Change search
Refine search result
1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Esmaeilikia, Mahsa
    et al.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Grzebieta, Raphael
    Olivier, Jake
    Bicycle helmets and risky behaviour: A systematic review2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 60, p. 299-310Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-standing argument against bicycle helmet use is the risk compensation hypothesis, i.e., increased feelings of safety caused by wearing a helmet results in cyclists exhibiting more risky behaviour. However, past studies have found helmet wearing is not associated with risky behaviour, e.g., committing a traffic violation was positively associated with a lower frequency of helmet use. There is a lack of consensus in the research literature regarding bicycle helmet use and the risk compensation hypothesis, although this gap in knowledge was identified in the early 2000s. This is the first study to carry out a systematic review of the literature to assess whether helmet wearing is associated with risky behaviour. Two study authors systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature using five research databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, COMPENDEX, SCOPUS, and WEB OF SCIENCE) and identified 141 unique articles and four articles from other sources. Twenty-three articles met inclusion criteria and their findings were summarised. Eighteen studies found no supportive evidence helmet use was positively associated with risky behaviour, while three studies provided mixed findings, i.e., results for and against the hypothesis. For many of these studies, bicycle helmet wearing was associated with safer cycling behaviour. Only two studies conducted from the same research lab provided evidence to support the risk compensation hypothesis. In sum, this systematic review found little to no support for the hypothesis bicycle helmet use is associated with engaging in risky behaviour.

  • 2.
    Falk, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Promoting traffic safety among young male drivers by means of elaboration-based interventions2009In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in social psychology has brought about significant changes in attitudes and behaviour by merely asking respondents to imagine, or reflect, on a phenomenon and arrive at their own conclusions. To test the potential of such interventions in the traffic safety area, an experiment comprising 353 young men 18–23 years old with a driver’s licence was conducted. Two experimental groups were induced to imagine a severe accident scenario and to visualize their feelings and the consequences on their future lives. A control group was interviewed about neutral issues. Attitudes towards risk-taking were measured post-intervention and at follow-up. The experimental groups showed more “ideal” attitudes than the control group post-intervention. At follow-up the attitudes of the experimental group remained unchanged, whereas the control group had changed towards more “ideal” attitudes. Self-reported risk-taking behaviour was measured pre-intervention and at follow-up. At follow-up all groups reported significantly less risk-taking behaviour than at pre-intervention. It is suggested that answering the questionnaires increased mental elaboration concerning risky driving, and it is concluded that interventions that unobtrusively make drivers reflect on their driving should be explored further as a means to promote traffic safety.

  • 3.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Radun, Jenni
    Helgesson, Gert
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Company employees as experimental participants in traffic safety research: Prevalence and implications2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 60, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of company employees as experimental participants when testing products, technology or paradigms developed by the same company raises questions about bias in results and research ethics. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of studies authored by car company researchers with car company employees as participants, to assess the risk of bias in such studies, to investigate journal editors’ opinions in the field of traffic safety regarding these procedures, and to offer a general discussion about ethical and methodological implications. Three types of data were collected. We (i) examined guidelines and recommendations for authors in eleven selected peer-reviewed journals in the area of traffic safety; (ii) surveyed editors of these journals; and (iii) reviewed articles authored by researchers from a selected group of car manufacturers and published in these journals during 2011–2015. Guidelines and recommendations for authors in the included journals did not mention whether and under what circumstances company employees can be research participants, nor did publishers’ general guidelines. However, three out of the four editors who responded to our survey believed that this issue of private company researchers using participants from the same company deserves to be explicitly addressed in their journal’s guide for authors. The total number of regular articles and conference papers during 2011–2015 in the eleven journals reviewed was 6763; 95 (1.4%) listed at least one car manufacturer in the authors’ affiliations; and out of these, nine included company employees as participants. In summary, company employees are seldom (0.13%) used as research participants in traffic safety research. Nevertheless, the use of company employees as research participants raises questions about bias in results as well as about incursions into the participants’ autonomy.

  • 4. Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Ohisalo, Jussi
    Radun, Jenni
    Wahde, Mattias
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Driver fatigue and the law from the perspective of police officers and prosecutors2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 18, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though police officers and prosecutors play a key role in traffic law application, little is known about their experiences, attitudes, and opinions regarding the complex issue of driver fatigue and the law. This paper is based on an extensive online survey collected from traffic (N = 129) and local (N = 100) police officers and prosecutors (N = 96) in the context of Finnish traffic law, which forbids driving while fatigued in an article relating to a driver’s fitness to drive. While encountering fatigued drivers is very common for police officers, only a small proportion has received training about how to recognize and deal with fatigued drivers. Driving while extremely fatigued is considered rather or extremely negligent behavior by almost all respondents. Although agreement between these three groups exists regarding several issues, they disagree about whether the current law is specific enough, and whether experts might be valuable in court when discussing the possible contribution of fatigue to the cause of a crash. We discuss the application of the law and opinions about the current law formulation, experience and education, as well as general awareness and attitudes, taking into consideration the different nature of police and prosecutor work.

