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  • 1.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adveen, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Henning, L.
    Tallberg, I. M.
    Estimation of premorbid cognitive function based on word knowledge: The Swedish Lexical Decision Test (SLDT)2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 271-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In clinical neuropsychology, the present status of a patient is evaluated in relation to the assumed premorbid status. However, in Sweden, existing methods to assess premorbid status are far from optimal. In the present study, the design and evaluation of a Swedish Lexical Decision Test (SLDT) for premorbid global cognitive function (i.e., premorbid intelligence) is described. The design was based on the empirical finding that, in general adult population, word knowledge is strongly associated with measures of global cognitive functioning. Linear stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that SLDT findings accounted for 48% of the variance of global cognitive function as assessed by the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R). Demographic variables alone accounted for 31% and a combination of SLDT results and demographics accounted for 60%. Psychometric properties are presented using data from 109 healthy individuals stratified according to age, gender, and level of education. In addition, a case of Alzheimer's disease is presented to illustrate the relationship between SLDT performance and cognitive function. Finally, the theoretical foundation for the relationship between word knowledge and global cognitive function is discussed.

  • 2.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Use and interpretation of test scores from limited cognitive test batteries: How g plus Gc can equal g2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 399-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single scores from limited and unbalanced test batteries of cognitive ability can be ambiguous to interpret theoretically. In this study, a limited verbally and knowledge-loaded cognitive test battery, from applicants to the Swedish police academies (N=1,344), was examined to provide foundations for the use and interpretation of test scores. Three measurement models were compared: one single factor model and two bifactor models, which decomposed the variance of the battery into orthogonal components. The models were evaluated by fit indices and omega coefficients, and then applied to the prediction of academic performance. The overall prediction of all models was similar, although specific abilities also were found to provide substantial predictive validity over and above general intelligence (g). The findings provide support for the use of single scores in applied settings (selection), but suggest that it may be more appropriate to interpret such scores as composites of substantive components, and not just as measures of g.

  • 3. Bergman, Ingvar
    et al.
    Blomberg, Mari
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The importance of impaired physical health and age in normal cognitive aging2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of impaired physical health and age in normal cognitive aging. In our cross-sectional, clinical and explorative study, medical and neuropsychological data from 118 voluntary healthy controls aged 26-91 years were collected from five recruitment occasions. Health was assessed according to a criterion reflecting clinical and subclinical severity. The examinations included a clinical investigation, brain neuroimaging, and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Regression analyses showed a significant incidence of clinical and subclinical medical disorders that explained 10.8% of the variation in cognitive performance, while age-related impairment explained 5.6%. Findings of the central nervous system were important but various other medical findings explained about half of the health-related variation. Cognitively demanding tasks were more susceptible to impaired physical health while tasks comprising salient motor- and visual spatial elements were more prone to be impaired by age. Our findings suggest (1) that impaired physical health is more important than chronological age in accounting for cognitive impairment across the adult lifespan, (2) that age and health dissociate with regard to cognitive functions affected, and (3) that selection for so-called ""super healthy"" elderly people might be justified in cognitive research. Because the prevalent diseases in normal aging are potentially preventable, the present findings promise good prospect for prevention of future cognitive disability among elderly people.

  • 4. Bergman, Ingvar
    et al.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Health-adjusted neuropsychological test norms based on 463 older Swedish car drivers2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 93-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for improved normative information in particular for older persons. The present study provides neuropsychological test norms on seven cognitive tests used in a sample representing the general older driving population, when uncontrolled and controlled for physical health. A group of 463 healthy Swedish car drivers, aged 65 to 84 years, participated in a medical and neuropsychological examination. The latter included tests of visual scanning, mental shifting, visual spatial function, memory, reaction time, selective attention, and simultaneous capacity. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that, when uncontrolled for health, old age was associated with significant impairment on all seven tests. Education was associated with a significant advantage for all tests except most reaction time subtests. Women outperformed men on selective attention. Controlling for health did not consistently change the associations with education, but generally weakened those with age, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.36 SD (residual). In terms of variance explained, impaired health predicted on average 2.5%, age 2.9%, education 2.1% and gender 0.1%. It was concluded (1)that individual regression-based predictions of expected values have the advantage of allowing control for the impact of health on normative scores in addition to the adjustment for various demographic and performance-related variables and (2) that health-adjusted norms have the potential to classify functional status more accurately, to the extent that these norms diverge from norms uncontrolled for physical health.

  • 5.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Köhler, Lennart
    Wallby, Thomas
    Mental health in Swedish children living in joint physical custody and their parents' life satisfaction: A cross-sectional study2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 433-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared the psychological symptoms of 129 children in joint physical custody with children in single care and nuclear families, using a nationally representative 2011 survey of 1,297 Swedish children aged between four and 18 years. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and its association with three dimensions of parental life satisfaction was investigated. Linear regression analyses showed higher SDQ-scores for children in joint physical custody (B = 1.4, p < 0.001) and single care (B = 2.2, p < 0.001) than in nuclear families, after adjustment for socio-demographic variables. The estimates decreased to 1.1 and 1.3, respectively, after being adjusted for parental life satisfaction ( p < 0.01). Our findings confirm previous research that showed lower symptom scores for children in nuclear families than children in single care and joint physical custody. Parental life satisfaction should be investigated further as a possible explanation of differences in symptom load between children in different living arrangements.

  • 6.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gilljam, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Esaisson, Peter
    Göteborgs universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Post-decision consolidation in large group decision-making2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-makers tend to change the psychological attractiveness of decision alternatives in favour of their own preferred alternative after the decision is made. In two experiments, the present research examined whether such decision consolidation occurs also among individual group members in a large group decision-making situation. High-school students were presented with a decision scenario on an important issue in their school. The final decision was made by in-group authority, out-group authority or by majority after a ballot voting. Results showed that individual members of large groups changed the attractiveness of their preferred alternative from a pre- to a post decision phase, that these consolidation effects increased when decisions were made by in-group members and when participants identified strongly with their school. Implications of the findings for understanding of group behavior and subgroup relations are discussed.

