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  • 1.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Age-Related Differences in Evaluation of Social Attributes From Computer-Generated Faces of Varying Intensity2019In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 686-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life throughout the life span, people frequently evaluate faces to obtain information crucial for social interactions. We investigated age-related differences in judgments of a wide range of social attributes based on facial appearance. Seventy-one younger and 60 older participants rated 196 computer-generated faces that systematically varied in facial features such as shape and reflectance to convey different intensity levels of seven social attributes (i.e., attractiveness, competence, dominance, extraversion, likeability, threat, and trustworthiness). Older compared to younger participants consistently gave higher attractiveness ratings to faces representing both high and low levels of attractiveness. Older participants were also less sensitive to the likeability of faces and tended to evaluate faces representing low likeability as more likable. The age groups did, however, not differ substantially in their evaluations of the other social attributes. Results are in line with previous research showing that aging is associated with preference toward positive and away from negative information and extend this positivity effect to social perception of faces.

  • 2.
    Ferencz, Beata
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Jonsson Laukka, Erika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Angleman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Keller, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Graff, Caroline
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    The Benefits of Staying Active in Old Age: Physical Activity Counteracts the Negative Influence of PICALM, BIN1, and CLU Risk Alleles on Episodic Memory Functioning2014In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 440-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PICALM, BIN1, CLU, and APOE are top candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease, and they influence episodic memory performance in old age. Physical activity, however, has been shown to protect against age-related decline and counteract genetic influences on cognition. The aims of this study were to assess whether (a) a genetic risk constellation of PICALM, BIN1, and CLU polymorphisms influences cognitive performance in old age; and (b) if physical activity moderates this effect. Data from the SNAC-K population-based study were used, including 2,480 individuals (age range = 60 to 100 years) free of dementia at baseline and at 3- to 6-year follow-ups. Tasks assessing episodic memory, perceptual speed, knowledge, and verbal fluency were administered. Physical activity was measured using self-reports. Individuals who had engaged in frequent health-or fitness-enhancing activities within the past year were compared with those who were inactive. Genetic risk scores were computed based on an integration of risk alleles for PICALM (rs3851179 G allele, rs541458 T allele), BIN1 (rs744373 G allele), and CLU (rs11136000 T allele). High genetic risk was associated with reduced episodic memory performance, controlling for age, education, vascular risk factors, chronic diseases, activities of daily living, and APOE gene status. Critically, physical activity attenuated the effects of genetic risk on episodic memory. Our findings suggest that participants with high genetic risk who maintain a physically active lifestyle show selective benefits in episodic memory performance.

  • 3. Finkel, Deborah
    et al.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Gatz, Margaret
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Both Odor Identification and ApoE-epsilon 4 Contribute to Normative Cognitive Aging2011In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 872-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of ApoE and odor identification in decline trajectories associated with normative cognitive aging in various domains, using longitudinal data on cognitive performance available from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Data on both ApoE status and olfactory functioning were available from 455 individuals ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement occasion. Odor identification was measured via a mailed survey. Cognitive performance was assessed in up to 5 waves of in-person testing covering a period of 16 years. Latent growth curve analyses incorporating odor identification and ApoE status indicated a main effect of odor identification on the performance level in three cognitive domains: verbal, memory, and speed. A main effect of ApoE on rates of decline after age 65 was found for verbal, spatial, and speed factors. The consistency of results across cognitive domains provides support for theories that posit central nervous system-wide origins of the olfaction-cognition-ApoE relationship; however, olfactory errors and APOE epsilon 4 show unique and differential effects on cognitive trajectory features.

  • 4.
    Gavazzeni, Joachim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Andersson, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Age, Gender, and Arousal in Recognition of Negative and Neutral Pictures 1 Year Later2012In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 1039-1052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared with nonarousing stimuli, arousing stimuli enhance memory performance. The most robust effects have been reported for negative stimuli, "the negativity effect," although a number of mediating factors prevent definitive conclusions, for example, age, gender, memory task, retention period, and alternative arousal measures. To clarify whether the negativity effect is robust across age, gender, and time, we studied incidental recognition of neutral and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1999) in healthy younger and older adults-women and men-after a 1-year retention interval. Memory performance was related to 2 arousal measures at encoding, skin conductance response (SCR), and intensity rating of unpleasantness. The results showed weaker overall memory performance for older adults compared with younger adults. The negativity effect on accuracy (d') was gender dependent and age independent. In contrast, the negativity effect on response bias (c) interacted with age, but not gender, being weaker for older adults. Despite significant differences in arousal (SCR and arousal rating) between negative and neutral pictures, the correlations between arousal measures and memory performance were weak. Controlling for age and gender, a small negative partial correlation was found between arousal ratings and accuracy. The results extend previous studies by relating long-term recognition to both age and gender as well as to arousal at encoding.