  • 5.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Olivier, Jake
    Bicycle helmet law does not deter cyclists in Finland2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 58, p. 1087-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bicycle helmet legislation (BHL) in Finland went into effect in January 2003 and applies to cyclists of all ages. There are no mechanisms to fine cyclists riding without a helmet; however, helmet wearing rates are 64% in Helsinki and 42% across Finland. Our aim was to discuss possible effects of BHL on cycling in Finland. We used data from the 1998/1999, 2004/2005 and 2010/2011 Finnish National Travel Surveys. Data across three surveys suggest cycling has declined from before to after BHL. In a 2004/2005 survey, however, only 0.063% (95% CI: 0.02-0.10%) of responders identified helmet use as their most important obstacle to cycling. It is unlikely BHL is a causal factor in the downward trend in Finnish cycling. Lack of cycling infrastructure and concerns for safety are much more common reasons given.

  • 6.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, J.
    Kaistinen, J.
    Olivier, J.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Endangering yourself to save another: A real life ethical dilemma2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 64, p. 318-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike hypothetical trolley problem studies and an ongoing ethical dilemma with autonomous vehicles, road users can face similar ethical dilemmas in real life. Swerving a heavy vehicle towards the road-side in order to avoid a head-on crash with a much lighter passenger car is often the only option available which could save lives. However, running off-road increases the probability of a roll-over and endangers the life of the heavy vehicle driver. We have created an experimental survey study in which heavy vehicle drivers randomly received one of two possible scenarios. We found that respondents were more likely to report they would ditch their vehicle in order to save the hypothetical driver who fell asleep than to save the driver who deliberately diverted their car towards the participant's heavy vehicle. Additionally, the higher the empathy score, the higher the probability of ditching a vehicle. Implications for autonomous vehicle programming are discussed. 

  • 7.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, Jenni
    Esmaeilikia, Mahsa
    Lajunen, Timo
    Risk compensation and bicycle helmets: A false conclusion and uncritical citations2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 58, p. 548-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some researchers and many anti-helmet advocates often state that when cyclists wear a helmet they feel safer and take more risks. This hypothesis-risk compensation - if true, would reduce, annul or even reverse the assumed benefits of helmets in reducing head injuries. Consequently, this hypothesis is often used to oppose mandatory helmet laws. In this article, we illustrate how one of the few studies that attempted to experimentally test the hypothesis in relation to bicycle helmets arrives at a false conclusion. As a result it is often cited as evidence of risk compensation. Given the lack of experimental studies in this research area, the impact of a single study in shaping the opinions of the general public and of policy makers can be significant.

  • 8.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, Jenni
    Kaistinen, Jyrki
    Parkkari, Inkeri
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Olivier, Jake
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Suicide by crashing into a heavy vehicle: A one-year follow-up study of professional drivers2020In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 73, p. 318-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Train and heavy vehicle drivers can experience a traumatic event caused by people attempting suicide by crashing into their vehicles or jumping in front of them. While there are a number of studies on train drivers showing the negative consequences these events can have on their well-being, there are no studies on heavy vehicle drivers involved in these types of crashes. In the current study, we surveyed Finnish heavy vehicle drivers (N = 15) involved in a suicide crash in the year 2017 regarding their experiences and coping approximately one month (T1) and one year (T2) after the crash. Ten of these drivers reported one or various combinations of measurable consequences such as minor physical injuries, shorter or longer sickness absences, significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (measured using the Impact of Events Scale-Revised) and requiring psychological help. Posttraumatic stress symptoms decreased over time; however, three out of the four drivers who had a high IES-R score at T1 were still around the IES-R cut-off score at T2. This research raises questions whether and what kind of support heavy vehicle drivers who have been involved in a suicide crash should be given.

  • 9.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, Jenni
    Wahde, Mattias
    Watling, Christopher N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Self-reported circumstances and consequences of driving while sleepy2015In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 32, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Driver surveys are indispensable sources of information when estimating the role of sleepiness in crash causation. The purpose of the study was to (1) identify the prevalence of driving while sleepy among Finnish drivers, (2) determine the circumstances of such instances, and (3) identify risk factors and risk groups. Survey data were collected from a representative sample of active Finnish drivers (N = 1121). One-fifth of the drivers (19.5%) reported having fallen asleep at the wheel during their driving career, with 15.9% reporting having been close to falling asleep or having difficulty staying awake when driving during the previous twelve months. Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were found to be associated with both types of sleepiness-related driving instances, while sleep quality was associated only with the latter. Compared to women, men more often reported falling asleep at the wheel; the differences were somewhat smaller with respect to fighting sleep while driving during the previous twelve months. The reported discrepancy in sleepiness-related instances (high prevalence of fighting sleep while driving during the previous twelve months and lower proportion of actually falling asleep) identifies young men (⩜25 years) as one of the main target groups for safety campaigns. Approximately three-quarters of drivers who had fallen asleep while driving reported taking action against falling asleep before it actually happened. Furthermore, almost all drivers who had fallen asleep while driving offered at least one logical reason that could have contributed to their falling asleep. These data indicate some degree of awareness about driving while sleepy and of the potential pre-trip factors that could lead to sleepiness while driving, and supports the notion that falling asleep at the wheel does not come as a (complete) surprise to the driver.