  • 7. Böhm, Birgitta
    et al.
    Lundequist, Aiko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Visual-motor and executive functions in children born preterm: The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test revisited2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 376-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual-motor development and executive functions were investigated with the Bender Test at age 51/2 years in 175 children born preterm and 125 full-term controls, within the longitudinal Stockholm Neonatal Project. Assessment also included WPPSI-R and NEPSY neuropsychological battery for ages 4-7 (Korkman, 1990). Bender protocols were scored according to Brannigan & Decker (2003), Koppitz (1963) and a complementary neuropsychological scoring system (ABC), aimed at executive functions and developed for this study. Bender results by all three scoring systems were strongly related to overall cognitive level (Performance IQ), in both groups. The preterm group displayed inferior visual-motor skills compared to controls also when controlling for IQ. The largest group differences were found on the ABC scoring, which shared unique variance with NEPSY tests of executive function. Multiple regression analyses showed that hyperactive behavior and inattention increased the risk for visual-motor deficits in children born preterm, whereas no added risk was seen among hyperactive term children. Gender differences favoring girls were strongest within the preterm group, presumably reflecting the specific vulnerability of preterm boys. The results indicate that preterm children develop a different neurobehavioral organization from children born at term, and that the Bender test with a neuropsychological scoring is a useful tool in developmental screening around school start.

  • 8. Dang, Junhua
    et al.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Zhang, Ting
    Liu, Ying
    Jiang, Bin
    Mao, Lihua
    When the poor excel: Poverty facilitates procedural learning2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 288-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that poverty directly impeded cognitive functions because the poor could be easily distracted by monetary concerns. We argue that this effect may be limited to functions relying on working memory. For functions that rely on proceduralized processes however, monetary concerns elicited by reminding of financial demands would be conducive rather than harmful. Our results supported this hypothesis by showing that participants with lower income reached the learning criterion of the information-integration categorization task faster than their more affluent counterparts after reminding of financial demands.

  • 9. Eklund, Jakob
    et al.
    Andersson-Straberg, Teresia
    Stockholm University.
    Hansen, Eric M.
    I've also experienced loss and fear: Effects of prior similar experience on empathy2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 65-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eklund, J., Andersson-Straberg, T. & Hansen, E. M. (2008). ""I've also experienced loss and fear"": Effects of prior similar experience on empathy. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 65-69. Although it is frequently argued that empathy is increased by similar experiences, this idea has rarely been tested. This study investigated the relationship between empathy and prior similar experience. Participants read four different stories and rated the degree of empathy they felt. They also reported the extent to which they had prior similar experience of the events in the stories. We found that these self-reports of prior similar experience increased empathy for the persons in the stories. Similar experience may be an important situational antecedent for feeling empathy for another person. Pointing out similarities among experiences may be a fruitful means of training empathy.

  • 10. Fernaeus, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Östberg, Per
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory factors in Rey AVLT: implications for early staging of cognitive decline2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 546-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supraspan verbal list learning is widely used to assess dementia and related cognitive disorders where declarative memory deficits are a major clinical sign. While the overall learning rate is important for diagnosis, serial position patterns may give insight into more specific memory processes in patients with cognitive impairment. This study explored these patterns in a memory clinic clientele. One hundred eighty three participants took the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The major groups were patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI) as well as healthy controls (HC). Raw scores for the five trials and five serial partitions were factor analysed. Three memory factors were found and interpreted as Primacy, Recency, and Resistance to Interference. AD and MCI patients had impaired scores in all factors. SCI patients were significantly impaired in the Resistance to Interference factor, and in the Recency factor at the first trial. The main conclusion is that serial position data from word list testing reflect specific memory capacities which vary with levels of cognitive impairment.

  • 11. Frankl, My
    et al.
    Philips, Björn
    Berggraf, Lene
    Ulvenes, Pål
    Johansson, Robert
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 482-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to make the first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test, using the Swedish translation - a test developed to screen the ability to experience, express and regulate emotions. Data was collected from a clinical sample (N=82) of patients with depression and/or anxiety participating in randomized controlled trial of Internet-based affect-focused treatment, and a university student sample (N=197). The internal consistency for the total score was satisfactory (Clinical sample =0.88/Student sample =0.84) as well as for all the affective domains, except Anger/Assertion (=0.44/0.36), Sadness/Grief (=0.24/0.46) and Attachment/Closeness (=0.67/0.69). Test retest reliability was satisfactory (ICC>0.77) for the total score and for all the affective domains except for Sadness/Grief (ICC=0.04). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a six-factor solution and did only moderately match the test's original affective domains. An empirical cut-off between the clinical and the university student sample were calculated and yielded a cut-off of 72 points. As expected, the Affect Phobia test showed negative significant correlations in the clinical group with measures on depression (r(xy)=-0.229; p<0.01) and anxiety (r(xy)=-0.315; p<0.05). The conclusion is that the psychometric properties are satisfactory for the total score of the Affect Phobia Test but not for some of the test's affective domains. Consequently the domains should not be used as subscales. The test can discriminate between individuals who seek help for psychological problems and those who do not.

  • 12. Fransson, Mari
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Hagekull, Berit
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Is middle childhood attachment related to social functioning in young adulthood?2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study (N = 69) was to examine whether middle childhood attachment, measured using the Separation Anxiety Test (Slough, Goyette & Greenberg, 1988), predicts aspects of social functioning (social initiative, prosocial orientation, social anxiety, loneliness) in young adulthood. Insecurity-avoidance at age 8.5 years was, as expected, negatively related to social initiative and prosocial orientation, and was also positively related to social anxiety and loneliness at age 21 years. In addition, insecurity-avoidance contributed to developmental change in social anxiety from middle childhood to young adulthood. Contrary to our expectations, the two security scales were generally unrelated to future social functioning. Taken together, these results extend previous research by showing that insecurity-avoidance is related to social functioning also beyond childhood and adolescence, and that it contributes to developmental change in social functioning over time. The scarcity of prospective links for the attachment security scales points to the need for future studies addressing when and why attachment does not contribute to future social functioning.

  • 13.
    Grossi, Giorgio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. The Stress Clinic Foundation, Sweden; Karolinska institute, Sweden.
    Perski, Aleksander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. The Stress Clinic Foundation, Sweden.
    Osika, Walter
    Savic, Ivanka
    Stress-related exhaustion disorder - clinical manifestation of burnout? A review of assessment methods, sleep impairments, cognitive disturbances, and neuro-biological and physiological changes in clinical burnout2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 626-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the literature on clinically significant burnout, focusing on its assessment, associations with sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments, as well as neurobiological and physiological correlates. Fifty-nine English language articles and six book chapters were included. The results indicate that exhaustion disorder (ED), as described in the Swedish version of the International Classification of Diseases, seems to be the most valid clinical equivalent of burnout. The data supports the notion that sleep impairments are causative and maintaining factors for this condition. Patients with clinical burnout/ED suffer from cognitive impairments in the areas of memory and executive functioning. The studies on neuro-biological mechanisms have reported functional uncoupling of networks relating the limbic system to the pre-frontal cortex, and decreased volumes of structures within the basal ganglia. Although there is a growing body of literature on the physiological correlates of clinical burnout/ED, there is to date no biomarker for this condition. More studies on the role of sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments, and neurobiological and physiological correlates in clinical burnout/ED are warranted.

