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  • 1.
    Blom, Victoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Contingent self-esteem, stressors and burnout in working women and men2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A high work involvement is considered central in the burnout process. Yet, research investigating how high work involvement and psychosocial stressors relate to burnout is scarce. High involvement in terms of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) refers to individuals’ strivings to validate self-worth by achievements, a disposition linked to poor health. The aim of the present study was to examine longitudinally PBSE in relation to burnout while also taking into account work- and private life stressors. Participants: The sample consisted of 2121 working women and men. Methods: Main- and mediation effects were investigated using hierarchical regression analysis. Results: The results showed performance-based self-esteem mediated partially between the stressors and burnout. Performance-based self-esteem was the strongest predictor of burnout over time, followed by private life stressors. Women experienced more work stress than did men. Men had stronger associations between work stressors and burnout, while women had stronger associations between performance-based self-esteem and burnout. Conclusions: Individual characteristics along with both private life and work stressors are important predictors of burnout. Factors associated with burnout differ somewhat between women and men.

  • 2.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. School of Architecture, School of Architecture & Built Environment, The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Office type's association to employees' welfare: Three studies2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 779-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The workplace is important for employees' daily life and well-being. This article investigates exploratory the office design's role for employees' welfare from different perspectives.

    OBJECTIVE: By comparing different studies of the office, type's influence on different factors of employees' welfare the aim is to see if any common patterns exist in office design's impact.

    METHODS: The three included studies investigate office type's association with employees' welfare by measuring its influence on: a) perception of leadership, b) sick leave, and c) job satisfaction.The sample consists of office employees from a large, national representative work environment survey that work in one of the seven identified office types in contemporary office design: (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Statistical method used is multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis with adjustment for background factors.

    RESULTS: Overall results show that shared-room office, traditional open plan offices and flex-office stand out negatively, but to different degree(s) on the different outcomes measured.

    CONCLUSIONS: This explorative comparison of different studies finds a pattern of office types that repeatedly show indications of negative influence on employees' welfare, but further studies are needed to clarify this.

  • 3.
    Eriksson Tinghög, Mimmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    The workplace as an arena for universal alcohol prevention– what can we expect? An evaluation of a short educational intervention2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 543-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The workplace is repeatedly being referred to as an appropriatearena for alcohol prevention and dissemination of information. Whether thepressure on employers to work with prevention is realistic or if these kinds of measures have any potential in real life is however rarely discussed. An alcohol education at a company in Sweden was to be evaluated in terms of effectiveness and this study reports the findings.

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether an alcohol education program provided to all employees at a company in Stockholm,Sweden had any effect on alcohol consumption and alcohol-relatedknowledge. The increasing pressure on employers to work with alcoholprevention and on the concurrent problems of implementing and evaluating these types of interventions in real life is reviewed.

    Methods: Pre- and post-test questionnaires were employed in a quasiexperimental design using a sample of convenience from two companies: one intervention and one control. Data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA-tests focused on the participants’ AUDIT-scores, frequency of binge drinking and alcohol-related knowledge.

    Results: Significant improvement in the employees’ alcohol-related knowledge was shown, but there were no significant effects on alcohol consumption.

    Conclusions: Results of this study confirms most previous findings, but also raises the importance of considering the value of educating all employees and the willingness of employers to initiate preventive measures. Evaluating interventions of this kind is complicated, and it is also difficult to find results showing behavioural change in populations whose alcohol consumption is moderate.