  • 5. Ghisletta, Paolo
    et al.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Bertram, Lars
    Brandmaier, Andreas Markus
    Gerstorf, Denis
    Liu, Tian
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    The Val/Met Polymorphism of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Gene Predicts Decline in Perceptual Speed in Older Adults2014In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 384-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, and contributes to learning and memory. We investigated whether a common Val66Met missense polymorphism (rs6265) of the BDNF gene is associated with individual differences in cognitive decline (marked by perceptual speed) in old age. A total of 376 participants of the Berlin Aging Study, with a mean age of 83.9 years at first occasion, were assessed longitudinally up to 11 times across more than 13 years on the Digit-Letter task. Met carriers (n = 123, 34%) showed steeper linear decline than Val homozygotes (n = 239, 66%); the corresponding contrast explained 2.20% of the variance in change in the entire sample, and 3.41% after excluding individuals at risk for dementia. These effects were not moderated by sex or socioeconomic status. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that normal aging magnifies the effects of common genetic variation on cognitive functioning.

  • 6. Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Juslin, Peter
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adult age differences in the realism of confidence judgments: Overconfidence, format dependence, and cognitive predictors2008In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 531-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Realistic confidence judgments are essential to everyday functioning, but few studies have addressed the issue of age differences in overconfidence. Therefore, the authors examined this issue with probability judgment and intuitive confidence intervals in a sample of 122 healthy adults (ages: 35-40, 55-60, 70-75 years). In line with predictions based on the naïve sampling model (P. Juslin, A. Winman, & P. Hansson, 2007), substantial format dependence was observed, with extreme overconfidence when confidence was expressed as an intuitive confidence interval but not when confidence was expressed as a probability judgment. Moreover, an age-related increase in overconfidence was selectively observed when confidence was expressed as intuitive confidence intervals. Structural equation modeling indicated that the age-related increases in overconfidence were mediated by a general cognitive ability factor that may reflect executive processes. Finally, the results indicated that part of the negative influence of increased age on general ability may be compensated for by an age-related increase in domain-relevant knowledge.

  • 7. Hertzog, Christopher
    et al.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Schmiedek, Florian
    Age Differences in Coupling of Intraindividual Variability in Mnemonic Strategies and Practice-Related Associative Recall Improvements2017In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 557-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of encoding strategies for associative recall is well established, but there have been no studies of aging and intraindividual variability (IAV) in strategy use during extended practice. We observed strategy use and cued-recall test performance over 101 days of practice in 101 younger adults (M = 25.6 years) and 103 older adults (M = 71.3 years) sandwiched by a pretest and posttest battery including an associative recall test. Each practice session included 2 lists of 12 number-noun paired-associate (PA) items (e.g., 23-DOGS), presented for brief exposures titrated to maintain below-ceiling performance throughout practice. Participants reported strategy use (e.g., rote repetition, imagery) after each test. Substantial IAV in strategy use was detected that was coupled with performance; lists studied with normatively effective strategies (e.g., imagery) generated higher PA recall than lists studied with less effective strategies (e.g., rote repetition). In comparison to younger adults, older adults' practice (a) relied more on repetition and less on effective strategies, (b) showed lower levels of IAV in effective strategy use, and (c) had lower within-person strategy-recall coupling, especially late in practice. Individual differences in pretest-posttest gains in PA recall were predicted by average level of effective strategy use in young adults but by strategy-recall coupling in older adults. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that experiencing variability in strategic outcomes during practice helps hone the effectiveness of strategic encoding behavior, and that older adults' reduced degree of pretest-posttest gains is influenced by lower likelihood of using and optimizing effective strategies through practice.

  • 8.
    Laukka, Erika J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Lund University, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Agneta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Karlsson, Sari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Ferencz, Beata
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Pantzar, Alexandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Keller, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Graff, Caroline
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Genetic Effects on Old-Age Cognitive Functioning: A Population-Based Study2013In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 262-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between genotypes and cognitive outcomes may provide clues as to which mechanisms cause individual differences in old-age cognitive performance. We investigated the effects of five polymorphisms on cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of 2,694 persons without dementia (60-102 years). A structural equation model (SEM) was fit to the cognitive data, yielding five specific latent factors (perceptual speed, episodic memory, semantic memory, category fluency, and letter fluency), as well as a global cognitive factor. These factors showed the expected associations with chronological age. Genotyping was performed for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been associated with cognitive performance: APOE (rs429358), COMT (rs4680), BDNF (rs6265), KIBRA (rs17070145), and CLSTN2 (rs6439886). After controlling for age, gender, and education, as well as correcting for multiple comparisons, we observed negative effects of being an APOE ε4 carrier on episodic memory and perceptual speed. Furthermore, being a CLSTN2 TT carrier was associated with poorer semantic memory. For the global factor, the same pattern of results was observed. In addition, being a BDNF any A carrier was associated with better cognitive performance. Also, older age was associated with stronger genetic effects of APOE on global cognition. However, this interaction effect was partly driven by the presence of preclinical dementia cases in our sample. Similarly, excluding future dementia cases attenuated the effects of APOE on episodic memory and global cognition, suggesting that part of the effects of APOE on old-age cognitive performance may be driven by dementia-related processes.

  • 9. Noack, Hannes
    et al.
    Lövden, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Schmiedek, Florian
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Age-Related Differences in Temporal and Spatial Dimensions of Episodic Memory Performance Before and After Hundred Days of Practice2013In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 467-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normal aging impairs the representation and integration (binding) of spatial and temporal context in episodic memory. We directly compare age differences in episodic memory in relation to processing spatial and temporal context. As part of the COGITO study, 101 younger and 103 older participants trained an object-location serial recall task for 100 sessions. Training exacerbated the recall deficit of older relative to younger adults. Younger adults improved in recall performance on both spatial and temporal dimensions. In contrast, older adults improved on the spatial dimension only. Individual differences in pretest performance and change were positively correlated across dimensions among younger adults but negatively related among older adults. We conclude that older adults are impaired at simultaneously processing spatial and temporal context and preferentially process spatial at the expense of temporal context.

  • 10. Noack, Hannes
    et al.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Normal aging increases discriminal dispersion in visuospatial short term memory2012In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 627-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational models of cognitive aging propose that age-related decrements in cognitive performance, including short-term memory (STM), result from less distinct stimulus representations. When applied to visual STM, these models predict higher discriminal dispersion (L. L. Thurstone, 1927, Psychophysical analysis, The American Journal of Psychology, 38, 368-389.) in older adults than in younger adults. To test this prediction, we used a change-detection paradigm for visuospatial locations, with different levels of cognitive load (one, three, or five items) and retention interval (100 or 1,000 ms). Adult age differences were not reliable at Load 1, but were substantial at Loads 3 and 5. Effects of retention time did not differ across age groups, suggesting that age-related differences originated mainly from early processing stages. Applying a mixture model to the data revealed age-related increases in discriminal dispersion and decreases in asymptotic discrimination performance (indexing STM capacity). We concluded that age-related declines in discriminal dispersion, in addition to increasing capacity limitations, impair visual STM performance with advancing adult age.

  • 11.
    Papenberg, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Max Planck Society, Germany.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Nagel, Irene
    Nietfeld, Wilfried
    Schröder, Julia
    Bertram, Lars
    Heekeren, Hauke R.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Li, Shu-Chen
    COMT polymorphism and memory dedifferentiation in old age2014In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 374-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to a neurocomputational theory of cognitive aging, senescent changes in dopaminergic modulation lead to noisier and less differentiated processing. The authors tested a corollary hypothesis of this theory, according to which genetic predispositions of individual differences in prefrontal dopamine (DA) signaling may affect associations between memory functions, particularly in old age. Latent correlations between factors of verbal episodic memory and spatial working memory were compared between individuals carrying different allelic variants of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, which influences DA availability in prefrontal cortex. In younger adults (n = 973), correlations between memory functions did not differ significantly among the 3 COMT genotypes (r = .35); in older adults (n = 1333), however, the correlation was significantly higher in Val homozygotes (r = .70), whose prefrontal DA availability is supposedly the lowest of all groups examined, than in heterozygotes and Met homozygotes (both rs = .29). Latent means of the episodic memory and working memory factors did not differ by COMT status within age groups. However, when restricting the analysis to the low-performing tertile of older adults (n = 443), we found that Val homozygotes showed lower levels of performance in both episodic memory and working memory than heterozygotes and Met homozygotes. In line with the neurocomputational theory, the observed dedifferentiation of memory functions in older Val homozygotes suggests that suboptimal dopaminergic modulation may underlie multiple facets of memory declines during aging. Future longitudinal work needs to test this conjecture more directly.