  • 14. Hallberg, Ulrika E.
    et al.
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.
    Type A behavior and work situation: Associations with burnout and work engagement2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 135-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate Type A behavior as well as perceived work situation, and associations with burnout and work engagement. The associations in focus were investigated through hierarchical regressions in a sample (N = 329) of Swedish Information Communication Technology consultants. The findings indicated that both work situation and Type A behavior was correlated with work engagement and burnout; however, no interactions between Type A behavior and work situation were elicited. The main conclusion was that the achievement striving aspect of Type A behavior appears as ""non-toxic"" and is related only to work engagement. However, the irritability/impatience aspect appears to be responsible for burnout complaints among Type A individuals, possibly through negative effects of the mood itself than through perceived stress at work.

  • 15.
    Jacobsson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tysklind, Fredrik
    Werbart, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Young adults talk about their problems2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 282-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore how young adults in psychotherapy and young adults in general describe their problems and how their problem formulations change over time. Two matched samples from longitudinal prospective studies were compared using thematic analysis. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted at baseline, 1.5 years after termination of psychotherapy (N = 12) in the clinical sample and 3 years after baseline in the non clinical sample (N = 12). Inductive thematic analysis revealed six themes: problems associated with oneself, family, intimate relationships, sense of belonging, occupation, and social roles. The psychotherapy sample was characterized by problems with oneself closely related to other problematic areas, at both pre-treatment and at follow-up 1.5 years after termination, while problematic sense of belonging was a general theme only prior to psychotherapy. However, they were less troubled by their problems after psychotherapy. Problems with oneself decreased considerably in the non-clinical sample, while problems with intimate relationships were twice as frequent at follow-up. In the psychotherapy sample, the initial experience of being passively trapped within their problems was transformed into an experience of being an active agent in their own life. However, considerable differences between the psychotherapy sample and non-clinical sample still persisted at follow-up.

  • 16. Juslin, Patrik N.
    et al.
    Harmat, László
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The wisdom of the body: Listeners' autonomic arousal distinguishes between spontaneous and posed vocal emotions2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been the matter of much debate whether perceivers are able to distinguish spontaneous vocal expressions of emotion from posed vocal expressions (e.g., emotion portrayals). In this experiment, we show that such discrimination can be manifested in the autonomic arousal of listeners during implicit processing of vocal emotions. Participants (N = 21, age: 20-55 years) listened to two consecutive blocks of brief voice clips and judged the gender of the speaker in each clip, while we recorded three measures of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system (skin conductance level, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse rate). Unbeknownst to the listeners, the blocks consisted of two types of emotional speech: spontaneous and posed clips. As predicted, spontaneous clips yielded higher arousal levels than posed clips, suggesting that listeners implicitly distinguished between the two kinds of expression, even in the absence of any requirement to retrieve emotional information from the voice. We discuss the results with regard to theories of emotional contagion and the use of posed stimuli in studies of emotions.

  • 17.
    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Selander, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Multimedia learning trumps retrieval practice in psychology teaching2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 222-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that studying with (vs. without) visual illustrations as well as taking tests (vs. restudying) is beneficial for learning, but on which strategy should one put the efforts, or should they be combined for best learning? Eighty-eight upper secondary school students were given a brief lecture presented verbally (6 classes) or with the aid of a visual illustration (visuoverbal, 6 classes). The information was processed again by taking a memory test or by restudying. Recall and transfer tests were conducted after some few minutes and again after one week. The visuoverbal lecture resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only. A significant study strategy by retention interval interaction was found. However, this interaction was not qualified by a testing effect. Hence, taking tests (retrieval practice) did not lead to better learning than restudying. It was concluded that it is worthwhile to use visual illustrations in teaching. However, the present study did not reveal any synergistic effects from the combination of visuoverbal presentation and retrieval practice.

  • 18.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindström, Björn R.
    Using a multidimensional scaling approach to investigate the underlying basis of ease of learning judgments2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before studying a material it is of strategic importance to first assess its difficulty, so called Ease of Learning (EOL) judgments. A multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure was used to investigate the underlying basis of EOL judgments for 24 nouns, which to the authors' knowledge has not been done before. In addition, Judgments of Learning (JOL) followed by a free recall test was performed. The MDS analysis indicated that EOL judgments for the nouns are based on multiple cues (dimensions), namely word length, frequency, and concreteness. Moreover, the concreteness values of the nouns, as judged by an independent group, were correlated with both the JOLs and the concreteness dimension from the MDS analysis. This indicates that EOLs and JOLs for single words are based, to some extent, on the same cues.

  • 19. Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    et al.
    Shojaei, Razie-Sadat
    Moniri, Sadegheh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gholami, Ali-Reza
    Moradi, Ali-Reza
    Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Saeed
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effect of childhood bilingualism on episodic and semantic memory tasks2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kormi-Nouri, Moniri and Nilsson (2003) demonstrated that Swedish-Persian bilingual children recalled at a higher level than Swedish monolingual children, when they were tested using Swedish materials. The present study was designed to examine the bilingual advantage of children who use different languages in their everyday life but have the same cultural background and live in their communities in the same way as monolingual children. In four experiments, 488 monolingual and bilingual children were compared with regard to episodic and semantic memory tasks. In experiments 1 and 2 there were 144 boys and 144 girls in three school groups (aged 9-10 years, 13-14 years and 16-17 years) and in three language groups (Persian monolingual, Turkish-Persian bilingual, and Kurdish-Persian bilingual). In experiments 3 and 4, there were 200 male students in two school groups (aged 9-10 years and 16-17 years) and in two language groups (Persian monolingual and Turkish-Persian bilingual). In the episodic memory task, children learned sentences (experiments 1-3) and words (Experiment 4). Letter and category fluency tests were used as measures of semantic memory. To change cognitive demands in memory tasks, in Experiment 1, the integration of nouns and verbs within sentences was manipulated by the level of association between verb and noun in each sentence. At retrieval, a recognition test was used. In experiments 2 and 3, the organization between sentences was manipulated at encoding in Experiment 2 and at both encoding and retrieval in Experiment 3 through the use of categories among the objects. At retrieval, free recall or cued recall tests were employed. In Experiment 4, the bilingual children were tested with regard to both their first and their second language. In all four experiments, a positive effect of bilingualism was found on episodic and semantic memory tasks; the effect was more pronounced for older than younger children. The bilingual advantage was not affected by changing cognitive demands or by using first/second language in memory tasks. The present findings support the cross-language interactivity hypothesis of bilingual advantage.