  • 10.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Decision Research, USA.
    Biased judgments of the effects of speed change on travel time, fuel consumption and braking: Individual differences in the use of simplifying rules producing the same biases2021In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 78, p. 398-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to identify different cognitive rules that lead to a particular judgment bias. To fulfill this purpose, a new method Spectral analysis was introduced and applied. Participants judged time saved by driving faster, fuel saved by replacing a car and braking capacity at different speeds. These problems invite the time saving bias (e.g., time saved from speed increases at higher speeds overestimated), the miles per gallon, MPG illusion (misjudgment of fuel saved by replacing a car) and the braking capacity bias (overestimation of braking capacity after speed increase). The average results replicated the biases. Spectral analysis of individual participants and problems showed that a speed difference rule explained about half of the time saving judgments and about three fourth of the MPG judgments. A difference between speeds rule described about one third of the biased braking judgments and a ratio/proportion rule about one fifth of the time saving and MPG judgments. All rules give biased judgments in all three domains. The paper ends with a discussion of hierarchies of cognitive rules, applications of the results, and how to mitigate or avoid the biases and the risks associated with the biases.

  • 11.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden.
    Salo, Ilkka
    Peters, Ellen
    Judgments of mean speed and predictions of route choice2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 504-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How are driving speeds integrated when speeds vary along a route? In a first study, we examined heuristic processes used in judgments of mean speed when the mean speeds on parts of the trip varied. The judgments deviated systematically from objective mean speeds because the distances driven at different speeds were given more weight than travel time spent on the different distances. The second study showed that when there was a 10-15 min pause during a travel the effect on the mean speed decrease was underestimated for driving speeds of 90 km/h and higher. In the third study, the objective mean speeds and the subjective biased mean speed judgments were used to predict choices between routes with different speed limits. The results showed that subjective judgments predicted decisions to maximize mean speed significantly better than objective mean speeds. Finally, some applied and basic research implications of the results were discussed.

  • 12.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Decision Research, USA.
    Treurniet, Daniëlle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Decision Research, USA; Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Speed reductions and judgments of travel time loss: Biases and debiasing2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 51, p. 145-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Priority decisions concerning maintenance or reconstruction of roads are made with the aim of road improvements with as little traffic disturbance and time loss as possible. However, it cannot be avoided that speed will be reduced and travel time increased during the time of construction. The present study shows how intuitive judgments of travel time losses are biased in a way similar to the times saving bias (Svenson, 2008), but not perfectly corresponding to that bias. This means that when speed is decreased from a slow speed <50 km/h, the time loss is underestimated and when speed is decreased from a high speed >80 km/h it is overestimated. Also, drivers, politicians and policy makers who do not make exact calculations are likely victims of the time loss bias. The time loss bias was weakened but not eliminated by a debiasing instruction including mathematical computations of travel times. When driving speed restrictions are implemented, in particular on fast motorways, it is necessary to consider and counteract the time loss bias and inform the public. This can be done, for example, in communications about travel time facts, by information in driver training and by mounting temporary road signs informing about the average travel time prolongation due to a road work.

  • 13. Watling, Hanna
    et al.
    Hooijer, Johanna
    Armstrong, Kerry
    Watling, Christopher N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    The influence of social factors and personality constructs on drink driving among young licenced drivers2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 52, p. 210-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young adults continue to be overrepresented in alcohol-related crashes on Australian roads. Social factors are important factors associated with drink driving behaviours among young adults and have been the focus of several intervention efforts. However, research also demonstrates that personality constructs are associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in harmful drinking and risky driving behaviours. To better understand the influence of both social and personality constructs with drink driving, 390 male and female licenced drivers aged 18-24 years completed a questionnaire that assessed Akers' social learning theory constructs and the personality constructs of Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioural Approach System (BAS) for their association with drink driving in the past 12 months. Result indicated that a relatively large proportion (36.67%) of participants engaged in drink driving. A sequential logistic regression analysis further found that several social and personality variables were associated with drink driving. Specifically, the Akers' social learning theory constructs of Personal Definitions, Differential Reinforcement-Punishment (High), Differential Association Drink Driving Friends, and Imitation-Friends variables and the BAS constructs of Fun Seeking and Drive were associated with drink driving. While these findings highlight the importance of targeting the social context around drink driving, the impact of personality constructs also warrants consideration with intervention efforts.

1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf