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  • 1.
    Abulaiti, Yiming
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Åkerstedt, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bendtz, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bertoli, Gabriele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Carney, Rebecca M. D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Clément, Christophe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Cribbs, Wayne A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Gellerstedt, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hellman, Sten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Jon-And, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Lundberg, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Milstead, David A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Moa, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Molander, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Pöttgen, Ruth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rossetti, Valerio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Shaikh, Nabila W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Shcherbakova, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Silverstein, Samuel B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Sjölin, Jörgen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Strandberg, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ughetto, Michaël
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Valdes Santurio, Eduardo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Wallängen, Veronica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC2017In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 852-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-by-light scattering (gamma gamma -> gamma gamma) is a quantum-mechanical process that is forbidden in the classical theory of electrodynamics. This reaction is accessible at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large electromagnetic field strengths generated by ultra-relativistic colliding lead ions. Using 480 mu b(-1) of lead-lead collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV by the ATLAS detector, here we report evidence for light-by-light scattering. A total of 13 candidate events were observed with an expected background of 2.6 +/- 0.7 events. After background subtraction and analysis corrections, the fiducial cross-section of the process Pb + Pb (gamma gamma) -> Pb-(center dot) + Pb-(center dot) gamma gamma, for photon transverse energy E-T > 3 GeV, photon absolute pseudorapidity vertical bar eta vertical bar < 2.4, diphoton invariant mass greater than 6 GeV, diphoton transverse momentum lower than 2 GeV and diphoton acoplanarity below 0.01, is measured to be 70 +/- 24 (stat.) +/- 17 (syst.) nb, which is in agreement with the standard model predictions.

  • 2.
    Ahrens, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Badziag, Piotr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Cabello, Adan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. University of Sevilla, Spain.
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Experimental device independent tests of classical and quantum dimensions2012In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 592-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental resource in any communication and computation task is the amount of information that can be transmitted and processed. The classical information encoded in a set of states is limited by the number of distinguishable states or classical dimension d(c) of the set. The sets used in quantum communication and information processing contain states that are neither identical nor distinguishable, and the quantum dimension d(q) of the set is the dimension of the Hilbert space spanned by these states. An important challenge is to assess the (classical or quantum) dimension of a set of states in a device-independent way, that is, without referring to the internal working of the device generating the states. Here we experimentally test dimension witnesses designed to efficiently determine the minimum dimension of sets of (three or four) photonic states from the correlations originated from measurements on them, and distinguish between classical and quantum sets of states.

  • 3.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Dumm, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Zoll, Marcel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Neutrino interferometry for high-precision tests of Lorentz symmetry with IceCube2018In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 961-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lorentz symmetry is a fundamental spacetime symmetry underlying both the standard model of particle physics and general relativity. This symmetry guarantees that physical phenomena are observed to be the same by all inertial observers. However, unified theories, such as string theory, allow for violation of this symmetry by inducing new spacetime structure at the quantum gravity scale. Thus, the discovery of Lorentz symmetry violation could be the first hint of these theories in nature. Here we report the results of the most precise test of spacetime symmetry in the neutrino sector to date. We use high-energy atmospheric neutrinos observed at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to search for anomalous neutrino oscillations as signals of Lorentz violation. We find no evidence for such phenomena. This allows us to constrain the size of the dimension-four operator in the standard-model extension for Lorentz violation to the 10(-28) level and to set limits on higher-dimensional operators in this framework. These are among the most stringent limits on Lorentz violation set by any physical experiment.

  • 4.
    Amselem, Elias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Experimental four-qubit bound entanglement2009In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 748-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. Being a peculiar form of entanglement, bound entanglement emerges in certain mixed quantum states. This form of entanglement is not distillable by local operators and classical communication. Bound-entangled states are different from both the free entangled (distillable) and separable states. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of a four-qubit polarization bound-entangled state, the so-called Smolin state. We have fully characterized its entanglement properties. Moreover, we have realized unlocking of the entanglement protocol for this state. The special properties of the Smolin state constitute a useful quantum resource for new multiparty communication schemes.