  • 20.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden; Swedish Collegium of Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of testing on subsequent re-encoding and long-term forgetting of action-relevant materials: On the influence of recall type2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 475-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing one's memory of previously studied information reduces the rate of forgetting, compared to restudy. However, little is known about how this direct testing effect applies to action phrases (e.g., wash the car) - a learning material relevant to everyday memory. As action phrases consist of two different components, a verb (e.g., wash) and a noun (e.g., car), testing can either be implemented as noun-cued recall of verbs or verb-cued recall of nouns, which may differently affect later memory performance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of testing for these two recall types, using verbally encoded action phrases as learning materials. Results showed that repeated study-test practice, compared to repeated study-restudy practice, decreased the forgetting rate across 1 week to a similar degree for both noun-cued and verb-cued recall types. However, noun-cued recall of verbs initiated more new subsequent learning during the first restudy, compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. The study provides evidence that testing has benefits on both subsequent restudy and long-term retention of action-relevant materials, but that these benefits are differently expressed with testing via noun-cued versus verb-cued recall.

  • 21.
    Kusterer, Hanna Li
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the gender typing of management characteristics in an egalitarian context2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 549-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present studies sought to investigate what kind of stereotypes are used in Sweden to describe male and female managers, and whether genderneutral characteristics are used in the description of requisite management characteristics. In Study 1, participants answered open-ended questions on good, bad, female and male management. Requisite management characteristics showed a greater resemblance to the descriptions of female managers than male. In Study 2, female managers were rated more positively than men, and attributes ascribed to men in Study 1 were considered just as descriptive of women. Although participants described female managers more positively than male, responses often implied a norm of men as managers. In this way, prescriptive aspects of the stereotype may still work against female managers, despite the more feminine description of management.

  • 22.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Study for now, but judge for later: Delayed judgments of learning promote long term retention2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 450-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Larsson Sundqvist, M., Todorov, I., Kubik, V. & Jonsson, F.U. (2012) Study for now, but judge for later: Delayed judgments of learning promote long-term retention. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 450-454. Delayed judgments of learning (JOL) are assumed to be based on covert retrieval attempts. A common finding is that testing memory during learning improves later retention (i.e., the testing effect), and even more so than an equivalent amount of study, but only after a longer retention interval. To test the assertion that also delayed JOLs improve memory, the participants either studied Swahili-Swedish word pairs four times, or they both studied (two times) and performed delayed JOLs (two times) alternately. Final cued recall test were given after either five minutes or one week. Results showed a reliable learning-group by retention-interval interaction, with less forgetting in the group that alternated between studying and making JOLs. The results are discussed in relation to the self-fulfilling prophecy account of Spellman and Bjork (1992), and in terms of study advice, the results further underscore the importance of delaying JOLs when studying and evaluating ones ongoing learning.

  • 23.
    Lekander, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Von Essen, Jan
    Schultzberg, Marianne
    Andreasson, Anna Nixon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Garlind, Anita
    Hansson, Lars-Olof
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cytokines and memory across the mature life span of women2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence suggests a role of the immune system in modulation of cognition, but details on affected memory systems are largely lacking. We therefore aimed to study the relation between selected cytokines and subsets of memory, and the impact of age in these relations. From a random population-based sample (the Betula Prospective Cohort Study), 298 women (age 45-90) were studied in terms of episodic recall and recognition, semantic fluency and knowledge, and prospective memory. Circulating cytokines of relevance for cognition and aging were measured with ELISA. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and sIL-2R were significantly and negatively associated with most cognitive variables, while the opposite was true for IL-1 beta. Age shared substantial variance with both cytokines and memory, and turned most correlations non-significant when controlled for together with education, BMI and presence of disease. Interactions between age and cytokines were further analyzed in multiple regressions. For IL-6, significant negative interactions with age were found for semantic fluency (p < 0.05) and prospective memory (p < 0.01), and for sIL-2R in predicting semantic knowledge (p < 0.05), indicating an increased negative impact of these cytokines on memory with increasing age. In conclusion, the study indicates a relation between cytokines and memory that appears to be largely mediated by age, and supports the suggestion that cytokine dysregulation with higher age may interact with cognitive aging.

  • 24.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Perceived stress, recurrent pain, and aggregate salivary cortisol measures in mid-adolescent girls and boys2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 36-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures of perceived stress have been criticized for theoretical inconsistency. However, the validated pressure activation stress scale has been suggested as a theoretically sound alternative. But it is unclear how pressure and activation stress relate to objective and subjective measures including commonly used aggregate cortisol measures and health complaints respectively. Specifically, this study aimed at investigating how pressure and activation stress were related to aggregate salivary cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-reports in questionnaires on activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomach ache, neck/shoulder and back pain). Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: (1) immediately at awakening; (2) 30 minutes after waking up; (3) 60 minutes after waking up, and (4) at 8 p.m. These samples were analyzed for cortisol. Hierarchical regressions showed no statistically significant associations between activation and pressure stress and cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. However, activation and pressure stress were significantly associated with recurrent pain but only for girls. The findings may relate to subjective and objective measures reflecting distinct aspects of stress-related functioning. However, the study participants included mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still relatively unaffected by the strain of their daily stress perceptions. To conclude, the non-significant relationships between activation and pressure stress and commonly used aggregate measures of cortisol adds to the understanding of how perceived stress may relate to physiological functioning in the daily life of adolescents when using such aggregate measures.

  • 25.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Making gender matter: The role of gender-based expectancies and gender identification on women’s and men’s math performance in Sweden.2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, p. 329-338p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that an emphasis on gender differences may have negative effect on women's math performance in USA, Germany and the Netherlands. It has further been found that an individual’s identification with the stereotyped group may moderate effects of negative stereotypes. The present study investigated how gender-based expectancies affected the math performance of women and men in Sweden, a nation with a smaller gender gap than in other countries, and a strong cultural emphasis on gender equality. Participants, 112 female and 74 male undergraduate math students from Swedish universities, completed a difficult math test in which their gender was either linked to their test performance or not. Men performed better than women when gender was made relevant among participants who did not see their gender as an important aspect of their identity, while participants high in gender identification were unaffected by gender identity relevance. Moreover, the gender relevance manipulation affected men's performance more than women's. The results deviate from findings on US samples, indicating that the role of group identification as a moderator of stereotype-based expectancy effects is complex, and that factors in the cultural context may interact with individual differences in identification to determine the impact of negative stereotypes.

