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  • 1.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Generalized Prejudice: Common and Specific Components2011Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 57-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examined the personality-prejudice relationship and whether personality and social psychological factors predict different aspects of prejudice. We proposed a distinction between a common component of prejudice that is mainly explained by personality and a specific component mainly explained by situational and group-specific variables. Whereas the former consists of the shared variance of prejudice toward different targets, the latter taps the variance that is unique to a certain type of prejudice. Statistically separating the two components of prejudice toward four target groups, we found that personality variables (Agreeableness and Openness to Experience) explained a substantial portion of the variance of the common but a small share of the specific component. We also found group membership (gender) to be more closely associated with the specific than the common component of sexism. The results support our proposed distinction and suggest that personality and social psychological variables explain distinct aspects of prejudice.

  • 2. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Montero-Melis, Guillermo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Damjanovic, Ljubica
    Schartner, Alina
    Kibbe, Alexandra
    Riches, Nick
    Thierry, Guillaume
    Two Languages, Two Minds: Flexible Cognitive Processing Driven by Language of Operation2015Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 518-526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People make sense of objects and events around them by classifying them into identifiable categories. The extent to which language affects this process has been the focus of a long-standing debate: Do different languages cause their speakers to behave differently? Here, we show that fluent German-English bilinguals categorize motion events according to the grammatical constraints of the language in which they operate. First, as predicted from cross-linguistic differences in motion encoding, bilingual participants functioning in a German testing context prefer to match events on the basis of motion completion to a greater extent than do bilingual participants in an English context. Second, when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in English, their categorization behavior is congruent with that predicted for German; when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in German, their categorization becomes congruent with that predicted for English. These findings show that language effects on cognition are context-bound and transient, revealing unprecedented levels of malleability in human cognition.

  • 3. Haeffel, Gerald J.
    et al.
    Getchell, Marya
    Koposov, Roman A.
    Yrigollen, Carolyn M.
    DeYoung, Colin
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Oreland, Lars
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
    Grigorenko, Elena L.
    Association Between Polymorphisms in the Dopamine Transporter Gene and Depression: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction in a Sample of Juvenile Detainees2008Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 62-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has generated examples of how genetic and environmental factors can interact to create risk for psychopathology. Using a gene-by-environment (G × E) interaction design, we tested whether three polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, also referred to as SLC6A3, located at 5p15.33) interacted with maternal parenting style to predict first-onset episodes of depression. Participants were male adolescents (<i>N</i>= 176) recruited from a juvenile detention center in northern Russia. As hypothesized, one of the polymorphisms (rs40184) moderated the effect of perceived maternal rejection on the onset of major depressive disorder, as well as on suicidal ideation. Further, this G × E interaction was specific to depression; it did not predict clinically significant anxiety. These results highlight the need for further research investigating the moderating effects of dopaminergic genes on depression.

  • 4.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Gender Differences in Multitasking Reflect Spatial Ability2013Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 514-520Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  • 5.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Questioning Anecdotal Beliefs and Scientific Findings: A Reply to Strayer, Medeiros-Ward, and Watson (2013)2013Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 811-812Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Nilsson, Jonna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Lebedev, Alexander V.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Rydström, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Direct-Current Stimulation Does Little to Improve the Outcome of Working Memory Training in Older Adults2017Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 907-920Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The promise of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) as a modulator of cognition has appealed to researchers, media, and the general public. Researchers have suggested that tDCS may increase effects of cognitive training. In this study of 123 older adults, we examined the interactive effects of 20 sessions of anodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex (vs. sham tDCS) and simultaneous working memory training (vs. control training) on change in cognitive abilities. Stimulation did not modulate gains from pre- to posttest on latent factors of either trained or untrained tasks in a statistically significant manner. A supporting meta-analysis (n = 266), including younger as well as older individuals, showed that, when combined with training, tDCS was not much more effective than sham tDCS at changing working memory performance (g = 0.07, 95% confidence interval, or CI = [-0.21, 0.34]) and global cognition performance (g = -0.01, 95% CI = [-0.29, 0.26]) assessed in the absence of stimulation. These results question the general usefulness of current tDCS protocols for enhancing the effects of cognitive training on cognitive ability.

  • 7.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bowman, Nicholas E.
    Khatibi, Katherine
    Gottfried, Jay A.
    A Time-Based Account of the Perception of Odor Objects and Valences2012Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 23, nr 10, s. 1224-1232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Is human odor perception guided by memory or emotion? Object-centered accounts predict that recognition of unique odor qualities precedes valence decoding. Valence-centered accounts predict the opposite: that stimulus-driven valence responses precede and guide identification. In a speeded response time study, participants smelled paired odors, presented sequentially, and indicated whether the second odor in each pair belonged to the same category as the first (object evaluation task) or whether the second odor was more pleasant than the first (valence evaluation task). Object evaluation was faster and more accurate than valence evaluation. In a complementary experiment, participants performed an identification task, in which they indicated whether an odor matched the previously presented word label. Responses were quicker for odors preceded by semantically matching, rather than nonmatching, word labels, but results showed no evidence of interference from valence on nonmatching trials. These results are in accordance with object-centered accounts of odor perception.

  • 8. Olsson, Andreas
    et al.
    McMahon, Kibby
    Papenberg, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Zaki, Jamil
    Bolger, Niall
    Ochsner, Kevin N.
    Vicarious Fear Learning Depends on Empathic Appraisals and Trait Empathy2016Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 25-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Empathy and vicarious learning of fear are increasingly understood as separate phenomena, but the interaction between the two remains poorly understood. We investigated how social (vicarious) fear learning is affected by empathic appraisals by asking participants to either enhance or decrease their empathic responses to another individual (the demonstrator), who received electric shocks paired with a predictive conditioned stimulus. A third group of participants received no appraisal instructions and responded naturally to the demonstrator. During a later test, participants who had enhanced their empathy evinced the strongest vicarious fear learning as measured by skin conductance responses to the conditioned stimulus in the absence of the demonstrator. Moreover, this effect was augmented in observers high in trait empathy. Our results suggest that a demonstrator's expression can serve as a social unconditioned stimulus (US), similar to a personally experienced US in Pavlovian fear conditioning, and that learning from a social US depends on both empathic appraisals and the observers' stable traits.

  • 9. Olsson, Mats J
    et al.
    Lundström, Johan N
    Kimball, Bruce A
    Gordon, Amy R
    Karshikoff, Bianka
    Hosseini, Nishteman
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Olgart Höglund, Caroline
    Solares, Carmen
    Soop, Anne
    Axelsson, John
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The scent of disease: human body odor contains an early chemosensory cue of sickness2014Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 817-823Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Observational studies have suggested that with time, some diseases result in a characteristic odor emanating from different sources on the body of a sick individual. Evolutionarily, however, it would be more advantageous if the innate immune response were detectable by healthy individuals as a first line of defense against infection by various pathogens, to optimize avoidance of contagion. We activated the innate immune system in healthy individuals by injecting them with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide). Within just a few hours, endotoxin-exposed individuals had a more aversive body odor relative to when they were exposed to a placebo. Moreover, this effect was statistically mediated by the individuals' level of immune activation. This chemosensory detection of the early innate immune response in humans represents the first experimental evidence that disease smells and supports the notion of a "behavioral immune response" that protects healthy individuals from sick ones by altering patterns of interpersonal contact.

  • 10.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.
    Gaining Control: Training Executive Function and Far Transfer of the Ability to Resolve Interference [retracted]2008Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 19, nr 9, s. 881-888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional brain-imaging data document overlapping sites of activation in prefrontal cortex across memory tasks, suggesting that these tasks may share common executive components. We leveraged this evidence to develop a training regimen and a set of transfer tasks to examine the trainability of a putative executive-control process: interference resolution. Eight days of training on high-interference versions of three different working memory tasks increased the efficiency with which proactive interference was resolved on those particular tasks. Moreover, an improved ability to resolve interference was also transferred to different working memory, semantic memory, and episodic memory tasks, a demonstration of far-transfer effects from process-specific training. Participants trained with noninterference versions of the tasks did not exhibit transfer. We infer that the transfer we demonstrated resulted from increased efficiency of the interference-resolution process. Therefore, this aspect of executive control is plastic and adaptive, and can be improved by training.

  • 11.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    When Perception Trumps Reality: Perceived, Not Objective, Meaning of Primes Drives Stroop Priming2017Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 346-355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Is semantic priming driven by the objective or perceived meaning of the priming stimulus? This question is relevant given that many studies suggest that the objective meaning of invisible stimuli can influence cognitive processes and behavior. In an experiment involving 66 participants, we tested how the perceived meaning of misperceived stimuli influenced response times. Stroop priming (i.e., longer response times for incongruent than for congruent prime-target pairs) was observed in trials in which the prime was correctly identified. However, reversed Stroop priming was observed when the prime stimulus was incorrectly identified. Even in trials in which participants reported no perception of the prime and identified the primes at close to chance level (i.e., trials that meet both subjective and objective definitions of being subliminal), Stroop priming corresponded to perceived congruency, not objective congruency. This result suggests that occasional weak percepts and mispercepts are intermixed with no percepts in conditions traditionally claimed to be subliminal, casting doubt on claims of subliminal priming made in previous reports.

  • 12. Schmiedek, Florian
    et al.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Lund University.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Keeping It Steady Older Adults Perform More Consistently on Cognitive Tasks Than Younger Adults2013Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 24, nr 9, s. 1747-1754Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    People often attribute poor performance to having bad days. Given that cognitive aging leads to lower average levels of performance and more moment-to-moment variability, one might expect that older adults should show greater day-to-day variability and be more likely to experience bad days than younger adults. However, both researchers and ordinary people typically sample only one performance per day for a given activity. Hence, the empirical basis for concluding that cognitive performance does substantially vary from day to day is inadequate. On the basis of data from 101 younger and 103 older adults who completed nine cognitive tasks in 100 daily sessions, we show that the contributions of systematic day-to-day variability to overall observed variability are reliable but small. Thus, the impression of good versus bad days is largely due to performance fluctuations at faster timescales. Despite having lower average levels of performance, older adults showed more consistent levels of performance across days.

  • 13. Wertz, J.
    et al.
    Caspi, A.
    Belsky, D. W.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Duke University, USA.
    Arseneault, L.
    Barnes, J. C.
    Corcoran, D. L.
    Hogan, S.
    Houts, R. M.
    Morgan, N.
    Odgers, C. L.
    Prinz, J. A.
    Sugden, K.
    Williams, B. S.
    Poulton, R.
    Moffitt, T. E.
    Genetics and Crime: Integrating New Genomic Discoveries Into Psychological Research About Antisocial Behavior2018Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 791-803Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and Environmental Risk (E-Risk) birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometers apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record with modest effects. Polygenic risk manifested during primary schooling in lower cognitive abilities, lower self-control, academic difficulties, and truancy, and it was associated with a life-course-persistent pattern of antisocial behavior that onsets in childhood and persists into adulthood. Crime is central in the nature-nurture debate, and findings reported here demonstrate how molecular-genetic discoveries can be incorporated into established theories of antisocial behavior. They also suggest that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding.

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