  • 4.
    Eriksson Tinghög, Mimmi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Tinghög, Petter
    Preventing alcohol problems and improving drinking habits among employees: An evaluation of alcohol education2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 421-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In a municipality in Sweden there was a concern about the high alcohol consumption among its residents. An alcohol education program was provided to all those employed by the municipality. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a day-long alcohol education program provided to all employed by a Swedish municipality had an effect on alcohol consumption among employees and specifically among employees with low and higher levels of consumption respectively. METHODS: A quasi-experimental evaluation using pre-test and post-test questionnaires was performed. The municipality's employees were divided in one intervention group (n: 124) and one control group (n: 139). ANOVA with repeated measures was performed on AUDIT-score and on three separate AUDIT-items: frequency of drinking, frequency of binge drinking, and typical amount consumed per drinking occasion. RESULTS: No significant effect on alcohol consumption was identified for the intervention group as a whole. Stratified analyses showed the intervention had a significant effect on reducing the frequency of binge drinking among those with the highest consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to many other studies on alcohol education, some results on behaviour were found when performing stratified analyses. The employees with the highest alcohol consumption, although not labelled high consumers, reduced the frequency of binge drinking. It is difficult to speculate whether these results can be generalized to other working populations. The results have to be compared with more direct methods of reaching risk consumers, such as screening and brief interventions. Knowledge about alcohol and the associated risks of alcohol consumption might facilitate the willingness to seek help sooner.

  • 5. Gorgulho, Bartira
    et al.
    Lobo Marchioni, Dirce Maria
    da Conceicao, Adriana Balian
    Steluti, Josiane
    Mussi, Marina Hurga
    Nagai-Manelli, Roberta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Teixeira, Liliane Reis
    da Luz, Andrea Aparecida
    Fischer, Frida Marina
    Quality of diet of working college students2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 5806-5809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the scarcity of studies with young workers and the role of diet in the prevention of chronic diseases, the objective of the study was to assess the quality of diet of working college students. The present study investigated 43 university students, aged between 18 and 25 years old who had systematically being involved in a working activity in the past 6 months, paid or unpaid, at least 6 hours daily, five days a week. Dietary intake measured by seven dietary records covering every day of the week was used to calculate the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (B-HEIR). It was observed a low B-HEIR score (53.43,+/- 7.81) indicating a risk of a poor quality of diet, with high intake of sodium and sugar and low consumption of fruits and whole grains. This poor quality of diet can result in an inadequate nutritional status that may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases.

  • 6. Ihlström, Jonas
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Anund, Anna
    Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus drivers2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 531-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention.

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport.

    METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered.

    RESULTS: In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.

  • 7.
    Løvseth, Lise Tevik
    et al.
    St Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim.
    Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw
    University of Oslo.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jónsdottir, Lilja Sigrun
    The Directorate of Health, Seltjarnarnes, Iceland.
    Einarsdóttir, Torgerdur
    University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Marini, Massimo
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Minucci, Daria
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Pavan, Luigi
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Götestam, K. Gunnar
    St Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim.
    Linaker, Olav Morten
    St Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim.
    Confidentiality as a barrier to support seeking among physicians: The influence of psychosocial work factors in four European hospitals (The HOUPE study)2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Concerns about protecting patient's privacy can interfere with proper stress adaptation which isassociated with physician's health. It is important to investigate relevant organizational confounders to this phenomenon to enable interventions that can ameliorate the subjective burden of patient confidentiality. Objectives: This study investigatesfactors in the psychosocial work environment that can explain patient confidentiality's prominence in social support seeking among physicians, and if these factors covary differently with support seeking according to country. Participants: University hospital physicians in four European cities (N=2095) in Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Italy participated in a cross-sectional survey. Methods: Questionnaire comprised items on psychosocial work environment, basic socio-demographics, presence of formal and informal meetings at work, and measurement of confidentiality as a barrier for support. Resultats: High role conflict, availability of formal or informal meetings, lack of control over decisions, and lack of control over work pace were predictors of confidentiality as a barrier to support. There were differences between countries in how these factors covaried with confidentiality as a barrier to support. High role conflict was the strongest predictor of confidentiality as a barrier to support across all samples. Conclusions: Psychosocial work factors predicted confidentiality as a barrier to support seeking among physicians. It is important to create routines and an organizational framework that ensures both the patient's right to privacy and physician's ability to cope with emotional demanding situations from work.

  • 8.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    A pilot-study of a worksite based participatory intervention program: Its acceptability and short-term effects on work climate and attitudes in human service employees2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 625-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial factors, including job demands and poor resources, have been linked to stress, health problems, and negative job attitudes. However, worksite based interventions and programs targeting psychosocial factors may change employees’ perceptions of their work climate and work attitudes.