  • 5.
    Amselem, Elias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Bourennane, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Reply to 'Experimental bound entanglement?'2010In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 6, p. 827-827Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6. Andresen, G. B.
    et al.
    Ashkezari, M. D.
    Baquero-Ruiz, M.
    Bertsche, W.
    Bowe, P. D.
    Butler, E.
    Cesar, C. L.
    Charlton, M.
    Deller, A.
    Eriksson, S.
    Fajans, J.
    Friesen, T.
    Fujiwara, M. C.
    Gill, D. R.
    Gutierrez, A.
    Hangst, J. S.
    Hardy, W. N.
    Hayano, R. S.
    Hayden, M. E.
    Humphries, A. J.
    Hydomako, R.
    Jonsell, Svante
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Kemp, S. L.
    Kurchaninov, L.
    Madsen, N.
    Menary, S.
    Nolan, P.
    Olchanski, K.
    Olin, A.
    Pusa, P.
    Rasmussen, C. O.
    Robicheaux, F.
    Sarid, E.
    Silveira, D. M.
    So, C.
    Storey, J. W.
    Thompson, R. I.
    van der Werf, D. P.
    Wurtele, J. S.
    Yamazaki, Y.
    Confinement of antihydrogen for 1,000 seconds2011In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 558-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atoms made of a particle and an antiparticle are unstable, usually surviving less than a microsecond. Antihydrogen, made entirely of antiparticles, is believed to be stable, and it is this longevity that holds the promise of precision studies of matter-antimatter symmetry. We have recently demonstrated trapping of antihydrogen atoms by releasing them after a confinement time of 172 ms. A critical question for future studies is: how long can anti-atoms be trapped? Here, we report the observation of anti-atom confinement for 1,000 s, extending our earlier results by nearly four orders of magnitude. Our calculations indicate that most of the trapped anti-atoms reach the ground state. Further, we report the first measurement of the energy distribution of trapped antihydrogen, which, coupled with detailed comparisons with simulations, provides a key tool for the systematic investigation of trapping dynamics. These advances open up a range of experimental possibilities, including precision studies of charge-parity-time reversal symmetry and cooling to temperatures where gravitational effects could become apparent.

  • 7.
    Conrad, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Reimer, Olaf
    Indirect dark matter searches in gamma and cosmic rays2017In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 224-231Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dark matter candidates such as weakly interacting massive particles are predicted to annihilate or decay into Standard Model particles, leaving behind distinctive signatures in gamma rays, neutrinos, positrons, antiprotons, or even antinuclei. Indirect dark matter searches, and in particular those based on gamma-ray observations and cosmic-ray measurements, could detect such signatures. Here we review the strengths and limitations of this approach and look into the future of indirect dark matter searches.

  • 8. Iocco, Fabio
    et al.
    Pato, Miguel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Bertone, Gianfranco
    Evidence for dark matter in the inner Milky Way2015In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 245-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous presence of dark matter in the Universe is today a central tenet in modern cosmology and astrophysics(1). Throughout the Universe, the evidence for dark matter is compelling in dwarfs, spiral galaxies, galaxy clusters as well as at cosmological scales. However, it has been historically difficult to pin down the dark matter contribution to the total mass density in the Milky Way, particularly in the innermost regions of the Galaxy and in the solar neighbourhood(2). Here we present an up-to-date compilation of Milky Way rotation curve measurements(3-13), and compare it with state-of-the-art baryonic mass distribution models(14-26). We show that current data strongly disfavour baryons as the sole contribution to the Galactic mass budget, even inside the solar circle. Our findings demonstrate the existence of dark matter in the inner Galaxy without making any assumptions about its distribution. We anticipate that this result will compel new model-independent constraints on the dark matter local density and profile, thus reducing uncertainties on direct and indirect dark matter searches, and will help reveal the structure and evolution of the Galaxy.

  • 9. Kitsak, Maksim
    et al.
    Gallos, Lazaros K.
    Havlin, Shlomo
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Muchnik, Lev
    Stanley, H. Eugene
    Makse, Hernan A.
    Identification of influential spreaders in complex networks2010In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 888-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Networks portray a multitude of interactions through which people meet, ideas are spread and infectious diseases propagate within a society(1-5). Identifying the most efficient 'spreaders' in a network is an important step towards optimizing the use of available resources and ensuring the more efficient spread of information. Here we show that, in contrast to common belief, there are plausible circumstances where the best spreaders do not correspond to the most highly connected or the most central people(6-10). Instead, we find that the most efficient spreaders are those located within the core of the network as identified by the k-shell decomposition analysis(11-13), and that when multiple spreaders are considered simultaneously the distance between them becomes the crucial parameter that determines the extent of the spreading. Furthermore, we show that infections persist in the high-k shells of the network in the case where recovered individuals do not develop immunity. Our analysis should provide a route for an optimal design of efficient dissemination strategies.

  • 10. Kozina, M.
    et al.
    Fechner, M.
    Marsik, P.
    van Driel, T.
    Glownia, J. M.
    Bernhard, C.
    Radovic, M.
    Zhu, D.
    Bonetti, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Staub, U.
    Hoffmann, M. C.
    Terahertz-driven phonon upconversion in SrTiO32019In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 387-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct manipulation of the atomic lattice using intense long-wavelength laser pulses has become a viable approach to create new states of matter in complex materials. Conventionally, a high-frequency vibrational mode is driven resonantly by a mid-infrared laser pulse and the lattice structure is modified through indirect coupling of this infrared-active phonon to other, lower-frequency lattice modulations. Here, we drive the lowest-frequency optical phonon in the prototypical transition metal oxide SrTiO3 well into the anharmonic regime with an intense terahertz field. We show that it is possible to transfer energy to higher-frequency phonon modes through nonlinear coupling. Our observations are carried out by directly mapping the lattice response to the coherent drive field with femtosecond X-ray pulses, enabling direct visualization of the atomic displacements.