  • 26.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Memon, Amina
    Misreporting signs of child abuse: The role of decision-making and outcome information2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies provided evidence that a decision to report an ambiguous case of child abuse affected subsequent memory of the case information, such that participants falsely recognized details that were not presented in the original information, but that are schematically associated with child abuse. Moreover, post-decision information that the child had later died from abuse influenced the memory reports of participants who had chosen not to report the case, increasing their reports of false schema-consistent details. This suggests that false decision-consistent memories are primarily due to sense-making, schematic processing rather than the motivation to justify the decision. The present findings points to an important mechanism by which decision information can become distorted in retrospect, and emphasize the difficulties of improving future decision-making by contemplating past decisions. The results also indicate that decisions may generate false memories in the apparent absence of external suggestion or misleading information. Implications for decision-making theory, and applied practices are discussed.

  • 27.
    Lindner, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    What is so frightening about spiders? Self‐rated and self‐disclosed impact of different characteristics and associations with phobia symptoms2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spider phobia is a common and impairing mental disorder, yet little is known about what characteristics of spiders that spider phobic individuals find frightening. Using screening data from a clinical trial, we explored which characteristics that spider‐fearful individuals (n = 194) rated as having the greatest impact on fear, used factor analysis to group specific characteristics, and explored linear associations with self‐reported phobia symptoms. Second, a guided text‐mining approach was used to extract the most common words in free‐text responses to the question: “What is it about spiders that you find frightening?” Both analysis types suggested that movement‐related characteristics of spiders were the most important, followed by appearance characteristics. There were, however, no linear associations with degree of phobia symptoms. Our findings reveal the importance of targeting movement‐related fears in in‐vivo exposure therapy for spider phobia and using realistically animated spider stimuli in computer‐based experimental paradigms and clinical interventions such as Virtual Reality exposure therapy.

  • 28. Löfkvist, Ulrika
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Word fluency performance and strategies in children with cochlear implants: Age-dependent effects?2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 467-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Word fluency was examined in 73 Swedish children aged 6–9 years divided into two age groups, 6–7 and 8–9 years; 34 deaf children with cochlear implants (CI) (15 girls/19 boys) and 39 age-matched children with normal hearing (NH) (20 girls/19 boys). One purpose was to compare the ability to retrieve words in two different word fluency tasks; one phonemically based (FAS letter fluency) and one semantically based (animal fluency). A second purpose was to examine retrieval strategies in the two tasks by conducting an analysis of clustering and switching of word sequences. In general we found that age was an important factor for word fluency ability, in both the CI and the NH groups. It was also demonstrated that children with CI aged 8–9 years retrieved significantly fewer words and used less efficient strategies in the retrieval process, especially on the phonemically based task compared to children with NH of the same ages, whereas children 6–7 years performed similarly in both groups regarding number of retrieved words and use of strategies. The results are discussed with respect to factors such as age differences in performance for children with CI, especially for the phonemically based task.

  • 29.
    Maurex, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Zaboli, Ghazal
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Leopardi, Rosario
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Öhman, Arne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Emotionally controlled decision-making and a gene variant related to serotonin synthesis in women with borderline personality disorder2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 5-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to examine (i) social decision-making in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and (ii) the relationship between impaired decision-making and the tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1) gene, involved in serotonin synthesis. Forty-two women with BPD and a history of suicide attempts were genotyped, and the frequency of a TPH-1 haplotype previously uniquely associated with BPD was calculated. The BPD group scored significantly lower than a control group in the IGT. Furthermore, the TPH-1 haplotype displayed a significantly higher frequency in BPD participants with impaired decision making, compared to BPD participants with normal scores. These findings suggest that impaired decision-making as determined by the IGT is a feature of BPD and may be (i) associated with serotonin dysfunction, and (ii) possibly relevant for suicidal behavior.

  • 30.
    Mousavi-Nasab, S.-M. Hossein
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    Örebro univeristet.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effects of marital status on episodic and semantic memory in healthy middle-aged and old individuals2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the influences of marital status on different episodic and semantic memory tasks. A total of 1882 adult men and women participated in a longitudinal project (Betula) on memory, health and aging. The participants were grouped into two age cohorts, 35–60 and 65–85, and studied over a period of 5 years. Episodic memory tasks concerned recognition and recall, whereas semantic memory tasks concerned knowledge and fluency. The results showed, after controlling for education, some diseases, chronological age and leisure activity as covariates, that there were significant differences between married and single individuals in episodic memory, but not in semantic memory. Married people showed significantly better memory performances than singles in both subsystems of episodic memory, that is, recall and recognition. Also, the rate of decline in episodic memory was significantly larger for singles and widowed than other groups over the 5-year time period in both age groups. The findings demonstrate that the positive relation found between marriage and health can be extended to the relation between marriage and cognitive performance. This effect might be explained by the role played by cognitive stimulation in memory and cognition.

  • 31.
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tillfors, Maria
    van Zalk, Nejra
    Kerr, Margaret
    An atypical anxious-impulsive pattern of social anxiety disorder in an adult clinical population2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 350-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An atypical subgroup of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) with impulsive rather than inhibited traits has recently been reported. The current study examined whether such an atypical subgroup could be identified in a clinical population of 84 adults with SAD. The temperament dimensions harm avoidance and novelty seeking of the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used in cluster analyses. The identified clusters were compared on depressive symptoms, the character dimension self-directedness, and treatment outcome. Among the six identified clusters, 24% of the sample had atypical characteristics, demonstrating mainly generalized SAD in combination with coexisting traits of inhibition and impulsivity. As additional signs of severity, this group showed low self-directedness and high levels of depressive symptoms. We also identified a typically inhibited subgroup comprising generalized SAD with high levels of harm avoidance and low levels of novelty seeking, with a similar clinical severity as the atypical subgroup. Thus, higher levels of harm avoidance and social anxiety in combination with higher or lower levels of novelty seeking and low self-directedness seem to contribute to a more severe clinical picture. Post hoc examination of the treatment outcome in these subgroups showed that only 20 to 30% achieved clinically significant change.

  • 32.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Overweight and cognition2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 660-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing concern among health authorities that an increasing number of people in the Western world become overweight and even obese. It is well known that obesity is related to several diseases (e.g., diabetes, stroke, and high blood pressure) and that such diseases related to obesity lead to early death. It has also been discussed whether overweight and obesity in themselves or in relation to such diseases lead to cognitive decline. On the basis of data from a large, population-based, prospective study we examined three cognitive domains: episodic memory, semantic memory, and spatial ability. Two body measures were used to define normal weight and overweight, body-mass index and waist/hip ratio. Although these two body measures reveal quite different prevalence data of overweight, the associations between overweight and cognition are similar. For episodic memory, overweight interacts with age, but when controlling for hypertension, stroke and diabetes, this interaction disappears. For semantic memory, normal weight participants outperform overweight participants even after controlling for these diseases. For spatial ability, the well-established advantage for men holds for young-old and old-old normal-weight participants. For overweight participants, this advantage holds for middle-age participants only. We conclude that there is a weight-cognition relationship even after controlling for obesity-related diseases. The results are discussed in terms of possible biological mechanisms.

  • 33. Nordahl, Håkon
    et al.
    Havnen, Audun
    Hansen, Bjarne
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Haukeland University Hospital, Norway.
    Kvale, Gerd
    Sleep disturbances in treatment-seeking OCD-patients: Changes after concentrated exposure treatment2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 186-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) frequently suffer from comorbid sleep difficulties, and that these difficulties often are not clinically recognized and diagnosed. There has been limited research investigating if comorbid sleep difficulties impair treatment outcome for OCD and if the sleep difficulties change following OCD-treatment. Thirty-six patients with obsessive compulsive disorder underwent concentrated exposure treatment delivered in a group over four consecutive days and were assessed with measures of OCD, depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance at three different time points (pre, post and 6 months follow-up). The sample was characterized by a high degree of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. At pre-treatment nearly 70% of the patients reported sleep difficulties indicative of primary insomnia. The results showed that patients had large reductions of OCD-symptoms as well as significant improvements in sleep disturbance assessed after treatment, and that these improvements were maintained at follow-up. Sleep disturbance did not impair treatment outcome, on the contrary patients with higher degree of sleep disturbance at pre-treatment had better outcome on OCD-symptoms after treatment. The results indicated that the majority of the OCD sample suffered from sleep disturbances and that these sleep disturbances were significantly reduced following adequate treatment of OCD without specific sleep interventions. However, a proportion of the patients suffered from residual symptoms of insomnia after treatment.

  • 34. Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Salami, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Umeå University, Sweden.
    The APOE epsilon 4 allele in relation to brain white-matter microstructure in adulthood and aging2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 263-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon 4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease and has been associated with structural and functional brain alterations across the adult life span. Recent studies have presented evidence that epsilon 4 affects microstructural properties of brain white matter (WM) in non-demented carriers of the epsilon 4 allele, but conflicting evidence has been presented as well. The main purpose of the present study was therefore to examine ApoE effects on WM in a large sample of middle-aged and older adults (N=273). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was acquired, and tract-based as well as voxel-wise analyses were conducted. The tract-based analyses revealed no significant ApoE effects, and no significant interactions between genotype and age were observed. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that ApoE effects on white-matter microstructure are less abundant than has been suggested in some previous studies.

  • 35.
    Olsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    Ahlander, Camilla
    Adolescents and social support situations2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study concerned adolescents' needs for social support with a focus on specific situations. The Adolescent Need for Social Support Questionnaire (ANSSQ) was developed based on qualitative interviews with typically developing adolescents about situations in which they need parent support. The questionnaire was tested on a sample of 380 Swedish 15-year-olds. A 3-component structure reflecting the dimensions Home and school, Low mood, and Sex and alcohol was tested in SEM analyses. Scales based on these dimensions, measuring support from parents and peers, yielded satisfactory psychometric results. Parent support was preferred over peer support for Home and school situations; in the other two areas peers were more likely to be the support providers. Females turned more often to parents and friends for support than males. Seeking parental support was positively related to adolescent disclosure and negatively related to adolescent secrecy, indicating convergent and discriminant validity. Further validation of the ANSSQ is discussed. The current study points to possibilities for adapting measures of social support to contexts.

  • 36. Perski, Olga
    et al.
    Grossi, Giorgio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Perski, Aleksander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Niemi, Maria
    A systematic review and meta-analysis of tertiary interventions in clinical burnout2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 551-561Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical burnout is one of the leading causes of work absenteeism in high- and middle-income countries. There is hence a great need for the identification of effective intervention strategies to increase return-to-work (RTW) in this population. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of tertiary interventions for individuals with clinically significant burnout on RTW and psychological symptoms of exhaustion, depression and anxiety. Four electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PubMed and CINAHL Plus) were searched in April 2016 for randomized and non-randomized controlled trials of tertiary interventions in clinical burnout. Article screening and data extraction were conducted independently by two reviewers. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated with random-effects meta-analyses. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria. There was some evidence of publication bias. Included trials were of variable methodological quality. A significant effect of tertiary interventions compared with treatment as usual or wait-list controls on time until RTW was found, HR = 4.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.15-9.45; however, considerable heterogeneity was detected. The effect of tertiary interventions on full RTW was not significant, OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.59-2.98. No significant effects on psychological symptoms of exhaustion, depression or anxiety were observed. In conclusion, tertiary interventions for individuals with clinically significant burnout may be effective in facilitating RTW. Successful interventions incorporated advice fromlaborexperts and enabled patients to initiate a workplace dialogue with their employers.

  • 37.
    Pixton, Tonya S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Happy to see me, aren't you, Sally?: Signal detection analysis of emotion detection in briefly presented male and female faces2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 361-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using signal detection methods, possible effects of emotion type (happy, angry), gender of the stimulus face, and gender of the participant on the detectionand response bias of emotion in briefly presented faces were investigated. Fifty-seven participants (28 men, 29 women) viewed 90 briefly presented faces(30 happy, 30 angry, and 30 neutral, each with 15 male and 15 female faces) answering yes if the face was perceived as emotional and no if it was not perceivedas emotional. Sensitivity [d’, z(hit rate) minus z(false alarm rate)] and response bias (b, likelihood ratio of ‘‘signal plus noise’’ vs. ‘‘noise’’) weremeasured for each face combination for each presentation time (6.25, 12.50, 18.75, 25.00, 31.25 ms). The d’ values were higher for happy than for angryfaces and higher for angry-male than for angry-female faces, and there were no effects of gender-of-participant. Results also suggest a greater tendency forparticipants to judge happy-female faces as emotional, as shown by lower b values for these faces as compared to the other emotion-gender combinations.This happy-female response bias suggests, at least, a partial explanation to happy-superiority effects in studies where performance is only measured as percentcorrect responses, and, in general, that women are expected to be happy.