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study describes a newly developed worksite based participatory organizational intervention program that was tested in the social service sector. It is evaluated using participants’ perceptions of the intervention to investigate its acceptability as a feature of feasibility and its short-term effects on work climate factors (job demands and resources) and work-related attitudes.

    METHODS: Forty employees of a Swedish social service unit provided self-reports before, during, and after the intervention.

    RESULTS: As for effects, quantitative role overload and social support decreased while turnover intention increased. Responses to an open-ended question showed that participants considered the intervention program valuable for addressing issues relating to the psychosocial work climate.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although the findings are preliminary, it was possible to carry out this worksite based participatory organizational program in this particular setting. Also, the preliminary findings underscore the challenges associated with designing and implementing this type of intervention program, thus adding to the methodological discussion on implementation and evaluation.

  • 9. Robstad Andersen, Gunn
    et al.
    Aasland, Olaf Gjerlöw
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Løvseth, Lise Tevik
    Harassment among university hospital physicians in four European cities: results from a cross-sectional study in Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Italy [the HOUPE study]2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective of this cross-national study was to identify work-related factors related to the prevalence of harassment, and identify potential similarities and differences in harassment levels and appointed perpetrators within the same professional group across four European cities. Participants: 2078 physicians working in university hospitals in Trondheim, Stockholm, Reykjavik, and Padova participated in the study. Methods: Questionnaire comprised items on direct and indirect experience of workplace harassment, appointed perpetrators, psychosocial work environment and basic socio-demographics. Results: Harassment was found to be a relatively frequent work environment problem among physicians in all four European cities, with particular high levels in Padova. Role conflict, human resource primacy, empowerment leadership, and control over work pace were all found to be significantly related to workplace harassment. Conclusions: Differences in harassment prevalence and perpetrators indicated a cultural difference between the Italian and the Nordic hospitals. Harassment followed the line of command in Padova in contrast to being a horizontal phenomenon in the Scandinavian hospitals. This may be explained by national differences in organizational systems and traditions. In order to decrease harassment level and create a positive and productive work environment, each organization must employ different strategies in accordance with their harassment patterns.

  • 10. Runeson-Broberg, Roma
    et al.
    du Prel, Jean-Baptist
    Westerholm, Peter
    Nordin, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Fahlen, Goran
    Peter, Richard
    Age-related associations between work over-commitment and zest for work among Swedish employees from a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 269-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In aging societies, zest for work may be pivotal when deciding to stay occupationally active longer. Psychosocial work stress is a prevalent public health problem and may have an impact on zest for work. Work over-commitment (WOC) is a personal coping strategy for work stress with excessive striving and a health risk. However, the long-term effect of WOC on zest for work is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the age-related associations of work over-commitment with zest for work. METHODS: During 1996-1998 and 2000-2003, predominantly industrial workers (n = 2940) participated in the WOLF-Norrland study and responded to a questionnaire referring to socio-demographics, WOC, zest for work, effort-reward imbalance proxies, and mental health. Age-adjusted multiple logistic regressions were performed with original and imputed datasets. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, work overcommitted middle-aged employees had an increased prevalence of poor zest for work compared to their contemporaries without WOC (OR: 3.74 [95%-CI 2.19; 6.40]). However, in a longitudinal analysis associations between onset of 'poor zest for work' and the WOC subscales 'need for approval' (OR: 3.29 [95%-CI 1.04; 10.37]) and 'inability to withdraw from work' (OR: 5.14 [95%-CI 1.32; 20.03]) were observed. CONCLUSION: The longitudinal findings among older employees could be relevant regarding the expected need to remain occupationally active longer.

  • 11.
    Steffner, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenkman, Bo
    Change blindness when viewing web pages2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl 1, p. 6098-6102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Change blindness on web pages was studied for 20 participants. The purpose was to find how change blindness appears for web pages, and which changes are easier to detect. The task was to detect if a change had occurred and to show this by the means of the cursor. Rensink's flicker paradigm was used, where four categories of changes were presented. It was easier to detect a change not consisting of a person than one with a person. It was easier to detect a change to the left than to the right. The complexity of the web pages did not appear to have an effect, while large changes were easier to detect than small. The results may indicate that focused attention is differently sensitive for different kinds of changes. They also show that change blindness is a general phenomenon that can be applied to the perception of web pages.

  • 12.
    Taloyan, Marina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Thörn, Licia
    Kjeldgård, Linnea
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Sickness presence in the Swedish Police in 2007 and in 2010: Associations with demographic factors, job characteristics, and health2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 379-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sickness presence (SP) is a complex phenomenon that has been shown to predict sickness absence, poor work performance, and suboptimal self-rated health. However, more research is needed to increase the understanding of how SP relates to occupational factors, demographic variables, and self-rated health.

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the prevalence of SP among the Police employees in Sweden in 2007 and in 2010; (2) the association between demographics, seniority, occupational group (police officer vs civil servant), and self-reported health on the one hand and SP on the other hand for both years separately.

    METHODS: Survey data from Swedish Police employees from 2007 (n = 17,512) and 2010 (n = 18,415) were analyzed using logistic regression to assess odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of SP was stable between the years, but the proportion who stated that they had not been ill at all decreased from 2007 to 2010 (28.0% vs. 23.6%), while the proportion stating always having stayed at home when ill did not differ; 45.0% in 2007 to 45.8% in 2010. The ORs of SP were higher among those with suboptimal self-rated health compared to those with optimal self-rated health (4.38 (95% CI 4.02- 4.78) and 4.31 (3.96- 4.70) in 2007 and 2010, respectively) and among police officers compared with civilians (1.26 (1.17-1.36) and 1.19 (1.10-1.28)), whereas no clear patterns were found for age, gender, and seniority.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalences of SP were about the same in 2007 and 2010 and were slightly lower compared to in previous studies. The strong association between SP and suboptimal self-rated health suggests that high levels of SP may be an early marker of future illness and sickness absence. In future studies of SP it is important to account for having been ill, that is, at risk of SP.

  • 13. Teixeira, Liliane
    et al.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    da Luz, Andrea Aparecida
    Turte, Samantha Lemos
    Valente, Daniel
    Matsumura, Roberto Jun
    de Paula, Leticia Pickersgill
    Takara, Meire Yuri
    Nagai-Manelli, Roberta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fischer, Frida Marina
    Sleep patterns and sleepiness of working college students2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 5550-5552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The double journey (work and study) may result or aggravate health problems, including sleep disturbances, as observed in previous studies with high school students. The aim of this study is to analyze the sleep-wake cycle and perceived sleepiness of working college students during weekdays. Twenty-three healthy college male students, 21-24 years old, working during the day and attending classes in the evening, participated in this study. During five consecutive days, the students filled out daily activities logs and wore actigraphs. Mean sleeping time was lower than 6 hours per night. No significant differences were observed in the sleep-wake cycle during the weekdays. The observed lack of changes in the sleep-wake cycle of these college students might occur as participants were not on a free schedule, but exposed to social constraints, as was the regular attendance to evening college and day work activities. Sleepiness worsened over the evening school hours. Those results show the burden carried by College students who perform double activities - work and study.

  • 14.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hasson, Henna
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Applying a fidelity framework to understand adaptations in an occupational health intervention2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Two objectives are central when implementing occupational health interventions: high intervention fidelity, i.e. alignment with existing theory/evidence, and the need for fit, i.e., matching organizational and employee needs. These objectives can be contradictory and there is little advice on how to successfully combine them. OBJECTIVE: This study examines if an implementation fidelity framework can be used to categorize and describe how to adapt an occupational health intervention. METHODS: Using an adapted version of the Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity, we analyzed the implementation of a workplace-based physical exercise intervention and its contextualized adaptations. Adaptations are described in terms of content, dose, coverage and timeliness, each on three levels: individual, unit and organizational. Data sources include systematic project documentation and reflexive discussions. RESULTS: The intervention was adapted across all aspects and levels of fidelity. Adaptations involved aligning the intervention with level characteristics: organizational level adaptations aligned health policies with cost/benefits, whereas unit level adaptations minimized interference with production and coordinated the intervention with employee preferences. On the individual level, the exercise type varied, which aligned individual needs with the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity can help describe the balance between adaptation and adherence at different organizational levels.

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