  • 11. Lukyanchuk, I.
    et al.
    Vinokur, V. M.
    Rydh, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Xie, R.
    Milosevic, M. V.
    Welp, U.
    Zach, M.
    Xiao, Z. L.
    Crabtree, G. W.
    Bending, S. J.
    Peeters, F. M.
    Kwok, W. K.
    Rayleigh instability of confined vortex droplets in critical superconductors2015In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 21-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depending on the Ginzburg-Landau parameter kappa, superconductors can either be fully diamagnetic if kappa < 1/root 2 (type I superconductors) or allow magnetic flux to penetrate through Abrikosov vortices if kappa > 1/root 2 (type II superconductors; refs 1,2). At the Bogomolny critical point, kappa = kappa(c) = 1/root 2, a state that is infinitely degenerate with respect to vortex spatial configurations arises(3,4). Despite in-depth investigations of conventional type I and type II superconductors, a thorough understanding of the magnetic behaviour in the near-Bogomolny critical regime at kappa similar to kappa(c) remains lacking. Here we report that in confined systems the critical regime expands over a finite interval of kappa forming a critical superconducting state. We show that in this state, in a sample with dimensions comparable to the vortex core size, vortices merge into a multi-quanta droplet, which undergoes Rayleigh instability(5) on increasing kappa and decays by emitting single vortices. Superconducting vortices realize Nielsen-Olesen singular solutions of the Abelian Higgs model, which is pervasive in phenomena ranging from quantum electrodynamics to cosmology(6-9). Our study of the transient dynamics of Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortices in systems with boundaries promises access to non-trivial effects in quantum field theory by means of bench-top laboratory experiments.

  • 12. Månsson, Erik P.
    et al.
    Guenot, Diego
    Arnold, Cord L.
    Kroon, David
    Kasper, Susan
    Dahlström, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Lindroth, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Kheifets, Anatoli S.
    L'Huillier, Anne
    Sörensen, Stacey L.
    Gisselbrecht, Mathieu
    Double ionization probed on the attosecond timescale2014In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 207-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Double ionization following the absorption of a single photon is one of the most fundamental processes requiring interaction between electrons(1-3). Information about this interaction is usually obtained by detecting emitted particles without access to real-time dynamics. Here, attosecond light pulses(4,5), electron wave packet interferometry(6) and coincidence techniques(7) are combined to measure electron emission times in double ionization of xenon using single ionization as a clock, providing unique insight into the two-electron ejection mechanism. Access to many-particle dynamics in real time is of fundamental importance for understanding processes induced by electron correlation in atomic, molecular and more complex systems.

  • 13. Style, Robert W.
    et al.
    Boltyanskiy, Rostislav
    Allen, Benjamin
    Jensen, Katharine E.
    Foote, Henry P.
    Wettlaufer, John S.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Yale University, USA; University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Dufresne, Eric R.
    Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions2015In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 82-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  • 14. Yaron, O.
    et al.
    Perley, D. A.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Groh, J. H.
    Horesh, A.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Rubin, A.
    Szabo, P.
    Sapir, N.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Cenko, S. B.
    Valenti, S.
    Arcavi, I.
    Howell, D. A.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Vreeswijk, P. M.
    Khazov, D.
    Fox, O. D.
    Cao, Y.
    Gnat, O.
    Kelly, P. L.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Filippenko, A. V.
    Laher, R. R.
    Wozniak, P. R.
    Lee, W. H.
    Rebbapragada, U. D.
    Maguire, K.
    Sullivan, M.
    Soumagnac, M. T.
    Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova2017In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 510-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of new wide-field, high-cadence optical transient surveys, our understanding of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae has grown tremendously in the last decade. However, the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars, which sets the physical backdrop to these violent events, is theoretically not well understood and difficult to probe observationally. Here we report the discovery of the supernova iPTF 13dqy = SN 2013fs a mere similar to 3 h after explosion. Our rapid follow-up observations, which include multiwavelength photometry and extremely early (beginning at similar to 6 h post-explosion) spectra, map the distribution of material in the immediate environment (less than or similar to 1015 cm) of the exploding star and establish that it was surrounded by circumstellar material (CSM) that was ejected during the final similar to 1 yr prior to explosion at a high rate, around 10(-3) solar masses per year. The complete disappearance of flash-ionized emission lines within the first several days requires that the dense CSM be confined to within less than or similar to 10(15) cm, consistent with radio non-detections at 70-100 days. The observations indicate that iPTF 13dqy was a regular type II supernova; thus, the finding that the probable red supergiant progenitor of this common explosion ejected material at a highly elevated rate just prior to its demise suggests that pre-supernova instabilities may be common among exploding massive stars.

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