  • 38.
    Ramnerö, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Folke, Fredrik
    Kanter, Jonathan W.
    A learning theory account of depression2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning theory provides a foundation for understanding and deriving treatment principles for impacting a spectrum of functional processes relevant to the construct of depression. While behavioral interventions have been commonplace in the cognitive behavioral tradition, most often conceptualized within a cognitive theoretical framework, recent years have seen renewed interest in more purely behavioral models. These modern learning theory accounts of depression focus on the interchange between behavior and the environment, mainly in terms of lack of reinforcement, extinction of instrumental behavior, and excesses of aversive control, and include a conceptualization of relevant cognitive and emotional variables. These positions, drawn from extensive basic and applied research, cohere with biological theories on reduced reward learning and reward responsiveness and views of depression as a heterogeneous, complex set of disorders. Treatment techniques based on learning theory, often labeled Behavioral Activation (BA) focus on activating the individual in directions that increase contact with potential reinforcers, as defined ideographically with the client. BA is considered an empirically well-established treatment that generalizes well across diverse contexts and populations. The learning theory account is discussed in terms of being a parsimonious model and ground for treatments highly suitable for large scale dissemination.

  • 39.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Furmark, Catarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Neander, Kerstin
    Adding Circle of Security - Parenting to treatment as usual in three Swedish infant mental health clinics. Effects on parents' internal representations and quality of parent-infant interaction2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 262-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents effects of adding Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P) to an already established comprehensive therapeutic model for early parent-child intervention in three Swedish infant mental health (IMH) clinics. Parents' internal representations and quality of parent-infant interaction were studied in a clinical sample comprised of 52 parent-infant dyads randomly allocated to two comparable groups. One group consisted of 28 dyads receiving treatment as usual (TAU) supplemented with COS-P in a small group format, and another group of 24 dyads receiving TAU only. Assessments were made at baseline (T1), 6 months after inclusion (T2) and 12 months after inclusion (T3). Changes over time were explored in 42 dyads. In the COS-P group, the proportion of balanced representations, as assessed with Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI), significantly increased between T1 and T3. Further, the proportion of emotionally available interactions, as assessed with Emotional Availability scales (EA), significantly increased over time in the COS-P group. Improvements in the TAU-group were close to significant. Limitations of the study are mainly related to the small sample size. Strength is the real world character of the study, where COS-P was implemented in a clinical context not otherwise adapted to research. We conclude by discussing the value of supplementing TAU with COS-P in IMH treatment.

  • 40.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Grette Moe, Rigmor
    Infant Mental Health Assessment: The use of DC 0-3 in an outpatient child psychiatric clinic in Scandinavia2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on Infant Mental Health data from an outpatient psychiatric clinic using the “Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood” (DC 0-3) and parental questionnaires, CBCL and ITSC. In total, 138 infants (aged 0–3) went through the diagnostic procedure. Sixty-eight per cent were diagnosed within Axis I, with regulatory disorder, disorder of affect and traumatic stress disorder being the most frequent diagnoses. In addition, 48% were classified as having a relationship disorder according to Axis II, with an additional 40% being considered to be at risk of developing a relationship disorder. The mothers’ and fathers’ ratings of their children’s externalized and sensitivity problems were in agreement with the clinicians, but the ratings of internalized problems as well as relationship problems presented a more complex pattern.

  • 41. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Factorial structure, relations to global subjective memory ratings, and Swedish norms2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factorial structure of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith et al., 2000) was examined in a Swedish population based sample (N= 540, age range; 35–90 years). Concurrent validity was assessed by relating PRMQ to global ratings of memory. Confirmatory factor analyses of the PRMQ items indicated a superior fit of a three-factor model, with prospective and retrospective memory as orthogonal factors and episodic memory as a common factor. Furthermore, the PRMQ scales correlated with the global ratings of memory, suggesting that each rating contributed with unique variance in predicting PRMQ scores. Given differences in levels of complaints as compared with prior research (Crawford et al., 2003) norms for the Swedish version are provided. In conclusion, the present findings extend earlier work by providing additional support for the construct and concurrent validity of the PRMQ scales.

  • 42. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Vestergren, Peter
    Stenling, Andreas
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Dimensionality of stress experiences: Factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) in a population-based Swedish sample2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 592-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-recent; Levenstein, Prantera, Varvo et al., 1993) in a large (N = 1516; 35-95 years) population-based Swedish sample (Nilsson, Adolfsson, Backman et al., 2004; Nilsson, Backman, Erngrund et al., 1997). Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on a first, randomly drawn subsample (n = 506). Next, the model based on the PCA was tested in a second sample (n = 505). Finally, a third sample (n = 505) was used to cross-validate the model. Five components were extracted in the PCA (eigenvalue > 1) and labeled Demands, Worries/Tension, Lack of joy, Conflict, and Fatigue, respectively. Twenty-one out of the 30 original PSQ items were retained in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model that included the five (first-order) factors and, additionally, a general (second-order) stress factor, not considered in prior models. The model showed reasonable goodness of fit [chi(2)(184) = 511.2, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.904; RMSEA = 0.059; and SRMR = 0.063]. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the established model. The results are discussed in relation to prior investigations of the factorial structure of the PSQ.

  • 43.
    Sjöberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using individual differences to predict job performance: Correcting for direct and indirect restriction of range2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 368-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sjoberg, S., Sjoberg, A., Naswall, K. & Sverke, M. (2012). Using individual differences to predict job performance: Correcting for direct and indirect restriction of range. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 368373. The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences, indicated by personality (FFM) and general mental ability (GMA), and job performance applying two different methods of correction for range restriction. The results, derived by analyzing meta-analytic correlations, show that the more accurate method of correcting for indirect range restriction increased the operational validity of individual differences in predicting job performance and that this increase primarily was due to general mental ability being a stronger predictor than any of the personality traits. The estimates for single traits can be applied in practice to maximize prediction of job performance. Further, differences in the relative importance of general mental ability in relation to overall personality assessment methods was substantive and the estimates provided enables practitioners to perform a correct utility analysis of their overall selection procedure.

  • 44.
    Sternäng, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examination of the processing speed account in a population-based longitudinal study with narrow age cohort design2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 419-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processing speed account suggests that general slowing of mental processing speed results in an overall decline, especially age-related decline, in other cognitive domains. Support for the speed account comes mainly from cross-sectional studies with participants that vary in age (age-heterogeneous samples). This study investigated how well variations in processing speed predict change of episodic recall in a longitudinal framework and examined with the Narrow Age Cohort (NAC) design. Data were obtained from Betula, a population-based longitudinal study. Both 5-year (n= 490; Time 3 – Time 4) and 10-year follow-up results (n= 608; Time 1 – Time 3) were used. In both samples, which were subjected to prospective dementia screening, we found considerably weaker associations in longitudinal data compared to cross-sectional, and also weaker associations in age-homogeneous than in age-heterogeneous samples. The results provide little support for the speed account.

