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  • 1.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Negation in Mongolic2015In: Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja / Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne, ISSN 0355-0214, E-ISSN 1798-2987, Vol. 95, p. 67-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to give a functional overview of negation in the Mongolic language family. In Early Middle Mongol, standard, prohibitive and perhaps ascriptive negation were coded by the preverbal negators ese for perfective/past, ülü for imperfective/nonpastand büü for most moods including imperatives. It contrasted with the locative existential-possessive negator ügei, which could also negate results and constituents. In most modern Mongolic languages, ügei made inroads into standard and ascriptivenegation, competing with busi ‘other’ for ascriptive negation starting from Late Middle Mongol. Possessive constructions, while always based on ügei, are expressed through arange of different syntactic patterns, and a new locative-existential negator alga developedin one area. Newly developed verbal negators include the broadly used formerresultative verbal negator -üüdei, and -sh, a more restricted reflex of busi. The change of negator position had consequences for its scope and interaction with other categories,which are discussed in some detail for Khalkha. While prohibitives always remained preverbal, preventives emerged from declaratives, acquiring modal characteristics.

  • 2.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Skolt Saami: A typological profile2011In: Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja / Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne, ISSN 0355-0214, E-ISSN 1798-2987, Vol. 93, p. 111-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Piispanen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German, Finnish.
    Evaluating the Uralic-Yukaghiric word-initial, proto-sibilant correspondence rules: Sibilant correspondences of Proto-Uralic and Late Proto-Yukaghir2015In: Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja / Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne, ISSN 0355-0214, E-ISSN 1798-2987, Vol. 95, p. 237-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates and expands upon previously suggested sound rules governing the phonological outcome of early root-initial proto-sibilants (*s- and *ś-) and proto-affricates (*š-, *ć- and *č-) in Late Proto-Yukaghir (PY), as shown by cognate correspondences in Proto-Uralic (PU) and by Tungusic and Turkic borrowings. The proto-sibilant *s- underwent deletion (*Ø-), retention (*s-) or lateralization (*l-); *ś- was retained unchanged and earlier *š- had changed into *č- in PY. Universally, PY proto-sibilants and proto-affricates find regular lexical correspondences in PU as described by a set of non-trivial phonological rules:

    Pre-PY *sVr/k/γ- > PY *lVr/k/γ-: a regular lateralization of the sibilant in Yukaghiric occurred with back vowels and *-r-, *-k- and possibly *- γ -, but not *-q-, through an intermediary hypothetical *θ- stage.

    Pre-PY *sVl/ŋ- > PY *ØVl/ŋ-: a sibilant deletion rule occurred with any vowel and *-l- or *- ŋ-.

    However, all structures of the intermediate type Pre-PY *sV1ŋ/l/m/n-k/q-V2-, where V1 is a back vowel, pose an exception wherein sibilant deletion was blocked, and the sibilant was either retained or changed into a lateral. Sibilant deletion still occurred in these cases if V1 was a front vowel.

    Pre-PY *ś- > PY *ś- > KY š- & TY s-: the Yukaghir lexicon in these cases likely developed through intermediate *š’-/*θ’- from Old Yukaghir. Furthermore, Pre-PY *š- > PY *č- regularly.

    All of these sound changes are controlled by phonology and affect borrowings as well as inherited vocabulary from before PY, but do not affect post-PY borrowings. The sibilant-deletion rule is clearly an influence from extensive language contacts with Yakut-speakers, and certain roots show that the Yukaghir rules of synharmonism were already in effect prior to sibilant deletion. In addition, the results are concurrent with several older cognate suggestions between Uralic and Yukaghiric and further add to this corpus. Identifying these historical processes also strengthens the evidence that the Yukaghir languages are genetically related to the Uralic language family.

  • 4.
    Piispanen, Peter Sauli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    The Uralic-Yukaghiric connection revisited: Correspondences of Geminate Clusters2013In: Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja / Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne, ISSN 0355-0214, E-ISSN 1798-2987, Vol. 94, p. 165-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses regular correspondences between Uralic geminate items and Yukaghiric with proposed sound change laws and new and some modified older cognate suggestions (twenty-four nouns and eight verbs). Geminate items were found to contain surprisingly stable, relatively unchanging vowels in Yukaghiric in regard to the Proto-Uralic form. The results suggest that degemination – taking place in all cases except in a few forms that can otherwise be explained – was an early process in Yukaghiric and occurred after or while many vowel changes had already taken place in the Yukaghiric vocabulary. The data shows that the relationship between Uralic and Yukaghiric is more extensive than previously believed. Some very early possible sound changes are discussed. Furthermore, a correspondence to Proto-Uralic *-ü- has been found in Late Proto-Yukaghiric *-ö-. Also, it is shown that the early suffixation in Yukaghir to Uralic-like stems has produced several modern words through grammaticalization.

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