers who work in these challenging situations. The present study aims to investigate possible differences in the personality profiles between Swedish CTIU police officers (n = 57) and the general Swedish population using the five-factor model of personality. At the factor level, the findings revealed that CTIU police officers had low neuroticism (Cohen's d = 0.7), high extraversion (Cohen's d = 0.7), and high conscientiousness (Cohen's d = 0.4). At the facet level, CTIU police officers exhibited low levels of vulnerability (Cohen's d = 0.8), angry hostility (Cohen's d= 0.7), anxiety (Cohen's d= 0.6) and high levels of excitement-seeking (Cohen's d= 0.9), positive emotions (Cohen's d= 0.6) and activity (Cohen's d= 0.6) in comparison with the general population. The study findings reveal the existence of specific personality differences between Swedish CTIU police officers and the general population.

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