  • 45.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Gonzalez, Nichel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Memon, Amina
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Information about expert decision and post-decision distortion of facts of own decision2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive representations of decision problems are dynamic. During and after a decision, evaluations and representations of facts change to support the decision made by a decision maker her- or himself (Svenson, 2003). We investigated post-decision distortion of facts (consolidation). Participants were given vignettes with facts about two terminally ill patients, only one of whom could be given lifesaving surgery. In Study 1, contrary to the prediction, the results showed that facts were distorted after a decision both by participants who were responsible for the decisions themselves and when doctors had made the decision. In Study 2 we investigated the influence of knowledge about expert decisions on a participant's own decision and post-decisional distortion of facts. Facts were significantly more distorted when the participant's decision agreed with an expert's decision than when the participant and expert decisions disagreed. The findings imply that knowledge about experts' decisions can distort memories of facts and therefore may obstruct rational analyses of earlier decisions. This is particularly important when a decision made by a person, who is assumed to be an expert, makes a decision that is biased or wrong.

  • 46.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jakobsson, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Creating coherence in real-life decision processes: Reasons, differentiation and consolidation2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiation and Consolidation Theory describes human decision making as a process in which attractiveness values are restructured in order to reach a decision and support the decision made. Here, the theory was developed to include reasons pro and con alternatives and tested on students making decisions between two university psychotherapy training programs (cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic therapy). Before and also after the decision, the attractiveness of the chosen alternative was upgraded and the non-chosen alternative downgraded. Different measures of evaluations of an alternative, such as ""best"" or ""worse"" converged over time until shortly after the decision. The number of reasons pro and con alternatives give a more complete picture than attractiveness and increased from the first to the last session. The reasons supporting the chosen alternative increased in strength, but reasons against the non-chosen alternative decreased. In informal comments participants reported that the study also served as a decision aid.

  • 47. Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    et al.
    Stormoen, Sara
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksdotter, Maria
    Sundstrom, Erik
    Investigating medical decision-making capacity in patients with cognitive impairment using a protocol based on linguistic features2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 386-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical question is whether cognitively impaired patients have the competence for autonomous decisions regarding participation in clinical trials. The present study aimed to investigate medical decision-making capacity by use of a Swedish linguistic instrument for medical decision-making (LIMD) in hypothetical clinical trials in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Three comparable groups (age, education) participated in the study: AD (n=20; MMSE: 24.1 +/- 3.3) and MCI (n=22; MMSE: 26.7 +/- 2.4) patients and healthy controls (n=37; MMSE: 29.1 +/- 1.0). Medical decision-making capacity was operationalized as answers to questions regarding participation in three hypothetical clinical trials. Answers were scored regarding comprehension, evaluation and intelligibility of decisions, and a total LIMD score was used as the measure of medical decision-making ability. Groups differed significantly in LIMD with AD patients performing worst and MCI poorer than the control group. A strong association was found between all LIMD scores and diagnosis which supported the assertion that LIMD as it is designed is a one-dimensional instrument of medical decision-making capacity (MDMC). The results indicate that a fundamental communicative ability has an impact on the competence for autonomous decisions in cognitive impairment.

  • 48. Thalén, Liv
    et al.
    Heimann Mühlenbock, Katarina
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Eriksdotter, Maria
    Sundström, Erik
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Do adapted vignettes improve medical decision-making capacity forindividuals with Alzheimer's disease?2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) is known to decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The vignette method uses hypothetical information as a prerequisite for measuring the capacity to make well-informed decisions to clinical trials. Our aim was to investigate if adapted vignettes can help individuals with mild AD to assimilate information, make decisions and express them in an understandable way, compared to corresponding decisions based on linguistically more demanding vignettes, as measured by the Swedish Linguistic Instrument for Medical Decision-making (LIMD). Two vignettes from LIMD were altered linguistically with the aim to facilitate understanding for individuals with AD. An experimental within-subject design was used to study the influence on MDC of readability (original/adapted vignettes) and content (two different clinical trials). We included 24 patients with mild AD in this prospective study, which read all four vignettes along with a few other tests. This allowed us to investigate the association between MDC and cognitive function. Adapted vignettes did not yield significant differences regarding MDC as compared with original vignettes using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. A difference was found between the two clinical trials where LIMD score was significantly higher for Kidney disease than hypertension vignettes. Our results indicate that adapted vignettes may not improve MDC for individuals with mild AD. MDC was affected by which clinical trial the vignettes regarded, which implies that other factors affecting MDC need to be investigated, like length of text and vocabulary used.

  • 49.
    Thorburn, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Significance testing, interval estimation or Bayesian inference: comments to "Extracting a maximum of useful information from statistical research data" by S. Sohlberg and G. Andersson2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 79-82Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistical inference plays an important part in the formation of scientific knowledge in psychology. Starting from a paper by Sohlberg and Andersson (2005; Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 46, 69-77) these issues are discussed. It is argued that interval estimates are easy to understand and that they are more suitable than significance testing for most problems. Bayesian inference is a coherent description of the information building process. With some examples it is shown that null hypothesis significance testing is full of contradictions. Finally, some other important issues like convenience sampling and model selection are shortly mentioned.

  • 50. Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Engström, Elisabet
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Using a multi-feature paradigm to measure mismatch responses to minimal sound contrasts in children with cochlear implants and hearing aids2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 409-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to explore whether a multi-feature paradigm (Optimum-1) for eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN) would objectively capture difficulties in perceiving small sound contrasts in children with hearing impairment (HI) listening through their hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Children aged 5-7 years with HAs, CIs and children with normal hearing (NH) were tested in a free-field setting using a multi-feature paradigm with deviations in pitch, intensity, gap, duration, and location. There were significant mismatch responses across all subjects that were positive (p-MMR) for the gap and pitch deviants (F(1,43) = 5.17, p = 0.028 and F(1,43) = 6.56, p = 0.014, respectively) and negative (MMN) for the duration deviant (F(1,43) = 4.74, p = 0.035). Only the intensity deviant showed a significant group interaction with MMN in the HA group and p-MMR in the CI group (F(2,43) = 3.40, p = 0.043). The p-MMR correlated negatively with age, with the strongest correlation in the NH subjects. In the CI group, the late discriminative negativity (LDN) was replaced by a late positivity with a significant group interaction for the location deviant. Children with severe HI can be assessed through their hearing device with a fast multi-feature paradigm. For further studies a multi-feature paradigm including more complex speech sounds may better capture variation in auditory processing in these children.

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