  • 12.
    Samrani, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Age-Differences in the Temporal Properties of Proactive Interference in Working Memory2017In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 722-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inability to suppress irrelevant information has been suggested as a primary cause of proactive interference (PI), and this deficit may be enhanced in aging. The current study examines age differences and temporal boundaries of PI, by manipulating lure distances in a verbal 2-back working memory task. Both younger and older adults showed effects of interference for proximal 3-and 4-back lures, and this effect was greater for older adults. Whereas younger adults showed less interference during 4-back compared to 3-back lures, in both reaction times and accuracy, older adults improved only in accuracy. For distant lures, when the time between the 1st presentation of an item to its reappearance as a lure item was longer (e.g., 5-to 10-back lures), younger adults were no longer affected by PI. However, older adults were affected by PI throughout all distant lures, up to the most distant lure (9-/10-back). The results suggest that older adults were less successful in resolving interference from both proximal and distant familiar lures. Further, younger adults were able to overcome the effects of PI completely after a specific lure distance. The age differences in temporal properties of PI may therefore highlight a unique component linked to impaired interference control and aging.

  • 13. Shing, Yee Lee
    et al.
    Schmiedek, Florian
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Memory Updating Practice Across 100 Days in the COGITO Study2012In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 451-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated working memory updating performance in younger and older adults before, during. and after 100-day practice. Performance to presentation time (PT) relation was fitted to a negatively accelerated logistic function. Relative to younger adults, older adults showed lower asymptotes at pretest and posttest, and shallower slopes at pretest. Older adults practicing the task with fast PT gained less than older adults practicing the task with slow PT, probably reflecting the persistent use of a selective strategy throughout the 100-day practice period in the fast FT group. These results have implications for designing and evaluating age-comparative working memory training programs.

  • 14. Werheid, Katja
    et al.
    Gruno, Maria
    Kathmann, Norbert
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winblad, Bengt
    Biased recognition of positive faces in aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment2010In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated age differences in biased recognition of happy, neutral, or angry faces in 4 experiments. Experiment 1 revealed increased true and false recognition for happy faces in older adults, which persisted even when changing each face’s emotional expression from study to test in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, we examined the influence of reduced memory capacity on the positivity-induced recognition bias, which showed the absence of emotion-induced memory enhancement but a preserved recognition bias for positive faces in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment compared with older adults with normal memory performance. In Experiment 4, we used semantic differentials to measure the connotations of happy and angry faces. Younger and older participants regarded happy faces as more familiar than angry faces, but the older group showed a larger recognition bias for happy faces. This finding indicates that older adults use a gist-based memory strategy based on a semantic association between positive emotion and familiarity. Moreover, older adults’ judgments of valence were more positive for both angry and happy faces, supporting the hypothesis of socioemotional selectivity. We propose that the positivity-induced recognition bias might be based on fluency, which in turn is based on both positivity-oriented emotional goals and on preexisting semantic associations.

  • 15. Wolff, Julia K
    et al.
    Brose, Annette
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Tesch-Römer, Clemens
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Schmiedek, Florian
    Health is health is health? Age differences in intraindividual variability and in within-person versus between-person factor structures of self-reported health complaints2012In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 881-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variability of health complaints within individuals across time has rarely been studied, and the question whether between- and within-person factor structures of health-related variables are equivalent has not been tested so far. We examined self-reported health complaints in 101 younger (20-31 years) and 103 older adults (65-80 years) over a period of 100 daily assessments. Data were analyzed with confirmatory two-level factor analysis. One-factor structures of health complaints provided an acceptable fit at the between- and average within-person levels in both age groups, supporting the assumption of equivalent average within- and between-person factor structures for health complaints. Age differences in loading patterns indicated that subjective health may be experienced differently by younger and older adults. Small age differences in mean levels of health symptoms were observed. Intraindividual variability in health complaints was reliable. Older adults fluctuated less from day to day than younger adults, presumably reflecting less fluctuation in objective health, differences in response styles, situational influences, or habituation processes. We conclude that future research should consider intraindividual variability as being descriptive of a person's health status, and take possible differences between within- and between-person factor structures of subjective health into account.

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